List of driverless trains

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Barcelona Metro line 9 without train driver

The London Underground Victoria Line, opened in 1967, was the first line operated with ATO. Many lines now operate like that, with the aim of improving the frequency of service. Since then, ATO technology has been developed to enable trains to operate without a driver in a cab: either with an attendant roaming within the train, or with no staff on board.

This list focuses heavily on trains in the classical sense used for large-scale metros and railways but does include a few people mover systems.

The list is ordered in descending order of the degree of automation. It uses the Grade of Automation classifications specified by the standard IEC 62290‐1.[1] These are explained diagrammatically by the UITP[2]

  • In a Grade of Automation 4 (GoA4) system like the Copenhagen Metro trains are capable of operating automatically at all times, including door closing, obstacle detection and emergency situations. However, on-board staff may be provided for other purposes, e.g. customer service.
  • In a Grade of Automation 3 (GoA3) system like the Docklands Light Railway, trains run automatically from station to station but a staff member is always in the train, with responsibility for door closing and handling of emergency situations.
  • In a Grade of Automation 2 (GoA2) system with ATO like London Underground Victoria Line, trains run automatically from station to station but a driver is in the cab, with responsibility for door closing, obstacle detection on the track in front of the train and handling of emergency situations.

Grade of Automation 4 Systems[edit]

These systems are capable of Unattended Train Operation - UTO, although some operators may choose to staff trains anyway.


  • Italy Turin Metro Line M1 - VAL type system - opened in section 1 on 4 February 2006 for the 2006 Winter Olympics. First fully automatic metro in Italy.
  • France Paris Métro Line 1 - Driverless system, in mixed mode (driven trains and driverless trains) from 3 November 2011. Last manually driven train will be removed by end of 2012 - Siemens CBTC
  • France Lille Metro - inaugurated on 25 April 1983, the first using the VAL system.
  • France Lyon Metro Line D Rubber-tyred trains controlled by a system known as MAGGALY (Métro Automatique à Grand Gabarit de l’Agglomération Lyonnaise). - Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC
  • Germany Nuremberg U-Bahn - U2 and U3 lines. Many (but not all) trains have a train captain on board.

North America[edit]

South America[edit]


Grade of Automation 3 Systems[edit]

Systems and lines with ATO and human driver (Grade of Automation 2)[edit]


North America[edit]

Latin America[edit]


  • Puerto Rico Tren Urbano - the entire system is fully automated, but can be over-ridden. Substations providing the power are remotely controlled from an operational control centre.



Future system and lines[edit]

  • Macau Macau - driverless elevated lightrail

Standard systems for driverless operation[edit]

Defunct systems[edit]

See also[edit]


External links[edit]