List of driverless trains
The London Underground Victoria Line, opened in 1967, was the first line operated with ATO. Many lines now operate like that, with the aim of improving the frequency of service. Since then, ATO technology has been developed to enable trains to operate without a driver in a cab: either with an attendant roaming within the train, or with no staff on board.
This list focuses heavily on trains in the classical sense used for large-scale metros and railways but does include a few people mover systems.
The list is ordered in descending order of the degree of automation. It uses the Grade of Automation classifications specified by the standard IEC 62290‐1. These are explained diagrammatically by the UITP
- In a Grade of Automation 4 (GoA4) system like the Copenhagen Metro trains are capable of operating automatically at all times, including door closing, obstacle detection and emergency situations. However, on-board staff may be provided for other purposes, e.g. customer service.
- In a Grade of Automation 3 (GoA3) system like the Docklands Light Railway, trains run automatically from station to station but a staff member is always in the train, with responsibility for door closing and handling of emergency situations.
- In a Grade of Automation 2 (GoA2) system with ATO like London Underground Victoria Line, trains run automatically from station to station but a driver is in the cab, with responsibility for door closing, obstacle detection on the track in front of the train and handling of emergency situations.
||This article is incomplete. (February 2009)|
- 1 Grade of Automation 4 Systems
- 2 Grade of Automation 3 Systems
- 3 Systems and lines with ATO and human driver (Grade of Automation 2)
- 4 Future system and lines
- 5 Standard systems for driverless operation
- 6 Defunct systems
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Grade of Automation 4 Systems
These systems are capable of Unattended Train Operation - UTO, although some operators may choose to staff trains anyway.
- Turin Metro Line M1 - VAL type system - opened in section 1 on 4 February 2006 for the 2006 Winter Olympics. First fully automatic metro in Italy.
- London Gatwick Airport -Innovia APM 100 inter-terminal people mover built by Bombardier Transportation
- London Stansted Airport Transit System inter-terminal people mover using Adtranz C-100 and Bombardier CX-100
- Paris Métro Line 1 - Driverless system, in mixed mode (driven trains and driverless trains) from 3 November 2011. Last manually driven train will be removed by end of 2012 - Siemens CBTC
- Lyon Metro Line D Rubber-tyred trains controlled by a system known as MAGGALY (Métro Automatique à Grand Gabarit de l’Agglomération Lyonnaise). - Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC
- Nuremberg U-Bahn - U2 and U3 lines. Many (but not all) trains have a train captain on board.
- Disneyland Resort Line. Most trains have an attendant on board.
- Downtown MRT Line. Invensys CBTC (under construction)
- Taiwan – Taipei Metro Brown Line (Wenshan Line and Neihu Line). Most trains have an attendant on board.
Grade of Automation 3 Systems
- London Docklands Light Railway opened 1987
- Beijing Subway Airport Express, Beijing Subway . Alstom CBTC (NB this system is operated by a driver in a cab)
Systems and lines with ATO and human driver (Grade of Automation 2)
- Paris Métro Lines 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 13 Low-level system managing speed in tunnels.
- Paris Métro Line 3 OCTYS system provides ATP and high level ATO with mobile block system - Siemens CBTC
- Paris Métro Line 5 Low-level system managing speed in tunnels. (OCTYS system planned for 2013)
- Paris Métro Line 9 Low level system managing speed in tunnels. (OCTYS system planned for 2015)
- RER line A - Utilizes the SACEM system,one of the most advanced traffic control systems and enables extremely short spacing (under 90 seconds in stations, under 2 minutes in tunnels).
- London's Victoria Line opened 1967.
- London's Central Line converted to automated operation in the mid-1990s (a member of staff opens & closes the train doors monitors the train and fixes faults on board. Drivers drive the trains on Sundays and Bank holidays. All shunt moves are made by the drivers and whenever the train stops for fail safe reasons such as excess wheel spin or sliding the driver takes over; at other times trains are computer driven).
- London's Jubilee Line converted to automated operation in 2011 (a member of staff opens & closes the train doors).
- London's Northern Line converted in 2012 (a driver operates the doors and presses buttons to start the train).
- Glasgow Subway uses driverless trains on its line. The driver checks the way is clear and operates the doors.
- Munich U-Bahn (driver operates the doors and handles emergency situations, accelerating and braking is fully automated; a fully driverless turning at terminus stations is planned)
- Vienna U-Bahn (uses the same system as Munich)
- Budapest Line 3 - converted to automated operation in 1990 (a member of staff opens & closes the train doors)
- Barcelona Metro line 1
- Barcelona Metro line 2
- Barcelona Metro line 3
- Barcelona Metro line 5
- Madrid Metro Line 1 - Bombardier CBTC
- Madrid Metro Line 3
- Madrid Metro Line 4
- Madrid Metro Line 5
- Madrid Metro Line 6 - Bombardier CBTC
- Madrid Metro Line 7 - Invensys CBTC
- Madrid Metro Line 8
- Madrid Metro Line 9
- Madrid Metro Line 10
- Madrid Metro Line 11
- Madrid Metro Line 12
- Madrid Metro Branch line
- Saint Petersburg Metro Line 2 - system "Dvizhenie"
- Kazan Metro - system "Dvizhenie"
- Ankara Metro Uses a modified version of Toronto subway's H6 subway model made by Bombardier Transportation and configured for driverless operation.
- İstanbul Metro M1,M2,M3,M4 lines also finuclar F1 is ATO
- Stockholm Metro Green Line (Lines T17, T18 and T19)
- Stockholm Metro Red Line (Lines T13 and T14) will begin ATO operation in 2014 - Ansaldo STS CBTC
- Helsinki Metro (including Länsimetro/Västmetron extension) will begin ATO operation in 2015 - Siemens CBTC
- Milan Metro Line 3
- Montreal Metro Line 1 Green, Line 2 Orange and Line 5 Blue, opened in 1966 (Lines 1 and 2) and 1986 (Line 5), operates in ATO mode introduced since 1976. A member of staff closes the train doors (doors are usually opened automatically unless the driver requests otherwise) but does not normally drive the trains.
- Toronto Subway and RT is expected to have ATC/ATO implemented on the Yonge–University–Spadina Line and the Bloor–Danforth Line by 2016 and 2020 respectively. The Scarborough RT, which uses the same trains as the Vancouver SkyTrain and the Detroit People Mover, already runs on an ATC/ATO system.
- Bay Area Rapid Transit in San Francisco opened in 1972. (A member of staff closes the train doors but does not normally drive the trains).
- PATCO Speedline between Philadelphia and New Jersey operates in automated mode since 1969, but can be overridden by a staff member.
- Washington Metro has an automated mode, where the driver is responsible for opening and closing of doors and of overriding the system. However, the system has been operating in manual mode since the June 2009 Washington Metro train collision, and plans are to operate in manual mode until newer railcars are delivered.
- New York City Subway BMT Canarsie Line L train is to begin full-fledged Automatic train operation in early 2012 - Siemens CBTC
- San Francisco Muni Metro light rail trains switch to automatic control while operating in the Market Street Subway and in the Twin Peaks Tunnel. The operator manages the doors in-station and pilots the vehicle when running aboveground.
- Tren Urbano - the entire system is fully automated, but can be over-ridden. Substations providing the power are remotely controlled from an operational control centre.
- The train operators of North South MRT Line and East West MRT Line (including Changi Airport Branch Line) would opens and closes the doors, and would usually operate the train manually if situations like extreme weather conditions occurs, or when ATO not available. Both lines are expected to be converted to Thales Seltrac CBTC in 2016 and 2018 respectively.
- Both North East MRT Line and Circle MRT Line deployed train operators during emergencies or operated in manual mode.
- Seoul Subway Line 5 - driver on standby and will drive the train when ATO malfunctions or is not available.
- Seoul Subway Line 6
- Seoul Subway Line 7
- Seoul Subway Line 8
- Seoul Subway Line 9
- Korail Bundang Line (Utilizes the Thales SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies)
- Busan Subway Line 1
- Busan Subway Line 2
- Busan Subway Line 3
- Daejeon Subway Line 1
- Incheon Subway Line 1
- Daegu Subway Line 1
- Daegu Subway Line 2
- Taipei Metro Red Line (Tamsui Line)
- Taipei Metro Green Line (Xiaonanmen Line, Xindian Line, Xiaobitan Branch)
- Taipei Metro Blue Line (Banqiao-Nangang Line, Tucheng Line)
- Taipei Metro Orange Line (Zhonghe Line, Xinzhuang Line, Luzhou Line)
- Tokyo Metro Marunouchi Line (Main line converted to ATO in 2010, Hōnanchō branch continues to use ATC/TASC)
- Tokyo Metro Namboku Line
- Tokyo Metro Fukutoshin Line
- Tokyo Metro Chiyoda Line (Kita-Ayase branch)
- Tokyo Metro Hibiya Line (ATO trialled during the 1960s, trains now operated in manual mode)
- Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation Toei Ōedo Line
- Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation Toei Mita Line
- Nankō Port Town Line in Osaka
- Osaka Municipal Subway Nagahori Tsurumi-ryokuchi Line
- Osaka Municipal Subway Tanimachi Line (ATO trialled from October 1967 until February 1968, trains now operated in manual mode)
- Fukuoka City Subway Kūkō Line
- Fukuoka City Subway Hakozaki Line
- Fukuoka City Subway Nanakuma Line
- Saitama Rapid Railway Line (actually a continuation of the Tokyo Metro Namboku Line)
- Sendai Subway Nanboku Line (World's first railway system to use fuzzy logic to control the speed of trains)
- Yokohama Municipal Subway Green Line
- Nagoya Municipal Subway Sakura-dōri Line
- Okinawa Monorail
- MTR Kwun Tong Line - same system as Paris RER line A
- MTR Tsuen Wan Line - same system as Paris RER line A
- MTR Island Line - same system as Paris RER line A
- MTR Tung Chung Line - same system as Paris RER line A
- MTR Airport Express - same system as Paris RER line A
- MTR Tseung Kwan O Line - same system as Paris RER line A
- MTR East Rail Line
- MTR West Rail Line (Utilizes the SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies)
- MTR Ma On Shan Line (Utilizes the SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies)
- Beijing Subway, 4, 8, 10 (Utilizes the SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies)
- Beijing Subway Fangshan Line, Beijing Subway by Alstom Urbalis
- Beijing Subway line 2, Beijing Subway by Alstom Urbalis
- Beijing Subway line 6, Beijing Subway by Alstom Urbalis
- Beijing Subway line 9, Beijing Subway by Alstom Urbalis
- Wuhan Metro Line 1 (Utilizes the SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies)
- Guangzhou Metro Line 3 (Utilizes the SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies)
- Shenyang Metro Line 1 - Ansaldo STS CBTC
- Shanghai Metro Lines 6, 7, 8, 9 and 11 (Line 11 from 2012) (Utilizes the SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies)
- Shenzhen Metro Luobao Line by Siemens LZB 700M.
- Shenzhen Metro Shekou Line &Huanzhong Line by Alstom Urbalis.
- Shenzhen Metro Longgang Line by Bombardier CITYFLO 650.
- Shanghai Metro Lines 13 by Alstom Urbalis
- Kolkata Metro Line 1 and probably the future Line 2
- Delhi Metro Red Line (Uses signalling systems supplied by Alstom)
- Delhi Metro Yellow Line (Uses signalling systems supplied by Alstom)
- Delhi Metro Blue Line (Uses LZB 700 signalling systems supplied by Siemens)
- Delhi Metro Green Line Bombardier
- Delhi Metro Violet Line (Uses signalling systems supplied by Bombardier Transportation)
- Delhi Metro Airport Express (Uses RHEDA-2000 signalling systems supplied by Bombardier Transportation)
- Algiers Metro - opened on 1 November 2011 - Siemens CBTC
Future system and lines
- Barcelona Metro line 2 - Siemens CBTC
- Budapest Line 4 - Phase I. is expected to be completed in Spring 2014.
- Macau - driverless elevated lightrail
- Pilbara iron ore trains operated by Rio Tinto are proposed to be converted to driverless operation by 2013.
- São Paulo Line 4 opened in 2010 between the stations Paulista and Butantã
- São Paulo Future Line 6 opened in 2014 between the stations Brasilândia to São Joaquim
- Moscow's Third Interchange Circuit is expected to be completed in 2014.
- Downtown MRT Line. Under construction. Opening in 2013, 2016 and 2017.
- New York City Subway IRT Flushing Line (7 train) converted to GoA2 automatic train operation by 2016.
- Thessaloniki Metro - Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro.
- Vancouver SkyTrain Evergreen Line in Coquitlam, BC
Standard systems for driverless operation
- Ansaldo STS
- Ansaldo Breda Driverless Metro
- SelTrac used for DLR
- VAL used in Lille, Rennes and other cities.
- Post Office Railway - subway connected main post offices and railway terminals in London.
- Berlin M-Bahn
- Transport for London Tube Upgrade Plan
- Weir, Kytja (June 2, 2011). "Metro: Trains to stay in manual mode for several years". The Washington Examiner. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
- [News] (2009-02-21). "L Subway service to be run by computers". Retrieved 2011-12-05.
- "MTA L Train Response to Squadron" (Press release). Metropolitan Transportation Authority (New York). 2011-09-06. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
- The Australian newspaper 29 October 2008 p1
- Iron-ore railway automation project, Western Australia
- "UITP Automated Metro Observatory, a complete website with UTO Metro Resources"