|Nick Holonyak, Jr.|
Inventor of the visible-spectrum (red) LED
November 3, 1928 |
Zeigler, Illinois, U.S.
|Alma mater||University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; BS 1950, MS 1951, PhD 1954|
|Doctoral advisor||John Bardeen|
|Notable awards||National Academy of Engineering (1973)
National Academy of Sciences (1984),
IEEE Edison Medal (1989)
National Medal of Science (1990)
National Medal of Technology (2002)
IEEE Medal of Honor (2003)
Lemelson-MIT Prize (2004)
National Inventors Hall of Fame (2008)
Nick Holonyak, Jr. (born November 3, 1928) is an American engineer and educator. He is noted particularly for his 1962 invention of a light-emitting diode (LED) that emitted visible red light instead of infrared light; Holonyak was then working at the General Electric Company's research laboratory in Syracuse, New York. He is a John Bardeen Endowed Chair Emeritus in Electrical and Computer Engineering and Physics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where he has been since leaving General Electric in 1963.
In addition to introducing the III-V alloy LED, Holonyak holds 41 patents. His other inventions include the red-light semiconductor laser, usually called the laser diode (used in CD and DVD players and cell phones) and the shorted emitter p-n-p-n switch (used in light dimmers and power tools).
In 2006, the American Institute of Physics decided on the five most important papers in each of its journals since it was founded 75 years ago. Two of these five papers, in the journal Applied Physics Letters, were co-authored by Holonyak. The first one, coauthored with S. F. Bevacqua in 1962, announced the creation of the first visible-light LED. The second, co-authored primarily with Milton Feng in 2005, announced the creation of a transistor laser that can operate at room temperatures. Holonyak predicted that his LEDs would replace the incandescent light bulb of Thomas Edison in the February 1963 issue of Reader's Digest, and as LEDs improve in quality and efficiency they are gradually replacing incandescents as the bulb of choice.
Holonyak's parents were Rusyn immigrants who settled in Southern Illinois; Holonyak's father worked in a coal mine. Holonyak was the first member of his family to receive any type of formal schooling. He once worked 30 straight hours on the Illinois Central Railroad before realizing that a life of hard labor was not what he wanted and he'd prefer to go to school instead. According to Knight Ridder, "The cheap and reliable semiconductor lasers critical to DVD players, bar code readers and scores of other devices owe their existence in some small way to the demanding workload thrust upon Downstate railroad crews decades ago."
Holonyak earned his bachelor's (1950), master's (1951), and doctoral (1954) degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Holonyak was John Bardeen's first Ph.D. student there; Bardeen, a theoretical physicist, was the co-inventor of the transistor who ultimately won Nobel Prizes for that work and for the theory of superconductivity. In 1954 he went to Bell Telephone Laboratories, where he worked on silicon-based electronic devices. From 1955–1957 Holonyak served with the U.S. Army Signal Corps. From 1957–1963 he was a scientist at the General Electric Company's Advanced Semiconductor Laboratory in Syracuse, New York. In 1963, he became a professor at the University of Illinois, from which he retired fifty years later in 2013.
University of Illinois
As of 2007, he is the John Bardeen Endowed Chair Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Physics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and is investigating methods for manufacturing quantum dot lasers. He has been married to his wife Katherine for 51 years. He no longer teaches classes, but he researches full-time. He and Dr. Milton Feng run a transistor laser research center at the University funded by $6.5 million from the United States Department of Defense through DARPA.
Awards and honors
In 1989, he received the IEEE Edison Medal for 'an outstanding career in the field of electrical engineering with contributions to major advances in the field of semiconductor materials and devices.' Holonyak's former student, Russell Dupuis from the Georgia Institute of Technology, won this same award in 2007.
In 1993, he received the NAS Award for the Industrial Application of Science. 
In 2003, he was awarded the IEEE Medal of Honor.
He has also received the Global Energy International Prize, the National Medal of Technology, the Order of Lincoln Medallion, and the 2004 Lemelson-MIT Prize, also worth $500,000. He has also received the Frederic Ives Medal of the Optical Society of America.
Many colleagues have expressed their belief that he deserves the Nobel Prize for his invention of the red LED. On this subject, Holonyak says, "It's ridiculous to think that somebody owes you something. We're lucky to be alive, when it comes down to it." The award of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics to Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano, and Shuji Nakamura "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources" makes such discussions even more timely.
On 9 November 2007, Holonyak was honored on the University of Illinois campus with a historical marker recognizing his development of the quantum-well laser. It is located on the Bardeen Engineering Quadrangle near where the old Electrical Engineering Research Laboratory used to stand.
In 2008, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame (Announced February 14, 2008) (May 2–3, 2008 at Akron, Ohio).
- Wolinsky, Howard (February 5, 2005). "U. of I.'s Holonyak out to take some of Edison's luster". The Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2015-01-17.
- Damery, Jonathan (August 5, 2013). "Holonyak retires after 50 years in ECE". University of Illinois.
- "After Glow". Illinois Alumni Magazine. May–June 2007.
- Port, Otis (May 23, 2005). "Nick Holonyak: He Saw The Lights". Business Week. Retrieved 2015-01-17.
- Von, Jon (January 25, 2003). "Nice Guys Can Finish As Geniuses at University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2015-01-17.
- ECE Illinois - Faculty - ECE Illinois - U of I
- "Nicholas Holonyak, Jr.". IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. Retrieved 2015-01-17.
- NAS Member Profile of Nick Holonyak
- Recipient list of NAS Award for the Industrial Application of Science winners.
- "Holonyak Historical Marker Unveiled". University of Illinois College of Engineering. 2007-11-15. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
- News | Engineering at Illinois | University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Nick Holonyak|
- IEEE Legacies
- Nick_Holonyak-Jr US National Medal of Technology, 2002.
- Oral History interview transcript with Nick Holonyak 23 March 2005, American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library and Archives
- The Bright Stuff: The LED and Nick Holonyak's fantastic trail of innovation. Laura Schmitt. 2012.