Bushfires in Australia
Bushfires in Australia are frequent events during the hotter months of the year (mostly summer), due to Australia's mostly hot, dry climate. Each year, such fires impact extensive areas. While they can cause property damage and loss of human life, certain native flora in Australia have evolved to rely on bushfires as a means of reproduction, and fire events are an interwoven and an essential part of the ecology of the continent. For thousands of years, Indigenous Australians have used fire to foster grasslands for hunting and to clear tracks through dense bush.
Major firestorms that result in severe loss of life are often named based on the day on which they occur, such as Ash Wednesday and Black Saturday. Some of the most intense, extensive and deadly bushfires commonly occur during droughts and heat waves, such as the 2009 Southern Australia heat wave, which precipitated the conditions during the 2009 Black Saturday bushfires in which 173 people lost their lives. Other major conflagrations include the 1983 Ash Wednesday bushfires, the 2003 Eastern Victorian alpine bushfires and the December 2006 bushfires.
Victoria has seen the majority of the deadliest and largest bushfires in Australia, most notably the 2009 Black Saturday fires, where 173 people were killed, around 2,000 homes and structures were destroyed, towns were gutted, and some, such as Marysville, were destroyed.
Bushfires are uncontrolled fires lacking structure that burn in grasses, bushes, and forested area. The conditions of bushfires vary based on geographical and climate differences, and due to the various conditions found in Australia, their bushfires can vary greatly. "Fires can be divided into two main categories, depending on topography of the area".
- Hilly/mountainous fires – Burn in hilly/mountainous areas like the alpines which are heavy with forest. Due to location these areas are hard for humans to use for agriculture and are generally protected by national, state, and other organisations. The steepness of the land heightens the intensity of the fires produced. As a result, bushfires can pose a threat to the lives and properties of individuals that inhabit these areas.
- Flat/grassland fires – Burn in flat open areas full of grass and shrub. These fires can move quickly due to winds that feed fire causing them to fuel themselves faster with whatever vegetation is in the region. These fires never grow to same wild intensity of mountainous fires, because of the flatness of the area and they are easier to contain. Moreover, in Australia these areas have been stripped of vegetation that fuels the fire due to agriculture.
Common causes of bushfires include lightning, arcing from overhead power lines, arson, accidental ignition from agricultural clearing, grinding and welding, campfires, cigarettes and dropped matches, machinery, and controlled burn escapes.
The natural fire regime in Australia was altered by the arrival of humans. Fires became more frequent, and fire-loving species—notably eucalypts—greatly expanded their range. It is assumed that a good deal of this change came about as the result of deliberate action by early humans, setting fires to clear undergrowth or drive game.
Plants have evolved a variety of strategies to survive (or even require) bushfires, (possessing epicormic shoots or lignotubers that sprout after a fire, or developing fire-resistant or fire-triggered seeds) or even encourage fire (eucalypts contain flammable oils in the leaves) as a way to eliminate competition from less fire-tolerant species.
Some native animals are also adept at surviving bushfires.
It is difficult to calculate the economic, social, and environmental costs of bushfires because general calculations do not take into account the basic tenets of economics. Regardless, in dealing with Australian government officials it is necessary to quantify the impact in some manner, so the importance of bushfire of management goes unquestioned. The Bushfire CRC took a methodological approach in evaluating cost, by considering what factors are most likely to be impacted. These factors include life loss, buildings, subsidies, community health
In 2009, a standardised Fire Danger Rating (FDR) was adopted by all Australian states. During the fire season the Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) provides fire weather forecasts and by considering the predicted weather including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and dryness of vegetation, fire agencies determine the appropriate Fire Danger Rating. In 2010, following a national review of the bush fire danger ratings, new trigger points for each rating were introduced for grassland areas in most jurisdictions. See for example the following glossary
Fire Danger Ratings are a feature of weather forecasts and alert the community to the actions they should take in preparation of the day. Ratings are broadcast via newspapers, radio, TV, and the internet.
Note that in Western Australia, where Fire Danger Ratings are based on the Grassland FDI, that Extreme relates to a Fire Danger Index (FDI) between 75 and 99 and Catastrophic to FDI above 100. Fire agencies may consider other factors in addition to the FDI in determining ratings.
|Category||Forest Fire Danger Index||Grassland Fire Danger Index|
|Catastrophic (Code Red)||100 +||150 +|
|Extreme||75 – 99||100 – 149|
|Severe||50 – 74||50 – 99|
|Very High||25 – 49||25 – 49|
|High||12 – 24||12 – 24|
|Low–Moderate||0 – 11||0 – 11|
The Australasian Fire Authorities Council (AFAC) is the peak body responsible for representing fire, emergency services and land management agencies in the Australasian region.
New South Wales
The New South Wales Rural Fire Service (RFS) is a volunteer-based firefighting agency and statutory body of the Government of New South Wales. The RFS is the lead combat agency for all bushfires in NSW. Fire and Rescue NSW are career and retained firefighters responsible for bushfires that occur within Fire District. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service and the Forestry Corporation of NSW are land management agencies listed as Fire Authorities in the Rural Fires Act 1997.
The Country Fire Service is a volunteer based fire service in the state of South Australia. The CFS operates as a part of the South Australian Fire and Emergency Services Commission (SAFECOM).
In Victoria, the Country Fire Authority (CFA) provides firefighting and other emergency services to country areas and regional townships within the state, as well as large portions of the outer suburban areas and growth corridors of Melbourne not covered by the Metropolitan Fire Brigade. On Crown land, which covers roughly 20 per cent of Victoria, the Department of Environment and Primary Industries is the lead fire agency.
The Department of Fire and Emergency Services (DFES) and the Department of Parks and Wildlife(DPAW) have joint responsibility for bushfire management in Western Australia. DFES is an umbrella organisation supporting the Bush Fire Service, Emergency Services Cadets, Fire and Rescue Service, State Emergency Service, Volunteer Fire and Emergency Service, Volunteer Fire and Rescue Service, and the Volunteer Marine Rescue Services
Bushfires in Australia can occur all year-round, though the severity and the "bushfire season" varies by region. These seasons are commonly grouped into years such as "2006-07 Australian bushfire season" and typically run from June one year until May the next year.
In southeast Australia, bushfires tend to be most common and most severe during summer and autumn (December–March), in drought years, and particularly severe in El Niño years. Southeast Australia is fire-prone, and warm and dry conditions intensify the probability of fire. In northern Australia, bushfires usually occur during the dry season (April to September), and fire severity tends to be more associated with seasonal weather patterns. In the southwest, similarly, bushfires occur in the summer dry season and severity is usually related to seasonal growth. Fire frequency in the north is difficult to assess, as the vast majority of fires are caused by human activity, however lightning strikes are as common a cause as human-ignited fires and arson.
Australia's climate has been trending toward more bushfire weather over the last 30 years. The Climate Commission found that "The intensity and seasonality of large bushfires in south-east Australia appears to be changing, with climate change a possible contributing factor." Climate change is increasing the severity and frequency of heatwaves in Southeast Australia and the probability of extreme fire risk. As the fire seasons become longer, there is less time for fuel reduction burns to control the bush fuel load.
A 2006 report by the Bushfire CRC acknowledges the complexity of climate predictions pointing out "Much of [Australia's] vegetation has a complex evolutionary and dependent relationship with fire. Fire has been part of these environments for tens of thousands of years and much native flora and fauna remains dependent on it in various ways." In 2007, a study by the CSIRO (the national government body for scientific research in Australia), found evidence that climate change will lead to increases in very high and extreme fire danger rating days and earlier onset of the fire season. Other studies investigating the historical record identify significant changes in Australia's bushfire season as a result of human activity.
Major bushfires in Australia
This section lists some of the major individual fires that have occurred. For an index to articles on individual fire seasons see List of Australian bushfire seasons
Bushfires have accounted for over 800 deaths in Australia since 1851 and the total accumulated cost is estimated at $1.6 billion. In terms of monetary cost however, they rate behind the damage caused by drought, severe storms, hail, and cyclones, perhaps because they most commonly occur outside highly populated urban areas.
Some of the most severe Australian bushfires, in chronological order, have included:
(1 ha ≈ 2.5 acres)
|Date||Human fatalities||Livestock death/Properties damaged|
|Black Thursday bushfires||Victoria, Australia||≈ 5 million hectares (ha)||6 February 1851||about 12||1 million sheep; thousands of cattle|
|Red Tuesday bushfires||Victoria||260,000 ha||1 February 1898||12||2,000 buildings|
|1926 Victorian bushfires||Victoria||February – March 1926||60||1000|
|Black Friday bushfires||Victoria||2 million ha||December 1938 – January 1939, peaking 13 January 1939||71||3,700|
|1944 Victorian bushfires||Victoria||1 million ha estimated||14 January – 14 February 1944||15–20||more than 500 houses|
|1951-2 Victorian bushfires||Victoria||Summer 1951–52||at least 10|
|Black Sunday bushfires||South Australia||2 January 1955||2|
|1961 Western Australian bushfires||Western Australia||1,800,000 ha||January–March 1961||0||160 homes, town of Dwellingup destroyed|
|1962 Victorian bushfires||Victoria||14–16 January 1962||32||450 houses|
|Chatsbury bushfire||New South Wales||5–14 March 1965||3||59 homes|
|1967 Tasmanian fires||Tasmania||Approximately 264,000 ha||7 February 1967||62||1,293 homes|
|Dandenong Ranges bushfire||Victoria||1,920 ha||19 February 1968||53 homes 10 other buildings|
|1969 Victorian bushfires||Victoria||8 January 1969||23||230 houses|
|1977 Western Districts bushfires||Victoria||103,000 ha||12 February 1977||4||116 houses, 340 Buildings|
|1978 Western Australian bushfires||Western Australia||114,000 ha||4 April 1978||2||6 buildings (drop in wind in early evening is said to have saved the towns of Donnybrook, Boyup Brook, Manjimup, and Bridgetown.)|
|1979 Sydney bushfires||Sydney, and regional NSW||December 1979||5||28 homes destroyed, 20 homes damaged|
|1980 Waterfall bushfire||Waterfall, New South Wales||>1 million ha||3 November 1980||5 firefighters||14 homes|
|Ash Wednesday bushfires||South Australia and Victoria||418,000 ha||16 February 1983||75||about 2,400 houses|
|1985 Central Victoria bushfires||Victoria||50,800 ha||14 January 1985||3||180+ houses|
|1991 Sydney Hills District and Central Coast bushfires||New South Wales||16 October 1991||2||14 houses|
|1994 Eastern seaboard fires||New South Wales||≈400,000 ha||27 December 1993 – 16 January 1994||4||225 homes|
|Wooroloo bushfire||Western Australia||10,500 ha||8 January 1997||0||16 homes|
|Dandenongs bushfire||Victoria||400||21 January 1997||3||41 homes|
|Lithgow bushfire||New South Wales||2 December 1997||2|
|1997 Perth and SW Region bushfires||Western Australia||23,000 ha||2 December 1997||2 (21 injuries)||1 home lost|
|Linton bushfire||Victoria||2 December 1998||5|
|Black Christmas bushfires||New South Wales||300,000 ha||24 December 2001 – 7 January 2002||0||109 homes|
|2003 Canberra bushfires||Canberra, Australian Capital Territory||160,000 ha||18–22 January 2003||4||almost 500 homes|
|2003 Eastern Victorian alpine bushfires||Victoria||over 1.3 million ha||8 January – 8 March 2003||3||41 homes|
|Tenterden bushfire||Western Australia||20,000 ha||27 December 2003||2||Crop, property and stock damage (2,110,000 ha of forest burnt during the 2002–2003 bushfire season in the Southwest of Western Australia)|
|Eyre Peninsula bushfire||South Australia||145,000 ha||10–12 January 2005||9||93 homes|
|2005 Victorian bushfires||Victoria||160,000 ha||December 2005 – January 2006||4||57 houses, 359 farm buildings, 65,000 stock losses, fires occurred in the Stawell, Moondarra, Anakie, Yea, and Kinglake regions|
|2006 Central Coast bushfire||Central Coast, New South Wales||New Years Day, 2006|
|Jail Break Inn Fire||Junee, New South Wales||30,000 ha||New Years Day, 2006||0||Livestock losses estimated to be over 20,000. Seven homes, seven headers and four shearing sheds destroyed. 1,500 kilometres (930 mi) of fencing damaged.|
|Mount Lubra bushfire||Victoria||184,000||January 2006||2||A total of 25 houses, more than 50 other buildings were destroyed.|
|Pulletop bushfire||Wagga Wagga, New South Wales||9,000||6 February 2006||0||2,500 sheep and 6 cattle killed, 3 vehicles and 2 hay sheds destroyed as well as 50 km of fencing.|
|2006–07 Eastern Victoria Great Divide bushfires||Victoria||1,200,000 - 1,300,000 ha||1 December 2006 – 6 February 2007||1||51 homes|
|Dwellingup bushfire||Western Australia||12,000 ha||4 February 2007||0||16|
|Kangaroo Island bushfires||South Australia||95,000 ha||6–14 December 2007||1|
|Boorabbin National Park bushfire||Western Australia||40,000 ha||30 December 2007||3||Powerlines and Great Eastern Highway, forced to close for 2 weeks|
|Black Saturday bushfires||Victoria||450,000+ ha||7 February 2009 – 14 March 2009||173||2,029+ houses, 2,000 other structures|
|Toodyay bushfire||Western Australia||3,000+ ha||29 December 2009||0||38|
|Lake Clifton bushfire||Western Australia||2,000+ ha||11 January 2011||0||10 homes destroyed|
|Roleystone Kelmscott bushfire||Western Australia||1,500+ ha||6–8 February 2011||0||72 homes destroyed, 32 damaged, Buckingham Bridge on Brookton Highway collapsed and closed for 3 weeks whilst a temporary bridge was constructed and opened a month after the fires|
|Margaret River bushfire||Western Australia||4,000 ha||24 November 2011||0||34 homes destroyed including the historic Wallcliffe House|
|Carnarvon bushfire complex||Western Australia||800,000 ha +||27 December 2011 – 3 February 2012||0||11 pastoral stations (fences, watering systems, water points, stock feed).|
|2013 Tasmanian bushfires||Tasmania||20,000+ ha||4 January 2013||1||At least 170 buildings|
|2013 Wambelong bushfire||New South Wales||54,000 ha||18 January 2013||0||At least 53 homes, 118 sheds, agricultural machinery and livestock. Infrastructure destroyed at Siding Spring Observatory.|
|2013 New South Wales bushfires||New South Wales||100,000+ ha||16 October – November 2013||2||As of 19 October 2013[update] at least 248 buildings destroyed statewide (inc. 208 dwellings), another 109 damaged in Springwood, Winmalee and Yellow Rock
|2014 Parkerville bushfire||Western Australia||386 ha||12 January 2014||0||56 homes.|
|2014 South Australian bushfires||South Australia||300,000+ ha||14 January – 14 February 2014||10[not in citation given]||The majority of these fires started from Lightning.
Bangor Fire – 35,000 ha, 5 houses lost, 24 injuries – 14 Jan to 14 Feb
|2014 Grampians bushfire||Victoria||51,800 ha||17 January 2014||1||Fire so intense it created a 12 km-wide convection column, generating its own weather and lightning strikes.|
|2014 East Gippsland bushfires||Victoria||166,000 ha||15 January – 10 March 2014||0||On 15 January several lightning strikes started fires in forested areas. During February further lightning strikes occurred, and especially on 9 February these fires grew and coalesced into a 166,000ha Goongerrah-Deddick Fire complex (850 km perimeter) with other smaller fires affecting a further 10,000 ha. 11 homes destroyed.|
|2015 Sampson Flat bushfires||South Australia||12,500 ha||2–9 January 2015||0||32 homes either badly damaged or destroyed. 134 people injured, mostly firefighters.|
|2015 O'Sullivan bushfire (Northcliffe - Windy Harbour)||Western Australia||98,923 ha||29 January – 20 February 2015||0||1 home and 1 inhabited shed, 5 farm sheds and thousands of production forests (karri and jarrah) or national parks.|
|2015 Lower Hotham bushfire (Boddington)||Western Australia||52,373 ha||January 2015||0||1 house, 1 farm shed, 1 bridge and thousands of production forest (jarrah) or national parks.|
|2015 Esperance bushfires||Western Australia||more than 200,000 ha||October – November 2015||4||About 10 houses and public buildings (Scaddan), 5 Nature Reserves et most area of Cape Arid national park.|
|Perth Hills bushfire complex - Solus Group||Western Australia||10,016 ha||15 to 24 November 2015||0||Jarrah production forest and Conservation Park.|
|2015 Pinery bushfire||South Australia||85,000 ha||25–27 November 2015||2||91 homes, 60,000 livestock.|
|2015–16 Great Ocean Road bushfire||Victoria||2,200 ha||25 December 2015 – 5 January 2016||0||116 homes: Wye River, Victoria (98) & Separation Creek (18)|
|2016 Murray Road bushfire (Waroona et Harvey)||Western Australia||69,165 ha||January 2016||2||181 habitations (166 only in Yarloop) and thousands of hectares of production forest (jarrah).|
|2016 Tasmanian bushfires||Tasmania||100,000 ha||January- February 2016 (ongoing)||0||Some of the dead trees killed by the bushfires were more than 1000 years old and part of a confined, Gondwana-era ecosystem and world heritage zones unique to Tasmania that in some cases have never burned before.|
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- PR war over fires in Tasmania's world heritage area takes to the air, The Age, 13 February 2016
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bushfires in Australia.|
- "Bushfires overview". CSIRO.
- "Australian fire risk and season maps". Romsey Australia.
- "Sentinel - map of satellite detected hotspots". Geoscience Australia.
- "Summary of bushfire alerts for ACT, NSW, QLD, SA, WA, VIC and TAS". Early Warning Network.
- "Cooperative research centre focussing on bushfire and natural hazards in Australia". Bushfire and Natural Hazard CRC.
- "Bushfire Preparation Guide". Westpac.