This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The early modern period in Britain saw religious conflict resulting from the Reformation and the introduction of Protestant state churches. The 1605 Gunpowder Plot was a failed attempt by a group of English Catholics including Guy Fawkes to assassinate King James I, and to blow up the Palace of Westminster, the English seat of government. According to Vahabph D. Aghai, "The beginnings of modern terrorism can be traced back to England and the Gunpowder Plot of 1605." Although the modern concept of religious terrorism had not yet come into use in the 17th century, David C. Rapoport and Lindsay Clutterbuck point out that the Plot, with its use of explosives, was an early precursor of 19th century anarchist terrorism. Sue Mahan and Pamala L. Griset classify the plot as an act of religious terrorism, writing that "Fawkes and his colleagues justified their actions in terms of religion." Peter Steinfels also characterizes this plot as a notable case of religious terrorism.
Orthodox Christian-influenced movements in Romania, such as the Iron Guard and Lăncieri, which have been characterized by Yad Vashem and Stanley G. Payne as anti-semitic and fascist, respectively, were involved in the Bucharest pogrom, and in political murders during the 1930s.
Ku Klux Klan
After the American Civil War of 1861–1865, former Confederates and members of the Democratic Party organized the Protestant-led Ku Klux Klan (KKK) organization and began engaging in arson, beatings, destruction of property, lynching, murder, rape, tar-and-feathering, whipping and intimidation via such means as cross burning. They targeted African Americans, Jews, Catholics, and other social or ethnic minorities.
Vehemently anti-Catholic, Klan members had an explicitly Protestant Christian terrorist ideology, basing their beliefs in part on a "religious foundation" in Protestant Christianity. The goals of the KKK included, from an early time onward, an intent to "reestablish Protestant Christian values in America by any means possible", and they believed that "Jesus was the first Klansman." Although members of the KKK swear to uphold Christian morality, virtually every Christian denomination has officially denounced the KKK. From 1915 onward, Klansmen conducted cross-burnings not only to intimidate targets, but also to demonstrate their respect and reverence for Jesus Christ, and the ritual of lighting crosses was steeped in Christian symbolism, including prayer and hymn singing. Within Christianity the Klan directed its hostilities against Catholics. Modern Klan organizations remain associated with acts of domestic terrorism in the United States.
Ilaga is a Catholic Extremist group who are anti-Islam based in southern Philippines. The group is predominantly composed of Visayans (mostly Ilonggo), embracing a form of Folk Catholicism that utilizes amulets and violence. The group committed its bloodiest act on June 19, 1971, when the group killed 70–100 Moro civilians inside a mosque.
Mark Juergensmeyer, a former president of the American Academy of Religion, has argued that there has been a global rise in religious nationalism after the Cold War due to a post-colonial collapse of confidence in Western models of nationalism and the rise of globalization. Juergensmeyer categorizes contemporary Christian terrorists as being a part of "religious activists from Algeria to Idaho, who have come to hate secular governments with an almost transcendent passion and dream of revolutionary changes that will establish a godly social order in the rubble of what the citizens of most secular societies regard as modern, egalitarian democracies".
According to terrorism expert David C. Rapoport, a "religious wave", or cycle, of terrorism, dates from approximately 1979 to the present. According to Rapoport, this wave most prominently features Islamic terrorism, but also includes terrorism by Christians and other religious groups that may have been influenced by Islamic terrorism.
Central African Republic
Anti-balaka groups destroyed almost all mosques in the Central African Republic unrest. In 2014, Amnesty International reported several massacres committed by the Anti-balaka against Muslim civilians, forcing thousands of Muslims to flee the country. Other sources report incidents of Muslims being cannibalized.
While anti-balaka groups have been frequently described as Christian militias in the media, this has been denied by Church leaders. Bishop Juan José Aguirre said: "But in no sense can it be said that the anti-balaka is a Christian group. The anti-balaka are made up of people of all kinds, terribly enraged, and including many people whom we call the 'dispossessed' – bandits, ex-prisoners, delinquents, criminals – who have got involved in these groups and are now extending, like a plague of locusts, across the whole of the CAR, murdering Muslims". The Tony Blair Faith Foundation has also pointed out the presence of animists in anti-balaka groups. However, there have been reports that many members of Anti-balaka groups have forcibly converted Muslims to Christianity.
On 20 January 2014, Catherine Samba-Panza, the mayor of Bangui, was elected as the interim president in the second round voting. The election of Samba-Panza was welcomed by Ban Ki-moon, the UN Secretary-General. Samba-Panza was viewed as having been neutral and away from clan clashes. Her arrival to the presidency was generally accepted by the anti-balaka. Following the election, Samba-Panza made a speech in the parliament appealing to the anti-balaka to put down their weapons.
The next day anti-Muslim violence continued in Bangui, just days after the Muslim former Health Minister Dr. Joseph Kalite was lynched outside the Central Mosque and at least nine other people were killed when attacked when a mob, some of who were from Christian self-defence groups, looted shops in the Muslim-majority Miskine neighbourhood of Bangui. As of 20 January, the ICRC reported that it had buried about 50 bodies within 48 hours. It also came after a mob killed two people whom they accused of being Muslim, then dragged the bodies through the streets and burnt them. Within the previous month, about 1,000 people had died. On 4 February 2014, a local priest said 75 people were killed in the town of Boda, in Lobaye prefecture. In the southwest, anti-balaka militants attacked Guen in early February resulting in the deaths of 60 people, according to Father Rigobert Dolongo, who also said that he had helped bury the bodies of the dead, at least 27 of whom died on the first day of the attack and 43 others the next day. As a result, hundreds of Muslim refugees sought shelter at a church in Carnot.
In May 2014, it was reported that around 600,000 people in CAR were internally displaced with 160,000 of these in the capital Bangui. The Muslim population of Bangui had dropped from 138,000 to 900. The national health system had collapsed and over half of the total population of 4.6 million were said to be in need of immediate aid. Also from December 2013 to May 2014, 100,000 people had fled to neighbouring Cameroon, Chad and the Democratic Republic of Congo bringing the number of CAR refugees in these countries to about 350,000. Amnesty International blamed the anti-balaka militia of causing a "Muslim exodus of historic proportions. Some Muslims of the country were also weary of the French presence in MISCA, with the French accused of not doing enough to stop attacks by Anti-balaka militias. One of the cited reasons for the difficulty in stopping attacks by anti-balaka militias was the mob nature of these attacks.
The National Liberation Front of Tripura (NLFT), is a rebel group that seeks the secession of Tripura, North-East India, and is a proscribed terrorist organization in India. Group activities have been described as Christian terrorists engaging in terrorist violence motivated by their Christian beliefs. The NLFT includes in its aims the forced conversion of all tribespeople in Tripura to Christianity. The NLFT says that it is fighting not only for the removal of Bengali immigrants from the tribal areas, "but also for the tribal areas of the state to become overtly Christian", and "has warned members of the tribal community that they may be attacked if they do not accept its Christian agenda". The NLFT is listed as a terrorist organization in the Prevention of Terrorism Act, 2002. The state government contends that the Baptist Church of Tripura supplies arms and gives financial support to the NLFT. Reports from the state government and Indian media describe activities such as the acquisition by the NLFT of explosives through the Noapara Baptist Church in Tripura, and threats of killing Hindus celebrating religious festivals. Over 20 Hindus in Tripura were reported to have been killed by the NLFT from 1999 to 2001 for resisting forced conversion to Christianity. According to Hindus in the area, there have also been forced conversions of tribal villagers to Christianity by armed NLFT militants. These forcible conversions, sometimes including the use of "rape as a means of intimidation", have also been noted by academics outside of India. In 2000, the NLFT broke into a temple and gunned down a popular Hindu preacher popularly known as Shanti Kali.
The Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) is also a Christian Naga nationalist militant group operating in North India. The main aim of the organization is to establish a sovereign Christian state, "Nagalim", unifying all the areas inhabited by the Naga people in Northeast India and Burma. The organization's slogan is "Nagaland for Christ". Its manifesto is based on the principle of Socialism for economic development and a Baptist Christian religious outlook. In some of their documents the NSCN has called for recognizing only Christianity in Nagalim. They believe in Christian theocracy. The NSCN has been declared a terrorist organisation in India under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967. It is believed that the organisation primarily raises funds through trafficking drugs from Burma and selling smuggled weapons to other insurgent groups in the region. The group reportedly indulges in kidnapping, assassination, extortion, forced conversion, and other terrorist activities. NSCN is accused of carrying out the 1992–1993 ethnic cleansing of Kuki tribes in Manipur, said to have left over 900 people dead. During that NSCN-IM operation, 350 Kuki villages were driven out and about 100,000 Kukis were turned into refugees.
On 3 August 2015 NSCN leader T. Muivah signed a peace accord with the Government of India in the presence of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Home Minister Rajnath Singh, and NSA Ajit Doval. However, NSCN also joined with a militia organization named the United Liberation Front of Western South East Asia, along with other Northeast Indian terrorist groups, and shortly after broke off peace talks with the Indian government.
Maronite Christian militias perpetrated the Karantina and Tel al-Zaatar massacres of Palestinians and Lebanese Muslims during Lebanon's 1975–1990 civil war. The 1982 Sabra and Shatila massacre, which targeted unarmed Palestinian refugees for rape and murder, was considered to be genocide by the United Nations General Assembly. A British photographer present during the incident said that "People who committed the acts of murder that I saw that day were wearing [crucifixes] and were calling themselves Christians."
The Lord's Resistance Army, a guerrilla army, was engaged in an armed rebellion against the Ugandan government in 2005. It has been accused of using child soldiers and of committing numerous crimes against humanity; including massacres, abductions, mutilation, torture, rape, and using forced child labourers as soldiers, porters, and sex slaves. A quasi-religious movement that mixes some aspects of Christian beliefs with its own brand of spiritualism, it is led by Joseph Kony, who proclaims himself the spokesperson of God and a spirit medium, primarily of the "Holy Spirit" which the Acholi believe can represent itself in many manifestations. LRA fighters wear rosary beads and recite passages from the Bible before battle.
Contemporary American Christian terrorism can be motivated by a violent desire to implement a Reconstructionist or Dominionist ideology. Dominion Theology insists that Christians are called by God to (re)build society on Christian values to subjugate the earth and establish dominion over all things, as a prerequisite for the second coming of Christ. Political violence motivated by dominion theology is a violent extension of the desire to impose a select version of Christianity on other Christians, as well as on non-Christians.
After 1981, members of groups such as the Army of God began attacking abortion clinics and doctors across the United States. A number of terrorist attacks were attributed by Bruce Hoffman to individuals and groups with ties to the Christian Identity and Christian Patriot movements, including the Lambs of Christ. A group called Concerned Christians was deported from Israel on suspicion of planning to attack holy sites in Jerusalem at the end of 1999; they believed that their deaths would "lead them to heaven".
Eric Robert Rudolph carried out the Centennial Olympic Park bombing in 1996, as well as subsequent attacks on an abortion clinic and a lesbian nightclub. Michael Barkun, a professor at Syracuse University, considers Rudolph to likely fit the definition of a Christian terrorist. James A. Aho, a professor at Idaho State University, argues that religious considerations inspired Rudolph only in part.
Terrorism scholar Aref M. Al-Khattar has listed The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord (CSA), Defensive Action, the Montana Freemen, and some "Christian militia" as groups that "can be placed under the category of far-right-wing terrorism" that "has a religious (Christian) component".
In 1996 three men—Charles Barbee, Robert Berry and Jay Merelle—were charged with two bank robberies and bombings at the banks, a Spokane newspaper, and a Planned Parenthood office in Washington State. The men were anti-Semitic Christian Identity theorists who believed that God wanted them to carry out violent attacks and that such attacks would hasten the ascendancy of the Aryan race.
In 2011, analyst Daryl Johnson of the United States Department of Homeland Security said that the Hutaree Christian militia movement possessed more weapons than the combined weapons holdings of all Islamic terror defendants charged in the US since the September 11 attacks.
In 2015, Robert Doggart, a 63 year old mechanical engineer, was indicted for solicitation to commit a civil rights violation by intending to damage or destroy religious property after communicating that he intended to amass weapons to attack a Muslim enclave in Delaware County, New York. Doggart, a member of several private militia groups, communicated to an FBI source in a phone call that he had an M4 carbine with "500 rounds of ammunition" that he intended to take to the Delaware County enclave, along with a handgun, molotov cocktails and a machete. The FBI source recorded him saying "if it gets down to the machete, we will cut them to shreds". Doggart had previously travelled to a site in Dover, Tennessee described in chain emails as a "jihadist training camp", and found that the claims were wrong. Doggart pleaded guilty in an April plea bargain stating he had "willfully and knowingly sent a message in interstate commerce containing a true threat" to injure someone. The plea bargain was struck down by a judge because it did not contain enough facts to constitute a true threat. Doggart stood as an independent candidate in Tennessee's 4th congressional district, losing with 6.4% of the vote. None of the charges against him are terrorism related.
The November 2015 Colorado Springs Planned Parenthood shooting, in which three were killed and nine injured, was described as "a form of terrorism" by Colorado Governor John Hickenlooper. The gunman, Robert Lewis Dear, was described as a "delusional" man who had written on a cannabis internet forum that "sinners" would "burn in hell" during the end times, and had also written about smoking marijuana and propositioned women for sex. He had praised the Army of God, saying that attacks on abortion clinics are "God's work". Deer's ex-wife said he had put glue on a lock of a Planned Parenthood clinic, and in court documents for their divorce she said "He claims to be a Christian and is extremely evangelistic, but does not follow the Bible in his actions. He says that as long as he believes he will be saved, he can do whatever he pleases. He is obsessed with the world coming to an end."
Christian Identity is a loosely affiliated global group of churches and individuals devoted to a racialized theology which asserts that Northern European whites are the direct descendants of the lost tribes of Israel, making them God's chosen people. It has been associated with groups such as the Aryan Nations, the Aryan Republican Army, the Army of God, the Phineas Priesthood, and The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord. It has been cited as an influence on a number of terrorist attacks around the world, including the 2002 Soweto bombings.
These groups are estimated to have 2,000 members in the United States, and an unknown number of members in Canada and the rest of the Commonwealth of Nations. Due to the promotion of Christian Identity doctrines through radio broadcasts and later through the Internet, an additional 50,000 unaffiliated individuals are thought to hold Christian Identity beliefs.
- B. Hoffman, "Inside Terrorism", Columbia University Press, 1999, pp. 105–120. ISBN 978-0231126991
- The Reformation in England and Scotland and Ireland: The Reformation Period & Ireland under Elizabeth I, Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
- Aghai, Vahabph D. (2011). Terrorism, an Unconventional Crime: Do We Have the Wisdom and Capability to Defeat Terrorism?. Xlibris Corporation. p. 14. ISBN 9781465349927. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
- Rapoport, David C. (2006). Terrorism: The first or anarchist wave. Routledge. p. 309. ISBN 0415316510.
- Mahan, Sue; Griset, Pamala L. (2013). "Religious Terrorism: Guy Fawkes and the Gunpowder Plot". Terrorism in Perspective (3rd ed.). Sage Publications. pp. 42–44. ISBN 9781452225456.
Like many terrorists throughout history, Fawkes and his colleagues justified their actions in terms of religion. Like other instances of 'holy terror', the Gunpowder Plot was deeply rooted in events that had occurred long before.
- Peter Steinfels (5 November 2005). "A Day to Think About a Case of Faith-Based Terrorism". New York Times.
- Paul Tinichigiu (January 2004). "Sami Fiul (interview)". The Central Europe Center for Research and Documentation. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Radu Ioanid (2004). "The Sacralised Politics of the Romanian Iron Guard". Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 5 (3): 419–453(35). doi:10.1080/1469076042000312203.
- Leon Volovici. Nationalist Ideology and Antisemitism. p. 98. ISBN 0-08-041024-3.
citing N. Cainic, Ortodoxie şi etnocraţie, pp. 162–4
- "Roots of Romanian Antisemitism: The League of National Christian Defense and Iron Guard Antisemitism" (PDF). Background and precursors to the Holocaust. Yad Vashem – The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority: 37.
- Payne, Stanley G. (1995). A History of Fascism 1914–1945. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press (pp. 277–289) ISBN 0-299-14874-2
- Al-Khattar, Aref M. (2003). Religion and terrorism: an interfaith perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger. pp. 21, 30.
- Al-Khattar, Aref M. (2003). Religion and terrorism: an interfaith perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger. pp. 21, 30, 55, 91.
- Michael, Robert, and Philip Rosen. Dictionary of antisemitism from the earliest times to the present. Lanham, Maryland, USA: Scarecrow Press, 1997 p. 267.
- Perlmutter, Philip (January 1, 1999). Legacy of Hate: A Short History of Ethnic, Religious, and Racial Prejudice in America. M.E. Sharpe. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-7656-0406-4.
Kenneth T. Jackson, in his The Ku Klux Klan in the City 1915-1930, reminds us that "virtually every" Protestant denomination denounced the KKK, but that most KKK members were not "innately depraved or anxious to subvert American institutions," but rather believed their membership in keeping with "one-hundred percent Americanism" and Christianity morality.
- Wade, Wyn Craig (1998). The fiery cross: the Ku Klux Klan in America. USA: Oxford University Press. p. 185. ISBN 9780195123579. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
- ADL About the Ku Klux Klan Page accessed 25 August 2015
- Mark Juergensmeyer; Margo Kitts; Michael Jerryson (14 February 2013). The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Violence. OUP USA. ISBN 978-0-19-975999-6.
- Mark Juergensmeyer (10 May 1993). The New Cold War? Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-91501-5.
- Juergensmeyer, Mark (1998). "Christian Violence in America". Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.
- Rapoport, David C. The Four Waves of Modern Terrorism (PDF). p. 47. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- "Almost all mosques destroyed in Central African Republic unrest". The Times of India. 18 March 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
- "US envoy: Almost every CAR mosque destroyed in war". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
- Andrew Katz. "Photographer Witnesses Turning Point In Central African Republic". TIME.com.
- David Smith, Africa correspondent. "Christian threats force Muslim convoy to turn back in CAR exodus". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
- "Hatred turns into Cannibalism in CAR". Newsafrica.co.uk. 17 January 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
- Flynn, Daniel (29 July 2014). "Insight - Gold, diamonds feed Central African religious violence". Reuters. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
- "There are no Christian militias killing Muslims in the Central African Republic". Aid to the Church in Need. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
- Emily Mellgard. "What is the Antibalaka?". tonyblairfaithfoundation. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
- "Central African Republic: Unprotected Muslims Forced to Abandon Religion". 31 July 2015 – via AllAfrica.
- "Convert or die: Ethnic cleansing in CAR".
- Arbaoui, Larbi. "Central African Republic: Muslims Forced to Convert to Christianity".
- "CAR: Muslims forced to convert to Christianity - Christian News on Christian Today".
- Par RFI Publié le 20 January 2014 Modifié le 20 January 2014 à 18:30 (20 January 2014). "Centrafrique: Catherine Samba-Panza élue présidente de la transition - Afrique - RFI". Rfi.fr. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- "United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon's Statements". Un.org. 20 January 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
- Par RFI Publié le 20 January 2014 Modifié le 21 January 2014 à 16:08. "Catherine Samba-Panza, nouvelle présidente de Centrafrique: pourquoi elle". Rfi.fr. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- "New CAR PM says ending atrocities is priority". Al Jazeera English. 26 January 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- Flynn, Daniel (29 July 2014). "Insight - Gold, diamonds feed Central African religious violence". Reuters. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- Braun, Emmanuel (24 January 2014). "Former minister killed as Central African Republic clashes escalate". Reuters. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- "CAR to decide on interim leader amid violence". Al Jazeera English. 20 January 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- Mike McCusker; Save the Children spokesman (20 January 2014). "Bodies burnt in CAR lynching". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- Inside Story (21 January 2014). "CAR: At a crossroads of conflict". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- "Central African Republic Conflict: 75 People Killed". Ibtimes.co.uk. 4 February 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- "Muslims hide in CAR church after killings". Al Jazeera English. 24 February 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- "Politics blamed for CAR divisions". Al Jazeera English. 10 February 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- "Muslims in CAR wary of French presence". Al Jazeera English. 26 January 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- Henderson, Alex (2015). "6 Modern-day Christian Terrorist Groups Our Media Conviently Ignores". Salon. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- Adam, de Cordier & Titeca, Vlassenroot (2007). "In the Name of the Father? Christian Militantism in Tripura, Northern Uganda, and Ambon". Studies in Conflict and Terrorism. 30 (11): 963. doi:10.1080/10576100701611288.
- Kumar, B.B. (2007). Problems of Ethnicity in North-East India. New Delhi, India: Concept Publishing Company. p. 23. ISBN 818069464X. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "Hindu preacher killed by Tripura rebels". BBC News. 28 August 2000. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Analysis: Tripura's tribal strife". BBC News. 21 May 2000. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
- "The Prevention of Terrorism Act, 2002". Republic of India. South Asia Terrorism Portal. 2002. Retrieved 1 March 2009.
- "Constitution of National Liberation Front Of Tripura". South Asia Terrorism Portal.
- "National Liberation Front of Tripura, India". South Asia Terrorism Portal.
- Bhaumik, Subhir (18 April 2000). "'Church backing Tripura rebels'". BBC News. Retrieved 26 August 2006.
- "Separatist group bans Hindu festivities". BBC News. 2 October 2000.
- "rediff.com: Tribals unite against conversions in Tripura". rediff.com.
- Adam, de Cordier & Titeca, Vlassenroot (2007). "In the Name of the Father? Christian Militantism in Tripura, Northern Uganda, and Ambon". Studies in Conflict and Terrorism. 30 (11): 965, 966, 967. doi:10.1080/10576100701611288.
- "BBC News - SOUTH ASIA - Hindu preacher killed by Tripura rebels". bbc.co.uk.
- Ghosh, Dr Kunal (1 January 2008). "SEPARATISM IN NORTH EAST INDIA: ROLE OF RELIGION LANGUAGE AND SCRIPT". Suruchi Prakashan – via Google Books.
- Dholabhai, Nishit (18 February 2011). "NSCN wants swift solution". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India.
- "Police, NSCN militants exchange fire". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 2 July 2004.
- "National Socialist Council of Nagaland - Isak-Muivah". Satp.org. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- Lyle Morris; The Diplomat. "Is China Backing Indian Insurgents? | The Diplomat | Page 2". The Diplomat. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- "Nagas' Rights to Self Determination". google.com.bd.
- "Ethnic Life-Worlds in North-East India". google.com.bd.
- "A Matter of Belief". google.com.bd.
- "Holy Warriors". google.com.bd.
- Manpreet Singh. "The Soul Hunters of Central Asia". ChristianityToday.com.
- "'Is this the India we should be proud of?' - Rediff.com India News". News.rediff.com. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
- Web.com(india) Pvt. Ltd. "Cdps, Nagaland Militant Groups Profile". Cdpsindia.org. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
- "Naga Identity - Braj Bihari Kumar - Google Books". Books.google.com.bd. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
- "Separatism In North East India: Role Of Religion Language And Script - Dr. Kunal Ghosh - Google Books". Books.google.com.bd. 1 January 2008. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- "Government declares NSCN (K) as terrorist organization under UAPA".
- Lyle Morris; The Diplomat. "Is China Backing Indian Insurgents? | The Diplomat | Page 2". The Diplomat. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
- "Buddhists allege NSCN-IM threat - Indian Express".
- "Manipur ambush: 18 army men killed, 11 injured". The Indian Express. 5 June 2015.
- "Christian Terrorism in North-East India - The NSCN". tripod.com.
- "National Socialist Council of Nagaland - Khaplang". satp.org.
- "Naga militants attack Assam Rifles camp in Arunachal". mid-day. 8 June 2015.
- "Arunachal Pradesh: Naga Militants Attack Assam Rifles Camp 3 Days after Deadly Manipur Ambush". International Business Times, India Edition. 7 June 2015.
- Avaneesh Pandey (4 May 2015). "Indian Security Personnel Killed In Militant Attack In Nagaland". International Business Times.
- "Naga militant outfit NSCN-K banned by Govt for 5 years- TIMESNOW.tv - Latest Breaking News, Big News Stories, News Videos". timesnow.tv.
- PTI. "10 soldiers killed in Manipur militant ambush". The Hindu.
- "Internecine clashes between Naga militant outfits beyond Nagaland". satp.org.
- "'Is this the India we should be proud of?'". Rediff. 17 May 2010.
- "Government signs landmark Nagaland peace treaty with NSCN(I-M) in presence of PM Narendra Modi". The Economic Times. India. 3 August 2015.
- "UNLFW: The new name for terror in NE - Times of India".
- "Nine miltant groups of NE form united front with Chinese blessings". 24 April 2015.
- United Nations (16 December 1982). "General Assembly Resolution 37/123". Retrieved 17 January 2011.
- BBC News (17 June 2001). "Panorama: "The Accused"". Retrieved 17 January 2011. The transcription actually says "crucifixions" instead of "crucifixes".
- Xan Rice (20 October 2007). "Background: the Lord's Resistance Army". The Guardian. London.
- Marc Lacey (4 August 2002). "Uganda's Terror Crackdown Multiplies the Suffering". New York Times.
- "The scars of death: children abducted by the Lord's Resistance Army in Uganda". Human Rights Watch/Africa (1997), page 72
- Ruddy Doom; Koen Vlassenroot (1999). "Kony's message: A new Koine? The Lord's Resistance Army in northern Uganda". African Affairs. Oxford Journals / Royal African Society. 98 (390): 5–36. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.afraf.a008002.
- "Ugandan rebels raid Sudanese villages". BBC News. 8 April 2002. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- K. Ward (2001). "The Armies of the Lord: Christianity, Rebels and the State in Northern Uganda, 1986–1999". Journal of Religion in Africa. 31 (2): 187. doi:10.1163/157006601X00121.
- "In pictures: Ugandan rebels come home". BBC News. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
One of the differences on the LRA pips is a white bible inside a heart
- David Blair (3 August 2005). "I killed so many I lost count, says boy, 11". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 1 January 2006.
- Matthew Green (8 February 2008). "Africa's Most Wanted". Financial Times.
- Christina Lamb (2 March 2008). "The Wizard of the Nile: The Hunt for Africa's Most Wanted by Matthew Green". London: The Times.
- Marc Lacey (18 April 2005). "Atrocity Victims in Uganda Choose to Forgive". The New York Times.
- Mark Juergensmeyer (1 September 2003). Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-93061-2.
- Barron, Bruce; Shupe, Anson (1992). "Reasons for the Growing Popularity of Christian Reconstructionism: The Determination to Attain Dominion". In Misztal, B.; Shupe, A. Religion and Politics in Comparative Perspective: Revival of Religious Fundamentalism in East and West. Praeger Publications.
- Frederick Clarkson (2 December 2002). "Kopp Lays Groundwork to Justify Murdering Abortion Provider Slepian". National Organization for Women.
- Laurie Goodstein; Pierre Thomas (17 January 1995). "Clinic Killings Follow Years of Antiabortion Violence". Washington Post.
- "'Army Of God' Anthrax Threats". CBS News. 9 November 2001.
- Bruce Hoffman (1998). Inside Terrorism. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11468-0.
- "Apocalyptic Christians detained in Israel for alleged violence plot". CNN. 3 January 1999. Archived from the original on 18 July 2007.
- "Cult members deported from Israel". BBC News. 9 January 1999. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- Cooperman, Alan (2 June 2003). "Is Terrorism Tied To Christian Sect? Religion May Have Motivated Bombing: Suspect". Washington Post. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
'Based on what we know of Rudolph so far, and admittedly it's fragmentary, there seems to be a fairly high likelihood that he can legitimately be called a Christian terrorist,' said Michael Barkun, a professor of political science at Syracuse University who has been a consultant to the FBI on Christian extremist groups.
- Al-Khattar, Aref M. (2003). Religion and terrorism: an interfaith perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger. pp. 21, 30. ISBN 9780275969233.
- Martin, Gus (2003). Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues. SAGE Publications, Inc. ISBN 978-0761926153.
- Shane, Scott (24 July 2011). "Killings in Norway Spotlight Anti-Muslim Thought in U.S." (PDF). The New York Times. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- "Signal Mountain man pleads not guilty in alleged plot to kill New York Muslims". timesfreepress.com.
- "Plotter of attack on Muslim town ruled out possible 'threat' in Tennessee". timesfreepress.com.
- "Trial of Tennessee man Robert Doggart accused of planning mosque attack delayed". commercialappeal.com.
- "Judge delays trial of man accused of plotting attack on Muslim community". The Guardian.
- "Robert Doggart". ballotpedia.org.
- Raya Jalabi in New York. "Release of man who threatened Islamberg hamlet prompts outcry". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "Ex-Tennessee congressional hopeful Robert Doggart indicted in alleged plot against Muslims in upstate New York". CBS News. 7 July 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- Zennie, Michael (19 May 2015). "Ex-Congressional candidate Robert Doggart plotted massacre at Islamberg, NY". Daily Mail. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "Protesters outside Chattanooga federal building blast handling of Robert Doggart case". Times Free Press. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "Colorado Springs shootings: Calls to cool abortion debate". BBC. Retrieved November 29, 2015.
- "Psychologists Call Suspect in Colorado Clinic Shooting Delusional".
- "Robert Dear appeared to solicit sex, rant about Bible online".
- Cleary, Tom (29 November 2015). "Robert Lewis Dear's Online Dating Profile & Cannabis.com Rants".
- "For Robert Dear, Religion and Rage Before Planned Parenthood Attack". The New York Times. 2 December 2015.
- Mark S. Hamm (2001). In Bad Company: America's Terrorist Underground. Northeastern. ISBN 1-55553-492-9.
- James Alfred Aho (1995). The Politics of Righteousness: Idaho Christian Patriotism. University of Washington Press. p. 86. ISBN 0-295-97494-X.
- Alan Cooperman (2 June 2003). "Is Terrorism Tied To Christian Sect?". Washington Post.
- Martin Schönteich; Henri Boshoff (2003). 'Volk' Faith and Fatherland: The Security Threat Posed by the White Right. Pretoria, South Africa, Institute for Security Studies. ISBN 1-919913-30-0.
- Barkun, Michael (1996). "preface". Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement. University of North Carolina Press. pp. x. ISBN 0-8078-4638-4.
- Mason, Carol. 2002. Killing for Life: The Apocalyptic Narrative of Pro-Life Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
- Zeskind, Leonard. 1987. The ‘Christian Identity’ Movement, [booklet]. Atlanta, Georgia: Center for Democratic Renewal/Division of Church and Society, National Council of Churches.
- Al-Khattar, Aref M. Religion and terrorism: an interfaith perspective. Greenwood. January 2003. ISBN 978-0-275-96923-3