City of Cape Town elections

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The council of the City of Cape Town in the Western Cape, South Africa is elected every five years by a system of mixed-member proportional representation. Half of the councillors are elected by first-past-the-post voting from individual wards, while the other half are appointed from party lists so that the total number of party representatives is proportional to the number of votes received. By-elections are held to replace the councillors elected by wards if a vacancy occurs.

December 2000 election[edit]

Seats in the city council after the 2000 election.
Government:
  DA (107)
Opposition:
  ANC (77)
  ACDP (8)
  Others (8)

The current form of the City of Cape Town was created in 2000 by merging the six transitional municipalities in the Cape Town metropolitan area (Cape Town/Central, South Peninsula, Blaauwberg, Tygerberg, Oostenberg and Helderberg) and the overarching Cape Metropolitan Council. The council of the new municipality consisted of 200 members, 100 elected from wards and the other 100 from party lists. The election was held on 5 December 2000; the Democratic Alliance won a majority of 107 seats.

City of Cape Town local election, 5 December 2000[1][2]
Party Votes Seats
Ward List Total % Ward List Total
Democratic Alliance 372,032 377,885 749,917 52.9 66 41 107
African National Congress 268,124 272,181 540,305 38.1 34 43 77
African Christian Democratic Party 27,972 25,976 53,984 3.8 0 8 8
United Democratic Movement 9,098 11,231 20,329 1.4 0 3 3
Africa Muslim Party 6,484 8,056 14,540 1.0 0 2 2
Independent 14,401 14,401 1.0 0 0
Pan Africanist Congress 1,873 4,529 6,402 0.5 0 1 1
Inkatha Freedom Party 2,287 1,648 3,935 0.3 0 1 1
Moderate Independent Party 1,528 2,329 3,857 0.3 0 1 1
Green Party 477 1,973 2,450 0.2 0 0 0
Azanian People's Organisation 1,120 1,025 2,145 0.2 0 0 0
Cape People's Congress 1,071 1,045 2,116 0.1 0 0 0
Helderberg Community Civic Organization 625 869 1,494 0.1 0 0 0
Abolition of Income Tax and Usury Party 489 489 0.0 0 0
Total 707,092 709,236 1,416,328 100 100 200
Valid votes 707,092 709,236 1,416,328 98.8
Spoilt votes 8,497 8,129 16,626 1.2
Total votes cast 715,589 717,365 1,432,954
Total voter turnout 719,444
Registered voters 1,269,582
Turnout percentage 56.7

By-elections from December 2000 to October 2002[edit]

The following by-elections were held to fill vacant ward seats in the period between the election in December 2000 and the floor crossing period in October 2002.

Date Ward Party of the previous councillor Party of the newly elected councillor
25 April 2001[3] 34 African National Congress African National Congress
15 August 2001[4] 71 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
28 August 2002[5] 62 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance

October 2002 floor crossing[edit]

Seats in the city council after the 2002 floor crossing.
Government:
  ANC (80)
  NNP (32)
Opposition:
  DA (71)
  ACDP (8)
  Others (9)

In terms of the Eighth Amendment of the Constitution and the judgment of the Constitutional Court in United Democratic Movement v President of the Republic of South Africa and Others, in the period from 8–22 October 2002 councillors had the opportunity to cross the floor to a different political party without losing their seats.

In the Cape Town city council, the Democratic Alliance (DA) lost 31 councillors to the New National Party (NNP), which had formerly been part of the DA. The DA also lost 3 councillors to the African National Congress (ANC), 1 to the Universal Party and 1 who became an independent. The sole councillor of the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) also crossed to the NNP. The ANC and the NNP formed a coalition which held a majority of 112 seats.

City of Cape Town floor crossing, 8–22 October 2002[6]
Party Seats before Net change Seats after
African National Congress 77 Increase 3 80
Democratic Alliance 107 Decrease 36 71
New National Party Increase 32 32
African Christian Democratic Party 8 Steady 0 8
United Democratic Movement 3 Steady 0 3
Africa Muslim Party 2 Steady 0 2
Moderate Independent Party 1 Steady 0 1
Pan Africanist Congress 1 Steady 0 1
Independent Increase 1 1
Universal Party Increase 1 1
Inkatha Freedom Party 1 Decrease 1 0

By-elections from October 2002 to August 2004[edit]

The following by-elections were held to fill vacant ward seats in the period between the floor crossing periods in October 2002 and September 2004.

Date Ward Party of the previous councillor Party of the newly elected councillor
7 May 2003[7] 67 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
11 February 2004[8] 42 African National Congress African National Congress
23 June 2004[9] 6 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
9 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
13 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
15 Democratic Alliance African National Congress
46 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance

September 2004 floor crossing[edit]

Seats in the city council after the 2004 floor crossing.
Government:
  ANC (104)
  NNP (5)
Opposition:
  DA (70)
  ACDP (6)
  Others (15)

Another floor-crossing period occurred on 1–15 September 2004. 27 of the 32 NNP councillors crossed, mostly to the ANC, giving the ANC a majority of 104 seats. 2 councillors of the African Christian Democratic Party (ACDP) also crossed to the Federation of Democrats, a new party.

City of Cape Town floor crossing, 1–15 September 2004[10]
Party Seats before Net change Seats after
African National Congress 81 Increase 23 104
Democratic Alliance 70 Steady 0 70
African Christian Democratic Party 8 Decrease 2 6
New National Party 32 Decrease 27 5
Independent Democrats Increase 4 4
United Democratic Movement 3 Steady 0 3
Africa Muslim Party 2 Steady 0 2
Federation of Democrats Increase 2 2
Independent 1 Steady 0 1
Moderate Independent Party 1 Steady 0 1
Pan Africanist Congress 1 Steady 0 1
Universal Party 1 Steady 0 1

By-elections from September 2004 to February 2006[edit]

The following by-elections were held to fill vacant ward seats in the period between the floor crossing periods in September 2004 and the election in March 2006.

Date Ward Party of the previous councillor Party of the newly elected councillor
24 November 2004[11] 32 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
7 September 2005[12] 21 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
48 African National Congress African National Congress

March 2006 election[edit]

Seats in the city council after the 2006 election.
Government:
  DA (90)
  ACDP (7)
  Others (8)
Opposition:
  ANC (81)
  ID (23)
  PAC (1)

At the election of 1 March 2006, the city council was expanded to 210 members with the addition of 5 new wards and 5 new PR list councillors. No party obtained a majority, with the Democratic Alliance (DA) winning 90 seats, the African National Congress (ANC) 81, and the new Independent Democrats (ID) 23.

After much negotiation, a seven-party governing coalition was formed, consisting of the DA, the African Christian Democratic Party (ACDP), the Africa Muslim Party (AMP), the United Democratic Movement (UDM), the Freedom Front Plus (VF+), the United Independent Front (UIF), and the Universal Party (UP). The coalition held 105 seats, exactly half of the council, compared to the 104 seats held by the ANC and ID together. The single councillor from the Pan Africanist Congress abstained from the election of the mayor.[13]

City of Cape Town local election, 1 March 2006[14][15]
Party Votes Seats
Ward List Total % Ward List Total
Democratic Alliance 303,299 306,246 609,545 41.9 61 29 90
African Christian Democratic Party 24,145 22,757 46,902 3.2 0 7 7
Africa Muslim Party 9,567 9,749 19,316 1.3 0 3 3
United Democratic Movement 5,081 6,869 11,950 0.8 0 2 2
Freedom Front Plus 3,621 3,549 7,170 0.5 0 1 1
United Independent Front 1,556 1,916 3,472 0.2 0 1 1
Universal Party 1,337 1,009 2,346 0.2 0 1 1
Seven-party coalition total 348,606 352,095 700,701 48.1 61 44 105
African National Congress 271,873 280,232 552,105 37.9 41 40 81
Independent Democrats 76,711 79,839 156,550 10.7 3 20 23
Independent 24,151 24,151 1.7 0 0
Pan Africanist Congress 2,386 4,722 7,108 0.5 0 1 1
Inkatha Freedom Party 1,254 981 2,235 0.2 0 0 0
Federation of Democrats 1,190 946 2,136 0.1 0 0 0
Pro Ratepayers Party 977 942 1,919 0.1 0 0 0
Moderate Independent Party 934 715 1,649 0.1 0 0 0
Peace and Justice Congress 734 625 1,360 0.1 0 0 0
United Party 1,276 1,276 0.1 0 0
Pension Poverty Relief and Unemployment Front 573 683 1,256 0.1 0 0 0
Azanian People's Organisation 280 642 922 0.1 0 0 0
Abolition of Income Tax and Usury Party 432 328 760 0.1 0 0 0
Progressive Independent Movement 710 710 0.0 0 0
First Community Party 199 414 613 0.0 0 0 0
Alliance of Free Democrats 61 541 602 0.0 0 0 0
Workers International Vanguard League 297 297 0.0 0 0
Total 731,637 724,713 1,456,350 105 105 210
Valid votes 731,637 724,713 1,456,350 98.3
Spoilt votes 9,102 15,664 24,766 1.7
Total votes cast 740,739 740,377 1,481,116
Total voter turnout 744,967
Registered voters 1,486,781
Turnout percentage 50.1

By-elections from March 2006 to August 2007[edit]

The following by-elections were held to fill vacant ward seats in the period between the election in March 2006 and the floor crossing period in September 2007.

Date Ward Party of the previous councillor Party of the newly elected councillor
7 June 2006[16] 82 Independent Democrats Democratic Alliance[Note 1]
7 February 2007[17] 74 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance

September 2007 floor crossing[edit]

Seats in the city council after the 2007 floor crossing.
Government:
  DA (95)
  ID (16)
  ACDP (7)
  Others (3)
Opposition:
  ANC (81)
  Others (8)

The final floor-crossing period occurred on 1–15 September 2007; floor-crossing was subsequently abolished in 2008 by the Fifteenth Amendment of the Constitution. In the Cape Town city council, the ID lost three councillors to the new National People's Party (NPP), two to the DA and one to the new Social Democratic Party. The UDM and the UIF each lost one councillor to the DA, and the AMP lost one councillor to the NPP. Control of the council was not affected because the ID had joined the governing coalition earlier in the year.

City of Cape Town floor crossing, 1–15 September 2007[18]
Party Seats before Net change Seats after
Democratic Alliance 91 Increase 4 95
African National Congress 81 Steady 0 81
Independent Democrats 22 Decrease 6 16
African Christian Democratic Party 7 Steady 0 7
National People's Party Increase 4 4
Africa Muslim Party 3 Decrease 1 2
United Democratic Movement 2 Decrease 1 1
Freedom Front Plus 1 Steady 0 1
Pan Africanist Congress 1 Steady 0 1
Universal Party 1 Steady 0 1
Social Democratic Party Increase 1 1
United Independent Front 1 Decrease 1 0

By-elections from September 2007 to May 2011[edit]

The following by-elections were held to fill vacant ward seats in the period between the floor crossing period in September 2007 and the election in May 2011.

Date Ward Party of the previous councillor Party of the newly elected councillor
19 March 2008[19] 15 Democratic Alliance Independent Democrats
16 July 2008[20] 103 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
10 December 2008[21][Note 2] 33 African National Congress Congress of the People[Note 3]
34 African National Congress Congress of the People[Note 3]
35 African National Congress Congress of the People[Note 3]
45 African National Congress Democratic Alliance
52 African National Congress Congress of the People[Note 3]
75 African National Congress Democratic Alliance
87 African National Congress Congress of the People[Note 3]
88 African National Congress Congress of the People[Note 3]
25 March 2009[22] 2 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
79 Independent Democrats Democratic Alliance[Note 1]
6 May 2009[23] 71 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
24 June 2009[24] 9 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
14 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
70 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
73 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
18 November 2009[25] 32 African National Congress Democratic Alliance
26 May 2010[26] 44 African National Congress Democratic Alliance
21 July 2010[27] 34 Congress of the People African National Congress
35 Congress of the People African National Congress
98 African National Congress African National Congress
99 African National Congress Democratic Alliance
25 August 2010[28] 49 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
8 December 2010[29] 19 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
104 African National Congress African National Congress

May 2011 election[edit]

Seats in the city council after the 2011 election.
Government:
  DA (135)
Opposition:
  ANC (73)
  Others (13)

At the election of 18 May 2011, the council was expanded to 221 members with the addition of 6 new wards and 5 new PR list seats. The Democratic Alliance won a majority of 135 seats.

City of Cape Town local election, 18 May 2011[30][31]
Party Votes Seats
Ward List Total % Ward List Total
Democratic Alliance 675,020 682,929 1,357,949 60.9 78 57 135
African National Congress 360,827 370,420 731,247 32.8 33 40 73
African Christian Democratic Party 15,227 11,873 27,100 1.2 0 3 3
Congress of the People 12,059 12,596 24,655 1.1 0 3 3
National Party 5,718 6,038 11,756 0.5 0 1 1
United Democratic Movement 4,402 4,290 8,692 0.4 0 1 1
Al Jama-ah 4,310 3,928 8,238 0.4 0 1 1
Africa Muslim Party 4,430 3,157 7,587 0.3 0 1 1
Cape Muslim Congress 3,658 2,740 6,398 0.3 0 1 1
Independent 5,893 5,893 0.3 0 0
Pan Africanist Congress 2,606 1,993 4,599 0.2 0 1 1
Freedom Front Plus 2,121 1,864 3,985 0.2 0 1 1
Cape Party 1,561 1,471 3,032 0.1 0 0 0
Community Coalition 1,715 1,271 2,986 0.1 0 0 0
Inkatha Freedom Party 1,888 1,031 2,919 0.1 0 0 0
National Independent Civic Organisation 1,844 1,048 2,892 0.1 0 0 0
Democrats for Change 942 1,637 2,579 0.1 0 0 0
African People's Convention 787 1,513 2,300 0.1 0 0 0
National People's Party 1,221 707 1,928 0.1 0 0 0
Universal Party 1,078 650 1,728 0.1 0 0 0
National Alliance for Democracy 1,008 629 1,637 0.1 0 0 0
South African Progressive Civic Organisation 825 724 1,549 0.1 0 0 0
National Freedom Party 694 765 1,459 0.1 0 0 0
United Christian Democratic Party 22 845 867 0.0 0 0 0
Western Cape Community 291 574 865 0.0 0 0 0
United Independent Front 417 436 853 0.0 0 0 0
Azanian People's Organisation 322 405 727 0.0 0 0 0
United Civics of South Africa 423 166 589 0.0 0 0 0
African Bond of Unity 232 275 507 0.0 0 0 0
United Majority Front 301 124 425 0.0 0 0 0
Pan Africanist Movement 132 265 397 0.0 0 0 0
Abolition of Income Tax and Usury Party 230 165 395 0.0 0 0 0
Social Democratic Party 93 167 260 0.0 0 0 0
Independent Civic Organisation 151 151 0.0 0 0
Total 1,112,297 1,116,847 2,229,144 111 110 221
Valid votes 1,112,297 1,116,847 2,229,144 99.1
Spoilt votes 11,518 8,998 20,516 0.9
Total votes cast 1,123,815 1,125,845 2,249,660
Total voter turnout 1,134,144
Registered voters 1,745,853
Turnout percentage 65.0

By-elections from May 2011 to August 2016[edit]

The following by-elections were held to fill vacant ward seats in the period between the elections in May 2011 and August 2016.

Date Ward Party of the previous councillor Party of the newly elected councillor
7 December 2011[32] 71 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
18 January 2012[33] 68 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
25 April 2012[34] 45 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
19 September 2012[35] 88 African National Congress Democratic Alliance
30 January 2013[36] 22 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
22 May 2013[37] 105 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
19 February 2014[38] 35 African National Congress African National Congress
43 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
28 May 2014[39] 25 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
13 August 2014[40] 5 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
54 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
56 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
5 November 2014[41] 23 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
1 April 2015[42] 72 Democratic Alliance Democratic Alliance
9 December 2015[43] 101 African National Congress African National Congress

August 2016 election[edit]

Seats in the city council after the 2016 election.
Government:
  DA (154)
Opposition:
  ANC (57)
  EFF (7)
  Others (13)

At the election of 3 August 2016, the council was expanded to 231 members with the addition of 5 new wards and 5 new PR list seats. The Democratic Alliance won a majority of 154 seats.

City of Cape Town local election, 18 May 2011[44][45]
Party Votes Seats
Ward List Total % Ward List Total
Democratic Alliance 831,890 832,624 1,664,514 66.6 81 73 154
African National Congress 302,965 305,902 608,867 24.4 35 22 57
Economic Freedom Fighters 40,243 38,871 79,114 3.2 0 7 7
African Christian Democratic Party 16,181 14,104 30,285 1.2 0 3 3
Al Jama-ah 9,506 6,892 16,398 0.7 0 2 2
African Independent Congress 5,228 9,515 14,743 0.6 0 1 1
Freedom Front Plus 5,365 4,919 10,284 0.4 0 1 1
Democratic Independent Party 4,049 3,472 7,521 0.3 0 1 1
Independent 7,077 7,077 0.3 0 0
United Democratic Movement 2,441 4,139 6,580 0.3 0 1 1
Cape Muslim Congress 3,073 3,386 6,459 0.3 0 1 1
Pan Africanist Congress 3,381 2,938 6,319 0.3 0 1 1
Congress of the People 3,175 3,015 6,190 0.3 0 1 1
Patriotic Alliance 2,943 2,016 4,959 0.2 0 1 1
National Party 1,988 2,296 4,284 0.2 0 0 0
Cape Party 1,608 1,760 3,368 0.1 0 0 0
Africa Muslim Party 1,692 1,571 3,263 0.1 0 0 0
Local People's Party 1,654 1,056 2,710 0.1 0 0 0
Al Shura Party 1,085 685 1,770 0.1 0 0 0
African People's Convention 749 906 1,655 0.1 0 0 0
Independent Civic Organisation 799 673 1,472 0.1 0 0 0
Nationalist Coloured Party 794 622 1,416 0.1 0 0 0
Christian Democratic Party 318 1,097 1,415 0.1 0 0 0
National People's Party 812 449 1,261 0.1 0 0 0
South Africa People's Party 451 443 894 0.0 0 0 0
Coloured Voice 420 442 862 0.0 0 0 0
Khoisan Kingdom And All People 243 527 770 0.0 0 0 0
South African Progressive Civic Organisation 346 357 703 0.0 0 0 0
Ubuntu Party 196 490 686 0.0 0 0 0
Khoisan Revolution 218 444 662 0.0 0 0 0
Sizwe Ummah Nation 276 283 559 0.0 0 0 0
The Greens 45 433 478 0.0 0 0 0
People's Democratic Movement 203 236 439 0.0 0 0 0
Inkatha Freedom Party 56 378 434 0.0 0 0 0
South African People for Equality 145 171 316 0.0 0 0 0
Independent Sport Party 39 122 161 0.0 0 0 0
Patriotic Association 19 111 130 0.0 0 0 0
Total 1,251,673 1,247,345 2,499,018 116 115 231
Valid votes 1,251,673 1,247,345 2,499,018 98.7
Spoilt votes 14,777 17,954 32,731 1.3
Total votes cast 1,266,450 1,265,299 2,531,749
Total voter turnout 1,271,923
Registered voters 1,977,690
Turnout percentage 64.3

By-elections since August 2016[edit]

The following by-elections were held to fill vacant ward seats in the period since the elections in August 2016.

Date Ward Party of the previous councillor Party of the newly elected councillor
9 November 2016[46] 108 African National Congress African National Congress

November 2018 mayoral election[edit]

On 31 October 2018, incumbent Mayor Patricia de Lille resigned. A election was held on 6 November 2018 to determine her successor. It was subsequently won by former Mayor, Dan Plato. The candidates nominated were:

The results were as follows.

Candidate Votes %
Dan Plato (DA) 146 72.3%
Xolani Sotashe (ANC) 53 26.2%
Grant Haskin (ACDP) 3 1.5%
Total 202 100%
Valid votes 202 97.1%
Spoilt ballots 6 2.9%
Total votes cast 208 100%

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b The former councillor was re-elected to the ward on behalf of a different party.
  2. ^ The ANC could not stand candidates in this by-election due to a failure to submit paperwork on time.
  3. ^ a b c d e f The former councillor was re-elected to the ward nominally as an independent, but in fact on behalf of COPE, which was not yet a registered party. See http://www.politicsweb.co.za/documents/full-western-cape-byelection-results.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Seat Calculation Summary: City of Cape Town" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  2. ^ "Full election results: 2000 Municipal Elections" (CSV). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  3. ^ "By-elections 25 Apr 2001 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  4. ^ "By-elections 15 Aug 2001 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  5. ^ "By-elections 28 Aug 2002 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  6. ^ "2002 Detailed Floor Crossing Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
  7. ^ "By-elections 07 May 2003 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  8. ^ "By-elections 11 Feb 2004 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  9. ^ "By-elections 23 Jun 2004 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  10. ^ "2004 Floor Crossing - Summary report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  11. ^ "By-elections 24 Nov 2004 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  12. ^ "By-elections 07 Sep 2005 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  13. ^ van Onselen, Gareth (11 July 2016). "Anatomy of a coalition coup: Are there lessons ahead of the August election?". BusinessDay. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  14. ^ "Seat Calculation Summary: City of Cape Town" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  15. ^ "Full election results: 2006 Municipal Elections" (CSV). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  16. ^ "By-elections 07 Jun 2006 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  17. ^ "By-elections 07 Feb 2007 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  18. ^ "2007 Floor Crossing - Summary report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  19. ^ "By-elections 19 Mar 2008 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  20. ^ "By-elections 16 Jul 2008 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  21. ^ "By-elections 10 Dec 2008 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  22. ^ "By-elections 25 Mar 2009 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  23. ^ "By-elections 06 May 2009 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  24. ^ "By-elections 24 Jun 2009 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  25. ^ "By-elections 18 Nov 2009 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
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  27. ^ "By-elections 21 Jul 2010 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  28. ^ "By-elections 25 Aug 2010 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  29. ^ "By-elections 08 Dec 2010 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  30. ^ "Results Summary – All Ballots: City of Cape Town" (PDF). Independent Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  31. ^ "Seat Calculation Detail: City of Cape Town" (PDF). Independent Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  32. ^ "By-elections 07 Dec 2011 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  33. ^ "By-elections 18 Jan 2012 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  34. ^ "By-elections 25 Apr 2012 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  35. ^ "By-elections 19 Sep 2012 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  36. ^ "By-elections 30 Jan 2013 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  37. ^ "By-elections 22 May 2013 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  38. ^ "By-elections 19 Feb 2014 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  39. ^ "By-elections 28 May 2014 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  40. ^ "By-elections 13 Aug 2014 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  41. ^ "By-elections 05 Nov 2014 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  42. ^ "By-elections 01 Apr 2015 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  43. ^ "By-elections 09 Dec 2015 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  44. ^ "Results Summary – All Ballots: City of Cape Town" (PDF). Independent Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
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  46. ^ "By-elections 09 Nov 2016 Comparison Report" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 April 2017.