Polygalaceae

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Polygalaceae
Securidaca longipedunculata MS 1933.JPG
Securidaca longipedunculata
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Polygalaceae
Hoffmanns. & Link[1]
Type genus
Polygala
L. 1753
Tribes
Polygaleae distribution.svg
Distribution of the Polygalaceae.
Synonyms
  • Diclidantheraceae J. Agardh
  • Moutabeaceae Pfeiffer
  • Xanthophyllaceae Reveal & Hoogland

The Polygalaceae or the milkwort family are made up of flowering plants in the order Fabales. They have a near-cosmopolitan range, with about 21 genera and ca. 900 known species[2] of herbs, shrubs and trees. Over half of the species are in one genus, Polygala, the milkworts.

Under the Cronquist classification system, Polygalaceae were treated in a separate order of their own, Polygalales. Currently, according to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, the family belongs in Fabales.

Tribes and genera[edit]

The Polygalaceae comprise the following genera:[3][4][5][6][7][8]

Carpolobieae[edit]

Moutabeae[edit]

Polygaleae[edit]

Xanthophylleae[edit]

Fossils[edit]

Systematics[edit]

Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships:[8][9][10][11][12][13]



Surianaceae (outgroup)


Polygalaceae
Xanthophylleae

Xanthophyllum



Moutabeae


Moutabea



Balgoya





Eriandra




Barnhartia



Diclidanthera






Carpolobieae

Atroxima



Carpolobia



Polygaleae
Clade I

Bredemeyera




Acanthocladus




Gymnospora




Hebecarpa



Badiera






Clade II


Securidaca





Phlebotaenia



Rhinotropis





Comesperma




Ancylotropis



Monnina









Asemeia



Caamembeca





Hualania






Heterosamara




Polygaloides



Polygala subgen. Chodatia






Salomonia



Epirixanthes






Polygala subgen. Polygala (Old World Clade)



Polygala subgen. Polygala (New World Clade)




Muraltia











References[edit]

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06. 
  2. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1. 
  3. ^ Abbott JR. (2011). "Notes on the disintegration of Polygala (Polygalaceae), with four new genera for the flora of North America". Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 5 (1): 125–137. JSTOR 41972495. 
  4. ^ Pastore JFB. (2012). "Caamembeca: Generic status and new name for Polygala subgenus Ligustrina (Polygalaceae)". Kew Bull. 67 (3): 435–442. doi:10.1007/s12225-012-9360-x. 
  5. ^ Pastore JFB, Rodrigues de Moraes PL. (2013). "Generic status and lectotypifications for Gymnospora (Polygalaceae)". Novon. 22 (3): 304–306. doi:10.3417/2010113. 
  6. ^ Abbott JR, Pastore JFB (2015). "Preliminary synopsis of the genus Hebecarpa (Polygalaceae)". Kew Bull. 70: 39. doi:10.1007/s12225-015-9589-2. 
  7. ^ Freire-Fierro A. (2015). Systematics of Monnina (Polygalaceae) (Ph.D.). Drexel University. 
  8. ^ a b Pastore JFB, Abbott JR, Neubig KM, Whitten WM, Mascarenhas RB, Almeida Mota MC, van den Berg C. (2017). "A molecular phylogeny and taxonomic notes in Caamembeca (Polygalaceae)". Syst Bot. 42 (1): 54–62. doi:10.1600/036364417X694935. 
  9. ^ Persson C. (2001). "Phylogenetic relationships in Polygalaceae based on plastid DNA sequences from the trnLF region". Taxon. 50 (3 (Golden Jubilee Part 5)): 763–779. doi:10.2307/1223706. JSTOR 1223706. 
  10. ^ Forest F, Chase MW, Persson C, Crane PR, Hawkins JA. (2007). "The role of biotic and abiotic factors in evolution of ant dispersal in the milkwort family (Polygalaceae)". Evolution. 61 (7): 1675–1694. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2007.00138.x. 
  11. ^ Bello MA, Bruneau A, Forest F, Hawkins JA. (2009). "Elusive relationships within order Fabales: Phylogenetic analyses using matK and rbcL sequence data". Syst Bot. 34 (1): 102–114. doi:10.1600/036364409787602348. 
  12. ^ Abbott JR. (2009). Phylogeny of the Polygalaceae and a revision of Badiera (PDF) (Ph.D.). University of Florida. 
  13. ^ Mennes CB, Moerland MS, Rath M, Smets EF, Merckx VSFT. (2015). "Evolution of mycoheterotrophy in Polygalaceae: The case of Epirixanthes". Am J Bot. 102 (4): 598–608. doi:10.3732/ajb.1400549. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Polygalaceae at Wikimedia Commons