Moraceae

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Moraceae
Temporal range: 80–0 Ma
Cretaceous - Recent
Castilla elastica - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-174.jpg
Panama rubber tree (Castilla elastica)
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Moraceae
Gaudich.[1]
Genera

See text

The Moraceae — often called the mulberry family or fig family — are a family of flowering plants comprising about 38 genera and over 1100 species.[2] Most are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, less so in temperate climates; however, there is a cosmopolitan distribution overall. The only synapomorphy within Moraceae is presence of laticifers and milky sap in all parenchymatous tissues, but generally useful field characters include two carpels sometimes with one reduced, compound inconspicuous flowers, and compound fruits.[3] The family includes well-known plants such as the fig, banyan, breadfruit, mulberry, and Osage-orange. The 'flowers' of Moraceae are often pseudanthia (reduced inflorescences).

Historical taxonomy[edit]

Formerly included within the now defunct order Urticales, recent molecular studies have resulted in its placement within Rosales in a clade called the urticalean rosids that also includes Ulmaceae, Celtidaceae, Cannabaceae and Urticaceae. Cecropia, which has variously been placed in Moraceae, Urticaceae, or their own family, Cecropiaceae, is now included in Urticaceae.[4]

Dioecy (having individuals with separate sexes) appears to be the primitive state in Moraceae.[5] Monoecy has evolved independently at least four times within the family.

Characteristics[edit]

Flowers[edit]

The flowers are often small, with single whorled or absent perianth. Most flowers have either petals or sepals, but not both, known as monochlamydeae, and have pistils and stamens in different flowers, known as diclinous. The perianth in all speices excluding B. guadichaudii and C. elastica contain sepals. If the flower has an inflexed stamen, then polen is released and distributed by wind dispersal; however, if the stamen is straight, then insect pollination is most likely to occur. Insect pollination occurs in Antiaropsis, Artocarpus, Castilla, Dorstenia, Ficus, and Mesogyne [6]

Leaves[edit]

The leaves are much like the flowers when analyzing diversity. The leaves can be singly attached to the stem or alternating, they may be lobed or unlobed, and can be evergreen or deciduous depending on what species is in question. [7] The red mulberry can host numerous leaf types on the same tree. Leaves can be both lobed and unlobed and appear very different but coexist on the same plant. [8].

Fruits & Seeds[edit]

Plant species in Moraceae are best known for their fruits. Overall, most species produced a fleshy fruit containing seeds. Examples include the breadfruit from Artocarpus altillis, the mulberry from Morus rubra, and the jackfruit from Artocarpus heterophyllus. [5][9]

Distribution[edit]

Moracea can be found throughout the world with a cosmopolitan distribution. It is hypothesized that their cosmopolitan distribution is due to the breakup of Gondwana during the Jurassic period [10]. The majority of species can be found originating in the Old World tropics with emphasis in Asia and the pacific islands [11]

Phylogeny[edit]

Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships:[4][5][9][12]

Urticaceae (outgroup)

Moraceae
Artocarpeae

Batocarpus

Clarisia

Artocarpus

Parartocarpus

Prainea

Moreae

Sorocea

Bagassa

Milicia

Streblus

Morus

Trophis

Maclureae

Maclura

Dorstenieae

Fatoua

Broussonetia

Malaisia

Bleekrodea

Sloetia

Trilepisium

Utsetela

Dorstenia

Brosimum

Trymatococcus

Helianthostylis

Ficeae

Ficus

Castilleae
Antiaropsineae

Sparattosyce

Antiaropsis

Castillineae

Antiaris

Mesogyne

Naucleopsis

Perebea

Pseudolmedia

Maquira

Helicostylis

Poulsenia

Castilla

Tribes and genera[edit]

Moraceae comprises the following:[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
  2. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M.; Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
  3. ^ Judd WS, Campbell CS, Kellogg EA, Stevens PF, Donoghue MJ. (2008). Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc. pp. 1–620. ISBN 978-0-878-93407-2.
  4. ^ a b Sytsma KJ, Morawetz J, Pires C, Nepokroeff M, Conti E, Zjhra M, Hall JC, Chase MW. (2002). "Urticalean rosids: Circumscription, rosid ancestry, and phylogenetics based on rbcL, trnLF, and ndhF sequences" (PDF). American Journal of Botany. 89 (89): 1531–1546. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.9.1531. PMID 21665755.
  5. ^ a b c Datwyler SL, Weiblen G. (2004). "On the origin of the fig: Phylogenetic relationships of Moraceae from ndhF sequences". American Journal of Botany. 91 (5): 767–777. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.5.767. PMID 21653431.
  6. ^ Leite VG, Mansano VF, Teixeira SP. (2018). "Floral Development of Moraceae species with emphasis on the perianth and androecium" (PDF). Flora. 240 (Flora): 116–132. doi:10.1016/j.flora.2018.01.009.
  7. ^ Khyade VB. (2016). "Mulberry Family (Moraceae) - FLowers, Fruits and Leaves". Science J Rank.
  8. ^ TWC Staff (2018). "Morus rubra (Red Mulberry)". Wildflower.org.
  9. ^ a b Clement WL, Weiblen GD. (2009). "Morphological evolution in the mulberry family (Moraceae)". Systematic Botany. 34 (3): 530–552. doi:10.1600/036364409789271155.
  10. ^ "Gondwana". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  11. ^ Zerega NJC, Clement WL, Datwyler SL, Weiblen GD." (2005). "Biogeography and Divergence times in the mulberry family (Moraceae)" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 37 (2): 402–416. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.418.1442. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.07.004. PMID 16112884.
  12. ^ Zerega NJC, Clement WL, Datwyler SL, Weiblen GD. (2005). "Biogeography and divergence times in the mulberry family (Moraceae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 37 (2): 402–416. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.418.1442. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.07.004. PMID 16112884.
  13. ^ Hepworth C. (2018). "Moraceae - The Mulberry Family". Florida Fruit Geek.

External links[edit]