Dirndl

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Woman wearing dirndl with laced waist and green apron.
Children wearing traditional dirndls at a folk festival in Vilshofen an der Donau (Bavaria), 2012
Traditional dirndls from Lienz in Tyrol (Austria), 2015

A dirndl (German: [ˈdɪʁndl̩] (About this soundlisten), is the name of a feminine dress which originated in German-speaking areas of the Alps. It is traditionally worn by women and girls in southern Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Alpine regions of Italy. A dirndl consists of a close-fitting bodice featuring a low neckline, a blouse worn under the bodice, a wide high-waisted skirt and an apron.[1][2][3]

The dirndl is regarded as a folk costume (in German Tracht). It developed as the clothing of Alpine peasants between the 16th and 18th centuries.[1][4][5] Today it is generally considered the traditional dress for women and girls in the Alps, and has particular designs associated with different regions. The usual masculine tracht counterpart of the dirndl is Lederhosen.

In the late 19th century the dirndl was adapted as a fashion style by the upper and middle classes, and subsequently spread as a fashion outside its area of origin. There are many varieties of adaptations from the original folk designs.[1] The dirndl is also worn as an ethnic costume by German diaspora populations in other countries.

Name[edit]

Dirndl is a diminutive of Dirn(e). In current German usage Dirne now mostly signifies 'prostitute', however originally the word meant only 'young woman'.[6] In Bavaria and Austria, Dirndl can mean a young woman, a girlfriend or the dress. The dress can for clarity be called Dirndlkleid (literally 'young woman's dress') or Dirndlgewand ('young woman's clothing').[7][8][4]

Dirndl is the form of the word in Standard German. In the Bavarian and Austrian dialects of German (Bairisch), the word is interchangeably Dirndl or Diandl.[8]

Speakers of German differ in the distinction they make between the dirndl and Tracht. Some speakers use the second word for a dirndl only when the design corresponds to traditional folk costume. Many other German-speakers describe the dirndl interchangeably as "Dirndl" or "Tracht", regardless of whether the design is traditional or modern.[9]

Description[edit]

Basic design[edit]

The dirndl consists of a bodice, skirt, blouse, and apron.[1][4][10][11]

The bodice (in German Mieder or Leiberl) is tight to the body, with a low neckline (décolletage). It is typically made in a single piece, with the join in the front centre, secured by lacing, buttons, a hook-and-eye closure or a zip. A zip can also be on the back or the side. Traditionally, the bodice was made from dark heavy cotton, so that it would be hard-wearing. In more modern designs, it may be made from cotton, linen, velvet or silk. The material is coloured or printed. The neckline (Ausschnitt) of the bodice is traditionally round or rectangular (called "balconette"). In more modern designs, it may alternatively be high, V-shaped, heart-shaped or extra deep. The bodice often has embroidered decoration, especially when worn for public events.[1][4][9][12]

The skirt (Rock) is full, with folds gathered in at the waist. Before the 1930s, it was separate from the bodice, but since then the two have been sewn to one another. Originally the skirt was long, but in more modern designs it is typically mid-length. Miniskirt versions also exist. Traditionally, the skirt has a pocket on the side or in front, which is hidden under the apron.[1][4][10][12]

The blouse (Bluse) accentuates the overall effect of the dirndl. A bodice with low neckline combines with a deeply cut blouse to emphasize décolletage, whereas a blouse with a high neckline creates a more understated effect. In the more traditional dirndl designs, the blouse neckline is at the base of the throat. Other popular necklines are V-shaped, balconette or heart-shaped. The blouse is cropped just above the waist and typically white. The materials most often used are cambric, linen or lace. Short puff sleeves are most typical, although narrow sleeves (short or long) are also common.[4][10][12][13]

The apron (Schürze) is attached to the skirt and is narrow, covering only the front of the skirt. Traditional apron designs vary according to local tradition and are typically only a single colour; in modern designs, the designs are more elaborate.[4][10]

The winter style dirndl has heavy, warm skirts, long sleeves and aprons made of thick cotton, linen, velvet or wool. The colours are usually brown, deep green or dark blue.[4]

Traditional dirndls[edit]

Different colour variations can depend on the origin of the woman wearing a dirndl.

Traditional dirndls vary in design between regions and even villages. The different details may indicate the place of origin and social status of the wearer.[14] As with other folk costumes, traditional dirndls often come in two forms: one for everyday occasions, the other for traditional festivals and formal wear. Dirndls worn in everyday use are rural domestic clothing, made from grey or coloured linen, sometimes with leather bodice and trim. Dirndls used on formal occasions are usually made with materials, designs, colours and embroidery specific to the region.[12][15]

Some traditional designs feature pieces which drape over the breast, often combined with an elaborate collar. This has the function of concealing décolletage, in line with traditional Catholic ideas of modesty.[15][16] [17]

Accessories[edit]

Jewellery worn with the dirndl includes necklaces, earrings, chokers and chains. Also popular are brooches made of silver, the antlers of deer or even animals' teeth.[11]

As footwear, dirndls are normally worn with court shoes (pumps) or flat, ballerina-type shoes. Knee-length socks or tights are common.[11]

Woman wearing dirndl with spring flowers

Other accessories may include a waistcoat or a woollen shawl. In many regions, especially the Ausseerland in the Austrian Salzkammergut, vibrantly coloured, hand-printed silk scarfs and silk aprons are worn. In spring, the front of the bodice is sometimes decorated with fresh flowers.[16] In colder weather, long-sleeved woollen jackets (Janker) are worn, as are knitted shawls.[11] Especially at large public events, décolletage is often enhanced with a balconette bra (dirndl-BH).[11][12][18]

In traditional customs, the dirndl is worn with a hat or bonnet, especially in church settings.[19] In some regions of southern Germany and Austria, the dirndl is traditionally worn with a style of bonnet called a goldhaube. This headgear developed in the 17th century from a veil or headscarf and was worn by middle class urban women; later the custom spread to the countryside. The goldhaube is characterized by interwoven silk and golden threads, embroidered with lamé, gold and sequins. There are many regional varieties, including the Riegelhaube in Munich, the Linzer Goldhaube in Linz and the Brettlhaube in Wachau.[20][21] In Hinterskirchen in Bavaria, unmarried women wear a small crown (kranl).[21] Garlands featuring flowers (real or imitation) are also popular as hair ornaments.[22]

Dress etiquette[edit]

Because the appeal of the dirndl is its rustic look, plastic dirndls with flashy ornaments are looked down upon.[23] Style experts recommend staying away from cheap outfits that one can buy on the street corner; it is better to spend a little more to get an outfit.[18] The dirndl should be tightly fitted to look right.[23]

It is an absolute faux-pas to wear a dirndl without a blouse.[23][18]

There is an urban legend that claims the placement of the knot on the apron is an indicator of the woman's marital status.[4] In this story, which is not based in tradition, tying the sash on the woman's left side indicates that she is single, and a knot tied on the right means that she is married, engaged or otherwise not interested in dating.[10][18][24]

Adaptations[edit]

A dirndl skirt is a full, wide skirt, gathered into folds at the waist.[2]

Dresses that are loosely based on the dirndl are known as Landhausmode (literally "country house style") dresses.

In recent decades, fashion designers have been creating their own interpretations of the dirndl. While appearing to be simple and plain, a properly made modern dirndl may be quite expensive as it is tailored, and sometimes cut from costly hand-printed or silk fabrics.[11]

History[edit]

The dirndl has passed through different periods in its history. These include (1) its origins as rural clothing, (2) development as a recognized folk costume, (3) evolution as a fashion style, (4) appropriation by the Nazis, (5) decline in popularity after the Second World War, followed by a resurgence from the 1990s. Each of these periods has left an impression on the design and perception of the dirndl.

Origins[edit]

Young woman in dirndl from Salzburg region (right) and farmer´s wife wearing goldhaube (centre), 1847

The dirndl originated as a dress worn in rural areas, a more hardy form of the costume worn today. Rural costumes originated in the countryside; they showed that the wearer belonged to a particular social class, occupation, religious persuasion or ethnic group. Differing designs developed in the different regions. They were influenced by urban fashions, costumes in neighbouring regions, available materials, as well as fashions in the royal courts and in the military.[25]

Dresses similar to the dirndl, featuring skirts with bodices, aprons and blouses were commonplace in Europe from the 16th to the 18th centuries. Similar elements are present in other German folk costumes, for instance the tracht designs found in the Black Forest; they also occur in folk costumes in other parts of Europe, such as the Norwegian women´s Bunad and the Gorenjska noša costume of Slovenia. Distinctive features of the dirndl (including the tight bodice, lower neckline and wide skirt), developed from the women´s fashions of the royal court in the 17th century; over time, the court fashions made their way into urban and rural clothing. Alpine traditional costume spread to regions in Bavaria and Austria outside the mountains through migration in search of work. As a result, the dirndl developed over time into female Austrian servants' work clothes.[15]

Painting by Hermann Volz (1814–1894), Junge Schankmagd bringt Bier an den Stammtisch (Young barmaid bringing beer to the regulars), 1872.

Distinctions developed between the everyday version of rural costumes and the version used for festive occasions; the festive version of each costume tradition was considered the ideal form.[25] Festive dirndls were especially worn at events associated with the Catholic church, such as Sunday church services and public pilgrim processions. Other popular occasions included markets and Volksfeste. Over time, festive versions of the dirndl developed elaborate decoration around the collar and breast, including embroidery, floral decorations, tassels and lace collars draped over the shoulders and breast. Elaborate headwear (such as the Goldhaube) developed to indicate distinctions in social status.[15][16]

Nevertheless, folk costume was increasingly perceived as a marker of rural and working classes. The background to this development was the French government policy from the mid-17th century onwards of promoting French luxury fashion. With the purpose of promoting conspicuous consumption, the French designs used expensive materials such as silk, lace, and gold and silver thread. French modes were promoted throughout Europe by printed media, fashion shows and diplomatic exchanges, with the consequence that by the 18th century France became the European leader of fashion amongst the upper classes. Attempts by other European governments to fight French economic dominance of the fashion industry had the effect of spreading fashion in the French style. For instance, the Austrian empress Maria Theresa considered imposing a sumptuary tax to prevent expenditure on French luxury fashions, but was persuaded to establish a homegrown fashion industry on the French model.[26]

Though the rich usually led fashion, the increasing affluence of early modern Europe led to the bourgeoisie and even peasants following trends at a distance, but still uncomfortably close for the elites.[27] By 1800, most Western Europeans were dressing alike (or thought they were); local variation became first a sign of provincial culture and later a badge of the conservative peasant.[27][28]

Thus the spread of French fashions increased the contrast between the fashionable clothes of the wealthier classes and folk costumes, which were increasingly perceived as rustic, not fit for polite society. This point is illustrated by the first Oktoberfest, held in 1810 to celebrate the wedding of Crown Prince Ludwig of Bavaria (later King Ludwig I) to Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen; the citizens of Munich were invited to the festivities but were supplied with fashionable French clothing, since their folk costumes were not considered suitable for public occasions.[29][30]

Development of the dirndl as folk costume (19th century)[edit]

Painting by Carl Spitzweg (1808–1885), Dirndl und Jäger im Gebirge (Young woman and hunter in the mountains), 1870
Painting by Hermann Kauffmann (1808–1889), Tändelndes Paar beim Buttern in der Stube (Couple courting while churning butter)

As antithesis to the dominance of French fashion, a widespread movement to study and preserve the traditional costumes of the rural populations developed in the early 19th century: examples in other European countries included the Highland romantic revival in Scotland, the Danish folklore movement and the Bunad movement in Norway. In German-speaking countries, the movement was known as the Trachtenbewegung (Tracht movement), and resulted in initiatives to study and promote folk costumes, including the dirndl. The folk costume movement is one aspect of national romanticism, and part of the more widespread Romantic movement of the early 19th century.

Art historian Gabriele Crepaldi points out the links between the ideological and political dimensions of the Romantic movement:[31]

The label romantic... (refers to) a cultural movement which spread in Great Britain, France, Italy and other European countries between the late 18th century and the first half of the 19th century. Its protagonists were philosophers, writers, musicians and painters. In Germany it was the writers and intellectuals of the Sturm and Drang movement who reacted critically against the rationalism of the Enlightenment and the doctrines of neo-Classicism. The Romantics defended the creative and spiritual autonomy of individuals and proclaimed their freedom from aesthetic norms and pretensions. Inwardness and subjective feeling found in romantic art their authentic expression... On the other side, political positions stood behind Romantic expressions: in contrast to the Enlightenment´s ideology of global citizenship, the Romantics re-discovered the idea of the homeland and the value of the folk culture. Especially in Italy and Germany, a connection can be seen to the movements for national reunification.

As Crepaldi observes, the Romantics promoted emotion against the rationalism of the Enlightenment, individual freedom against academic dictates and national against global culture. In Germany, Austria and Switzerland, the Enlightenment was especially associated with France, which had sent its armies across Europe in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars (1792–1815). In response to the humiliations of the repeated French invasions, the protagonists of German romanticism sought to strengthen their cultural heritage. The result was a flowering of research and artistic work centred around Germanic cultural traditions, expressed in painting, literature, architecture, music and promotion of German language and folklore.[32] The promotion of folk costumes similarly strengthened national identity in a visible way, especially against French-inspired fashions.

Painting by Johann Baptist Reiter (1813–1890), Frau in oberösterreichischer Tracht (Woman in folk costume from Upper Austria)

The earliest public promotion of tracht in the German-speaking world occurred in Switzerland, at the Unspunnen festivals of 1805 and 1808. At both events, a parade of traditional costumes was held; the 1808 festival resulted in the formation of the Swiss National Costume Association.

In Bavaria and Austria, the royal courts developed enthusiasm for the different costumes of the rural population,[33] which they saw as a means of strengthening national unity; this was consistent with the philosophy of national romanticism, which considers the state to derive its political legitimacy from the unity of those it governs.[34] The first extensive description of traditional tracht in the different regions was given by the Bavarian official Joseph von Hazzi (1768–1845). A comprehensive description of Bavarian national costumes was published in 1830 by the archivist Felix Joseph von Lipowsky. A parade of traditional costumes took place in 1835 at Oktoberfest, to celebrate the silver wedding anniversary of King Ludwig I of Bavaria (reigned 1825-1848) and Queen Therese. Under his successor Maximilian II (reigned 1848-1864), traditional costumes were officially recognised as clothing suitable for wearing at the royal court. The king himself included officials wearing tracht in his court ceremonies and wrote in 1849 that he considered the wearing of folk costume of "great importance" for national sentiment.[35]

In 1859, the first association to promote folk costume was founded in Miesbach in Bavaria. In the following years, similar tracht associations (Trachtenvereine) were founded throughout Germany and Austria. The tracht associations promoted research and wearing of the traditional clothing in each region. This helped preserve the traditions against modern fashions; in contrast, the wearing of the traditional tracht declined in regions where the tracht associations were not active. The first umbrella organisation for the tracht associations was founded in 1890.[9][33][35]

By the later 19th century, it had become popular for members of the royal courts in Austria and Bavaria to wear folk costume, in order to promote identification between the population and the court.[15] Among the most prominent royal patrons of folk costume were the Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph and Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria, the successor of Ludwig II; both often hunted wearing lederhosen.[33] Around 1875, Elisabeth of Bavaria, the wife of Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph, promoted wearing a rustic dress called a 'Sisi', based on the peasant dirndl.[35][10]

Evolution as a fashion style (1870s – 1930s)[edit]

Painting by Emil Rau (1858–1937), Lesendes Mädchen (Girl reading)

The wearing of folk costume by royalty encouraged its adoption by other members of the upper and wealthier middle classes. From the 1870s onwards, the dirndl developed as a typical "country" dress amongst the wealthy patrons of the summer resort towns in Austria and Bavaria. An important influence was German Romantic literature, which contrasted the allegedly natural, unspoilt and unpolluted people of the countryside with the artificiality and depravity of urban society. The adoption of the dirndl as a fashion resulted in a synthesis of tradition and high fashion: the dirndls worn by upper class women took the basic design of the traditional dirndl but also used more fashionable materials such as silk, lace and expensive thread. The garment was made more closely fitted to emphasize the female body shape.[15] The adoption of the dirndl by upper and middle classes raised the status of the traditional clothing; this in turn encouraged country people to value and continue wearing the traditional folk costumes.[9]

Key in this development were the Jewish brothers Julius (1874–1965) and Moritz Wallach (1879–1963),[36] originally from Bielefeld in north-western Germany. After they moved to Munich with their family in 1890, they became interested in and began promoting Alpine tracht. They employed seamstresses, who industriously produced the first elegant dirndls from colourful printed fabrics, predominantly silk. The dresses were exhibited by models from the firm in the Alpine resorts.[37][38][39] A major breakthrough for the Wallach brothers came in 1910, when they organized and paid for the traditional costume parade for the 100th anniversary celebrations of the Oktoberfest.[37][38][39] The Wallach brothers also became suppliers to the European aristocracy with their unique hand-sewn creations; they designed a dirndl for Princess Marie-Auguste of Anhalt, which created a sensation at a ball in Paris.[37][39]

In the hard economic times following the First World War, the dirndl became a big-seller; as a simple summer dress, it was an affordable alternative to the often expensive and elaborately worked historic women's costumes.[29] Between 1920 and 1926, the Wallach brothers operated the Münchner Volkskunsthaus ("Munich house of folk art"). In 1926, Moritz Wallach founded the Wallach-haus (Wallach House), a specialist supplier of tracht and folk art, which became well-known outside the borders of Germany.[38]

Birthday card from 1918, showing a young woman wearing a modern dirndl.

In Austria, the wearing of folk costume was promoted by Viktor von Geramb (1884–1958), professor of folk culture at the universities of Graz and Vienna. He saw folk costume as a means of rejuvenating Austrian identity after the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy during the First World War.[9] Von Geramb was critical of the tracht associations for insisting rigidly on the historic designs, which were treated as a uniform of the association. He argued that, for folk costume to be a living tradition, it needed to express the individuality of the wearer; thus designs and materials needed to be adapted to contemporary culture and technology.[40] Accordingly, he worked with commercial firms on finding material and designs that would allow the production of folk costume in large quantities. Consequently, Alpine tracht gained in general popularity and even spread to eastern Austria, where it had not been part of the traditional clothing culture. The dirndl was increasingly perceived as the Austrian national dress.[9][41]

In 1930, the Wallach brothers supplied the stage costumes for the operetta The White Horse Inn (Im weißen Rössl). The romantic comedy presented an idyllic picture of the Austrian Alps and had long runs in cities like Berlin, Vienna, Munich, London, Paris and New York. Inspired by the lively innkeeper heroine, the dirndl became an international fashion phenomenon, always with an apron and usually with deep décolletage.[4][37][39][42] This widespread adoption was helped along by a general 1930s trend to a silhouette which matched the folk costume: full skirts, higher hemlines, broader shoulders and tailored waists.[43][23]

The dirndl was also promoted through the Trapp Family Singers, who wore dirndls during their performance at the Salzburg Festival (1936), and later on their worldwide tours.[44] In addition, the film Heidi, with Shirley Temple in the lead role, became a hit in 1937. By that year, the dirndl was considered a 'must' in the wardrobe of every fashionable American woman.[43][23]

Appropriation by the Nazis (1930s – 1945)[edit]

A young German girl in dirndl watching boys playing. (Propaganda photo from the Office of Racial Politics of the Nazi Party, 1933)

German traditional costume, including the dirndl, was instrumentalized by the Nazis as a symbol of pan-German identity in the countries under Nazi rule (Germany from 1933, Austria from 1938).[9] The dirndl was used to promote the Nazi ideal of the German woman as hard-working and fertile.[45][23] An example is a propaganda photo released by the (Nazi Party) Office of Racial Politics (right), showing a young blonde girl wearing a dirndl, watching over small boys playing.

Jews were forbidden to use "folk culture", even though they had played such a prominent role in documenting and promoting it.[46][47] In 1938, the Wallach brothers were forced to sell their business under cost. Moritz Wallach emigrated to the United States, followed shortly after by Julius. Their brother Max, who had also been involved in the business, was interned in Dachau concentration camp and was murdered at Auschwitz in 1944.[37][38][39][48]

Viktor von Geramb, who had promoted the dirndl in Austria, lost his position at the University of Vienna in 1938 because of his public opposition to Nazi racial theory. He was especially criticized for his strong attachment to Christian ideas of human worth. He was restored to his position at the university only after the defeat of the Nazi régime in 1945.[41][49]

The National Socialist Women's League established the office of the "Reich Commissioner for German costume" under the leadership of Gertrud Pesendorfer (1895–1982).[50][51][52] In 1938, she published dirndl designs by Gretel Karasek (1910–1992), which Pesendorfer described as "renewed costume".[53] Pesendorfer claimed that Karasek made the following innovations from traditional designs: the collar was removed, allowing display of décolletage; long sleeves were replaced by puff sleeves; the waist was emphasised with tighter lacing and buttons; and the skirt was reduced to mid length. The overall effect accentuated the female form and especially the breasts.[51][54][50] Pesendorfer described the new style as "de-catholicised" (entkatholisiert); she said her goal was to free the costume of "overburdening by church, industrialization and fashionable cries" and "foreign influences" and to let the "rogue sub-culture" back again.[51][52][54] However, Pesendorfer´s claims are open to skepticism, since all the innovations allegedly made by Karasek were already present in the previous decades during which the dirndl evolved as a fashion.

Decline and resurgence (1945 – present)[edit]

Seated women wearing dirndls from the 1970s. (Photograph by Florian Schott)

The Second World War (1939–1945) began a downturn in the popularity of the dirndl. After Hitler’s invasion of Poland in 1939, American and British consumers began rejecting all things German. In turn, new fashion influences appeared in popular culture, such as the film Gone With the Wind, which premiered less than three months after the fall of Warsaw. By 1941, the dirndl had been replaced as an American fashion craze by the wasp waist.[23]

In Germany and Austria, the dirndl declined in popularity, especially in the cities.[23][55] Its image had been tarred by association with the Nazis, like other Germanic traditions, such as beer-drinking and sausages.[56] Traditional clothing was often associated with conservative political views. As a consequence, the dress was regarded as old-fashioned or rustic by many, especially those connected with the fashion industry. [55][24][9][47]

German opera singer Ingeborg Hallstein wearing a dirndl at an official reception, 1966.

Nevertheless, many others continued to wear the dirndl as a dress for festive occasions, both in the countryside and in cities such as Munich. Dirndls were regarded as suitable clothing for attending church, public holidays, Oktoberfest and other festive occasions. The dirndl was especially popular in Bavaria as a bridal dress.[57]

A wider revival of interest came with the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich. Led by Silvia Sommerlath (now Queen Silvia of Sweden), the hostesses wore sky-blue dirndls as a promotion of Bavarian identity.[24][58][23] Culture historian Simone Egger comments, "As (Sommerlath) in 1972 made headlines as an Olympia hostess in a dirndl, then every woman wanted to have a dirndl."[29][30]

In the 1980s, there was a further revival of interest in the dirndl, as traditional clothing was adopted by the environmental and anti-nuclear movements.[30] The rural connotations of the clothing and the fact that it is produced from natural, rather than synthetic materials, go well with a desire to return to a "world that is intact".[24][9][47]

Dirndl fashion show, 2013.

Beginning in the late 1990s, dirndls and lederhosen experienced a boom in Austria and Bavaria, with some commentators speaking of a "dirndl Renaissance".[23][47][55][24][59] By 2013, it had become standard for every young Bavarian to have traditional clothing in their wardrobe.[24][59] This increased interest in traditional clothing was noticed by fashion houses. Since the 2000s, increasing numbers of fashion houses have become involved in designing and selling high-end versions.[55][24][60] The garment was famously praised in 2001 by designer Vivienne Westwood; when some Austrian women criticized the garment as old-fashioned, she responded, "I do not understand you Austrians. If every woman wore a dirndl, there would not be any more ugliness".[47][9]

Beer waitress wearing a dirndl at Oktoberfest.

Dirndls and lederhosen have long been standard attire for staff at Volksfeste, but in the 1970s visitors at the festivals did not normally wear folk costume, even at Oktoberfest. Simone Egger comments that the idea of wearing folk costume to Oktoberfest would previously have been considered "completely absurd, even embarrassing." Now the idea of wearing jeans to a Volksfest is unthinkable: folk costume is considered obligatory.[29][30]

One reason given for the increasing popularity of the dirndl and lederhosen is an increased confidence in German self-identity. In the years following the Second World War, there was often a shame in German identity because of the crimes of the Nazi régime. In recent decades, there has been a celebration of being German.[9][55][24][23] This "new patriotism" was evident in the support for the German football team at the 2006 FIFA World Cup.[61] According to journalist Michaela Strassmair, "As the international media arrived in Munich for the World Cup, they all wanted to see the same picture and share it with the world: pretty girls in Munich wearing dirndls."[30]

The culture historian Peter Peter comments on this increased pride in German identity and traditions:[62]

Now there is a new generation that did not know the problems of the Cold War or the Second World War, for whom it is cool to try these old-fashioned things. It´s avant-garde in a certain way to rediscover that even sauerkraut can be an excellent dish. I think a very good symbol of this new Germany is the Oktoberfest. Twenty years ago nobody there would dress in the traditional Bavarian costume. Now everybody does it and it doesn´t seem either nationalistic or jingoistic. The Oktoberfest, with its enormous number of beer consumers, is a wonderful example of the new Germany that combines iconic tradition with open-mindedness. It brings people and peoples together more even than football. It is not nationalist – it is now a symbol of German hospitality.

Visitors to Oktoberfest wearing dirndls, 2012.

Other commentators link the upsurge in folk costume to economic insecurity caused by globalization, prompting a return to traditional cultural symbols.[59] Simone Egger suggests the popularity of the dirndl reflects a psychological need for stability in an increasingly global world: “The dress is the perfect homeland costume, onto which one can project every longing.”[29][23] Culture journalist Alfons Kaiser makes similar comments about the renewed popularity of traditional clothing:[63]

Just as jeans, originally rural clothing, were used as an urban antidote to tradition, so dirndl and lederhosen show that, a generation later, people in their metaphysical homelessness are nevertheless in a complex way missing the traditional rural values. When one puts an item with traditional meaning on one´s body, naturally one transfigures and romanticizes life on the land, actually so difficult and often brutal. All this is typical of our time. From yoghurt to magazines with rural themes, one abandons oneself to the illusion of the good old times, in which the windowpanes can still keep out the cold wind of globalization.“

The dirndl is increasingly attracting attention apart from its area of origin. In 2019, the Times of India ran an article featuring Bollywood actress Celine Jaitley wearing a dirndl; she urged other Indian women to add the dress to their wardrobe.[64]

Recent customs by country[edit]

Austria[edit]

In Austria, dirndls continue to be worn on public occasions, even by younger women. The dirndl is considered an important part of Alpine folk culture. Other aspects of folk culture are Lederhosen for men, traditional sports (e.g. shooting, music, crossbow), skills (e.g. embroidery) and musical traditions (e.g. singing Christmas carols and Schuhplattler dance groups).[65] The folk culture is promoted by and protected by local folk culture associations, which are affiliated with the Bund der Österreichischen Trachten- und Heimatverbände (Federation of Austrian folk costume and homeland associations).[66]

The Catholic church has played an important role in promoting the dirndl in Austria; traditional dress is worn for worship services, especially the major church holidays (e.g. Easter, Pentecost, Corpus Christi) and saints´ feast days. The Tyrol has a tradition of the heiligen Tracht (holy folk costume), which is not to be worn on secular occasions marked by drinking.[9]

Traditional costume of the Volks- and Schuhplattlergruppe from Faakersee in Carinthia, Austria.

Folk costume also continues to be worn for most weddings and festivals. Old traditions are carefully maintained among inhabitants of Alpine areas, even though this is seldom obvious to the visitor: many people are members of cultural associations where the Alpine folk culture is cultivated. At cultural events, the traditional dirndl is the expected dress for women. Visitors can get a glimpse of the rich customs of the Alps at public Volksfeste. Even when large events feature only a little folk culture, all participants take part with gusto. Good opportunities to see local people celebrating the traditional culture occur at the many fairs, wine festivals and firefighting festivals which fill weekends in the Austrian countryside from spring to autumn. Only in the region surrounding Vienna is the traditional folk culture not a regular part of daily life.[65]

Some regions are particularly known for their strong dirndl traditions, such as the Tyrol, the Salzkammergut and the Wachau region of Lower Austria.[14][9]

In Austria, the dirndl is a symbol of national identity, seen in Austria as a national symbol.[67] In tourist settings, staff in offices, restaurants, wineries and shops often wear dirndls as a work uniform; this is also the case in the non-Alpine regions in the east of Austria.[9] Even in everyday life, many Austrian women wear dirndls as an alternative to other fashions.[9][10]

Festivals at which dirndls are expected dress include festivities for raising the Maypole on the 1st May, the Narzissenfest (daffodil festival) during May in Bad Aussee,[68] the Salzburg Festival and the Ausseer Kirtag in September.[10] Styles are both less extravagant and show less décolletage than at Oktoberfest.[9]

In Austria, and other parts of south central Europe, there are literally splashy events known as Dirndlspringen, in which attractive young women, are judged by how well they dive from a diving board into a lake or a swimming pool while wearing the dirndl, using it as a swimdress.[10]

Germany[edit]

Woman wearing dirndl in the style of Isarwinkler Tracht, near Bad Tölz (Bavaria). (Photograph by Florian Schott)
Women in festival dirndls (Wiesentrachten) at Oktoberfest.

In Germany, the dirndl is traditionally worn only in Bavaria, where it is deeply integrated in the traditional culture.[9] For instance, dirndls are traditionally worn by women attending formal ceremonies of the Catholic church. In many Bavarian villages, processions to honour St George and St Leonard are special occasions for wearing Alpine tracht.[69] The traditional dirndl is also the normal attire of women attending events associated with Alpine folk culture.[9] Volksfeste often feature events at which traditional dirndls from regions are worn, as illustrated in the photo on the right. In all of these activities, the dirndls normally worn are the traditional local designs, considered most suitable for formal occasions. Modern commercially designed dirndls are worn on less formal occasions.

The traditional designs are promoted by and protected by local folk culture associations affiliated with the Bayerische Trachtenverband (Bavarian folk costume association). The designs specify the traditional materials, patterns and colours of clothing, together with jewellery, hats, etc. Currently, six official types of Alpine tracht are recognized in Bavaria, each with designs for men (lederhosen) and women (dirndl): Miesbacher Tracht, Werdenfelser Tracht, Inntaler Tracht, Chiemgauer Tracht, Berchtesgadener Tracht and Isarwinkler Tracht.[70][71][72]

The dirndl is regarded as a symbol of Bavaria. It is often worn by women working in businesses related to tourism or traditional culture, including Volksmusik, restaurants and beer gardens.[11]

In recent decades, women from other parts of Germany have shown increasing interest in the dirndl as a festival dress. This is especially evident in changing fashions at Oktoberfest, the world´s largest Volksfest. Until the 1970s, most visitors to Oktoberfest did not wear traditional tracht; it was common to wear jeans. Since the late 1990s dirndls and Lederhosen have come to be regarded as obligatory wear at the festival.[29][23][62][24][30][18] The name Wiesentracht is given to Oktoberfest dirndls, referring to the Theresienwiese, where the Oktoberfest events occur. Oktoberfest dirndls tend to be more colourful and revealing. Skirts are often above the knee, and deep décolletage is almost universal.[9][18]

There is increasing evidence that Germans are coming to view the dirndl as a German, rather than an exclusively Bavarian symbol. In the past few years, "Oktoberfest" celebrations have developed in parts of Germany remote from Bavaria, such as Münster in Westphalia. Dirndls and lederhosen are now considered an intrinsic part of such events.[73] Other evidence is the successful marketing of dirndls in the German national colours for wearing at football matches, noticeable at the 2006 FIFA World Cup.[30] Meanwhile, high-end German fashion houses are designing and selling their own designs.[23][60]

Italy[edit]

Young woman wearing traditional dirndl during sacramental procession, Seis am Schlern, South Tyrol, 2014. (Photograph by Marco Delnoij)

In Italy the dirndl is part of the traditional clothing culture in the Alpine province of South Tyrol (German: Südtirol; Italian: Alto Adige). The region was part of the Austrian county of Tyrol before the First World War, but was ceded to Italy in 1919 in the Treaty of St-Germain at the end of the war. In South Tyrol, both German and Italian are official languages, and Tyrolean traditions including the dirndl remain deeply integrated in the culture.[74] The dress is worn on festive occasions, such as processions of the Catholic church. Traditional designs vary between regions, valleys and sometimes villages.[75]

Switzerland[edit]

In Switzerland, the dirndl is the official outfit for certain representations, events, cultural shows and singing old folk songs often involving yodeling.[76]

United States[edit]

Germans, Austrian, Swiss and Scandinavian people migrated to North America in the 19th century. Germans made a strong contribution to the gene pool of Montana, Minnesota, the Dakotas, Missouri, Wisconsin, New York City[77] and Chicago. The German American ethnic group (German: Deutschamerikaner) are their descendants in North America, and form part of the worldwide German diaspora.[78][79] Beginning in 1920 and especially after World War II, many Danube Swabians migrated to the United States, Brazil, Canada, Mexico, Austria, Australia, and Argentina.[80]

Across the United States there are dozens of German-American cultural or heritage clubs, such as the Donauschwaben heritage clubs.[77] In these clubs, members host events and festivals to preserve and/or celebrate their heritage with the surrounding communities. During these festivals, participants often dress in traditional outfits such as dirndls and lederhosen.

Dirndls in popular culture[edit]

Musical mentions of dirndls[edit]

The dirndl is mentioned in the song "Turn Around", composed in 1959 by Harry Belafonte, Alan Greene and Malvina Reynolds. "Dirndls and petticoats, where have you gone?" This song was originally recorded by the Kingston Trio.

Films featuring women in dirndl costumes[edit]

The dirndl in philately[edit]

The Austrian postal service regularly issues postage stamps featuring dirndls and other Austrian folk costumes. The stamp series is released under the title Klassische Trachten (classic folk costumes). In April 2020, the 85 cent stamp featured the blue printed dirndl worn as everyday workwear in the Wachauer Tracht tradition.[81] In 2016, the postal office issued a novelty stamp featuring an embroidered dirndl; only 140,000 specimens were issued.[82]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Bibliography[edit]

  • Egger, Simone: Phänomen Wiesntracht. Identitätspraxen einer urbanen Gesellschaft. Dirndl und Lederhosen, München und das Oktoberfest (= Münchner ethnographische Schriften. 2). Herbert Utz, Munich 2008. ISBN 978-3-8316-0831-7
  • Greger, Michael J. and Johann Verhovsek: Viktor Geramb 1884–1958. Leben und Werk. Verlag des Vereins für Volkskunde, Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-900358-27-3. (in German)
  • Guenther, Irene: Nazi chic?: Fashioning women in the Third Reich. Berg, Oxford 2010. ISBN 978-1-8597-3400-1 (in English)
  • Hollmer, Heide and Kathrin Hollmer: Dirndl. Trends, Traditionen, Philosophie, Pop, Stil, Styling. Edition Ebersbach, Berlin 2011. ISBN 978-3-86915-043-7 (in German)
  • Lipp, Franz C., Elisabeth Längle, Gexi Tostmann, Franz Hubmann (eds.): Tracht in Österreich. Geschichte und Gegenwart. Brandstätter, Vienna, 1984, ISBN 3-85447-028-2. (in German)
  • Müller, Daniela and Susanne Trettenbrein: Alles Dirndl. Anton Pustet Verlag, Salzburg 2013. ISBN 978-3-7025-0693-3. (in German)
  • Pesendorfer, Gertrud: Neue deutsche Bauerntrachten. Tirol. Callwey, Munich, 1938. (in German)
  • Radakovich, Uta: Trachten in Südtirol, Reverdito, 2009, ISBN 978-8863140361. (in German)
  • Reuter, Ulrich: Kleidung zwischen Tracht + Mode. Aus der Geschichte des Museums 1889–1989. Museum für Volkskunde, Berlin, 1989. (in German)
  • Ständecke, Monika: Dirndl, Truhen, Edelweiss: die Volkskunst der Brüder Wallach / Dirndls, Trunks, and Edelweiss. The Folk Art of the Wallach Brothers. Jüdisches Museum, Munich 2007. ISBN 978-3-9388-3220-2 (in German, with English translation)
  • Tostmann, Gexi: The dirndl: With instructions. Panorama, Vienna 1990. ISBN 978-3-8505-7001-5 (in English)
  • Tostmann, Gexi: Das alpenländische Dirndl. Tradition und Mode. Christian Brandstätter, Vienna, 1998. ISBN 978-3-8544-7781-5 (in German)
  • Wallnöfer, Elsbeth: Geraubte Tradition. Wie die Nazis unsere Kultur verfälschten. Sankt Ulrich-Verlag, Augsburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-8674-4194-0. (in German)
  • Weber, Christianne and Renate Moller. Mode und Modeschmuck 1920–1970 / Fashion and Jewelry 1920–1970. Arnoldsche Verlagsanstalt, 1999. ISBN 978-3-9253-6923-0. (in German, with English translation)

External links[edit]


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