Electoral history of the Libertarian Party (United States)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a list detailing the electoral history of the Libertarian Party in the United States, sorted by office. The list currently consists of candidates who ran for partisan office.

Legend[edit]

Abbreviations and their definitions
Abbrev. Definition
SE Special election, or an election held to fill a political office that has become vacant between regularly scheduled elections.
BP Blanket primary, or a primary where all candidates from all parties are on the same ballot, and those candidates that net
the highest number of votes among those candidates of their own party advance to the general election.
RE Recall election, a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct vote before his
or her term has ended.
W/I Write-in candidate, with the abbreviation marked next to the vote total. These candidates did not appear upon the election
ballot but were still eligible to receive votes by voters writing in the candidate's name.
(*) The candidate, while a member of the party, was for some reason or another not able to get onto the ballot as a Libertarian.

Elections of party officers[edit]

National committee chairman and vice-chairman[edit]

2008 National Committee Chairman balloting 2008 National Committee Vice-Chairman balloting[1]
Candidates 1st 2nd Candidates 1st
Bill Redpath 183 204 Mike Jingozian 224
Ruth Bennett 113 147 Chuck Moulton 137
Ernest Hancock 71 - None 6
None 2 4
JR Enfield - 1
Vote total 369 356 Vote totals 367
Needed to nominate 185 178 Needed to nominate 184
2010 National Committee Chairman balloting 2010 National Committee Vice-Chairman balloting[2]
Candidates 1st 2nd 3rd Candidates 1st
Mark Hinkle 114 208 281 Mark Rutherford 285
Wayne Allyn Root 201 223 228 Carolyn Marbry 201
Ernest Hancock 82 89 -
John Jay Myers 70 - -
George Phillies 56 - -
None 10 9 19
Vote total 533 529 528 Vote totals 490
Needed to nominate 267 265 265 Needed to nominate 246
2012 National Committee Chairman balloting 2012 National Committee Vice-Chairman balloting[3]
Candidates 1st 2nd 2nd
Adjusted
2nd
Revote
3rd 4th 5th 6th Candidates 1st
Geoff Neale - - - - 149 167 212 264 R. Lee Wrights 228
Mark Rutherford 228 269 270 278 153 155 205 5 Bill Redpath 179
None 101 273 266 277 13 12 29 159 George Phillies 20
Mark Hinkle 221 - - - - - - - None 6
Bill Redpath 1 - - - 128 119 - - Mark Rutherford 1
Jennifer Lopez - - - - - 2 2 -
Emma Dearest - - - - - 2 - -
Sam Sloan - - - 1 - - - -
Total vote 551 542 536 556 473 457 448 428 Total vote 434
Needed to nominate 276 272 269 278 237 229 225 215 Needed to nominate 218

Other 2012 Chairman candidates were:

  • R. Lee Wrights (withdrew his name from consideration)
  • Chuck Moulton (declined to be nominated)
  • Wes Wagner (declined to be nominated)
  • Jim Lark (declined to be nominated)
  • Ernie Hancock (didn't receive votes)

Other 2012 Vice-Chairman candidates were:

  • Mark Rutherford (declined to be nominated)
  • Mark Hinkle (declined to be nominated)

Federal elections[edit]

President[edit]

Year Presidential nominee Home state Previous positions Vice presidential nominee Home state Previous positions Votes Notes
1972 John Hospers 1998.jpg
John Hospers
 California Philosopher TonieNathan1993-LPConvention.jpg
Tonie Nathan
 Oregon Radio producer 3,674 (<0.1%)
1 EV
[4]
1976 Roger MacBride.jpg
Roger MacBride
 Virginia Member of the Vermont House of Representatives
(1963–1965)
Candidate for Governor of Vermont
(1964)
David Bergland.jpg
David Bergland
 California Nominee for Attorney General of California
(1974)
172,553 (0.2%)
0 EV
1980 Ed Clark.jpg
Ed Clark
 California Candidate for Governor of California
(1978)
David Koch 1980.jpg
David Koch
 New York Businessman 921,128 (1.1%)
0 EV
1984 David Bergland.jpg
David Bergland
 California Nominee for Vice President of the United States
(1976)
Chair of the Libertarian National Committee
(1977–1981)
Nominee for California's 38th State Senate district
(1978)
Nominee for United States Senator from California
(1980)
Jim Lewis.jpg
James A. Lewis
 Connecticut Member of the Libertarian National Committee
(1981–1983)
Nominee for United States Senator from Connecticut
(1982)
228,111 (0.2%)
0 EV
1988 Ron paul.jpg
Ron Paul
(campaign)
 Texas Member of the United States House of Representatives from Texas's 22nd district
(1976–1977; 1979–1985)
Candidate for United States Senator from Texas
(1984)
Andre Marrou.jpg
Andre Marrou
 Alaska Member of the Alaska House of Representatives
(1985–1987)
431,750 (0.5%)
0 EV
1992 Andre Marrou.jpg
Andre Marrou
 Alaska Member of the Alaska House of Representatives
(1985–1987)
Nominee for Vice President of the United States
(1988)
Nancy Lord  Nevada Nominee for Mayor of the District of Columbia
(1990)
290,087 (0.3%)
0 EV
1996 HarryBrowneLPCon1998 (cropped3).jpg
Harry Browne
 Tennessee Writer Jo Jorgensen portrait 1 (crop 1).jpg
Jo Jorgensen
 South Carolina Academic
Nominee for South Carolina's 4th congressional district
(1992)
485,759 (0.5%)
0 EV
2000 HarryBrowneLPCon1998 (cropped3).jpg
Harry Browne
(campaign)
 Tennessee Nominee for President of the United States
(1996)
Art Olivier (105415391) (cropped).jpg
Art Olivier
 California Nominee for California's 54th State Assembly district
(1990)
Member of the Bellflower City Council
(1994–1999)
Mayor of Bellflower
(1998–1999)
384,431 (0.4%)
0 EV
[5]
2004 SI-MichaelBadnarik1.JPG
Michael Badnarik
(campaign)
 Texas Nominee for Texas's 47th State House of Representatives district
(2000)
Nominee for Texas's 48th State House district
(2002)
Richard Campagna Kareokee (cropped).png
Richard Campagna
 Iowa Nominee for Lieutenant Governor of Iowa
(2002)
397,265 (0.3%)
0 EV
2008 Bob Barr-2008 cropped.jpg
Bob Barr
(campaign)
 Georgia United States Attorney for the Northern District of Georgia
(1986–1990)
Member of the United States House of Representatives from Georgia's 7th district
(1995–2003)
WayneAllynRoot Head.jpg
Wayne Allyn Root
 Nevada Radio host
Candidate for the 8th district of the Westchester County Board of Legislators
(1983)
523,713 (0.4%)
0 EV
2012 Gary Johnson black background.jpg
Gary Johnson
(campaign)
 New Mexico Governor of New Mexico
(1995–2003)
Jim Gray (cropped2).jpg
Jim Gray
 California Nominee for United States Senator from California
(2004)
Member of the Libertarian Party Judicial Committee
(2010–2012)
1,275,923 (1.0%)
0 EV
2016 Gary Johnson black background.jpg
Gary Johnson
(campaign)
 New Mexico Governor of New Mexico
(1995–2003)
Nominee for President of the United States
(2012)
Bill Weld campaign portrait.jpg
Bill Weld
 New York United States Attorney for the District of Massachusetts
(1981–1986)
United States Assistant Attorney General for the Criminal Division
(1986–1988)
Governor of Massachusetts
(1991–1997)
Republican nominee for United States Senator from Massachusetts
(1996)
Candidate for Governor of New York
(2006)
4,489,233 (3.3%)
0 EV
1 EV for Ron Paul[a]
[7]
2020 Jo Jorgensen portrait 3 (cropped).jpg
Jo Jorgensen
(campaign)
 South Carolina Academic
Nominee for Vice President of the United States
(1996)
Spike Cohen portrait 1 (crop 1).jpg
Spike Cohen
 South Carolina Podcaster and businessman ≥1,856,388 [8]

Presidential ballot access[edit]

  1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 2016[9][10] 2020[11]
States 2 32 (and DC) 50 (and DC) 38 (and DC) 46 (and DC) 50 (and DC) 50 (and DC) 50 (and DC) 48 (and DC) 45 48 (and DC) 50 (and DC) 50 (and DC)
Electoral votes 16 341 538 403 496 538 538 538 527 503 514 538 538
% of population (EVs) - - 100%
(100%)
- - 100%
(100%)
100%
(100%)
100%
(100%)
- 95%
(93%)
95%
(96%)
100%
(100%)
100%
(100%)
Alabama Not on ballot On ballot
Alaska Not on ballot On ballot
Arizona Not on ballot On ballot
Arkansas Not on ballot On ballot
California (Write-in) On ballot
Colorado On ballot
Connecticut Not on ballot On ballot Not on ballot On ballot Not on ballot On ballot
Delaware Not on ballot On ballot
Florida Not on ballot (Write-in) On ballot (Write-in) On ballot
Georgia Not on ballot (Write-in) On ballot (Write-in) On ballot
Hawaii Not on ballot On ballot
Idaho Not on ballot On ballot
Illinois Not on ballot On ballot
Indiana Not on ballot On ballot Not on ballot On ballot
Iowa Not on ballot On ballot
Kansas Not on ballot On ballot
Kentucky Not on ballot On ballot Not on ballot On ballot
Louisiana Not on ballot On ballot Not on ballot On ballot
Maine (Write-in) On ballot Not on ballot On ballot (Write-in) On ballot
Maryland Not on ballot On ballot
Massachusetts (Write-in) On ballot Not on ballot On ballot
Michigan Not on ballot On ballot (Write-in) On ballot
Minnesota Not on ballot On ballot
Mississippi Not on ballot On ballot
Missouri Not on ballot On ballot Not on ballot (Write-in) On ballot
Montana Not on ballot On ballot
Nebraska Not on ballot On ballot
Nevada Not on ballot On ballot
New Hampshire Not on ballot On ballot (Write-in) On ballot
New Jersey Not on ballot On ballot
New Mexico Not on ballot On ballot
New York Not on ballot On ballot
North Carolina Not on ballot On ballot (Write-in) On ballot
North Dakota Not on ballot On ballot
Ohio Not on ballot On ballot
Oklahoma Not on ballot On ballot Not on ballot On ballot
Oregon Not on ballot On ballot Not on ballot On ballot
Pennsylvania Not on ballot On ballot
Rhode Island (Write-in) On ballot
South Carolina Not on ballot On ballot
South Dakota Not on ballot On ballot Not on ballot On ballot
Tennessee Not on ballot On ballot
Texas Not on ballot (Write-in) On ballot Not on ballot On ballot
Utah Not on ballot On ballot
Vermont Not on ballot (Write-in) On ballot
Virginia Not on ballot On ballot Not on ballot On ballot
Washington On ballot
West Virginia Not on ballot On ballot Not on ballot On ballot Not on ballot On ballot
Wisconsin Not on ballot On ballot
Wyoming Not on ballot (Write-in) On ballot
District of Columbia Not on ballot On ballot Not on ballot On ballot

Presidential and vice presidential nominations[edit]

Candidates seeking to win the Libertarian Party nominations either for president or vice president must gather thirty "tokens", or supporting delegates, and their votes in order to be put onto the actual nominating ballot. However, that still does not prevent write-in votes when the balloting is being held.

1996[edit]
1996 Libertarian presidential nomination vote 1996 Libertarian vice presidential nomination vote[12]
Candidates 1st ballot Candidates 1st ballot
Harry Browne 416 Jo Jorgensen 459
Rick Tompkins 74 None 36
None 60
Irwin Schiff 32
Doug Ohmen 20
Scatter 3
Total vote 605 Total vote 495
Needed to nominate 303 Needed to nominate 248

Note: Jo Jorgensen was nominated by a voice vote.

2000[edit]
2000 Libertarian presidential nomination vote 2000 Libertarian vice presidential nomination vote [13]
Candidates 1st ballot Candidates 1st ballot 2nd ballot
Harry Browne 493 Art Olivier 333 418
Don Gorman 166 Steve Kubby 303 338
Jacob G. Hornberger 120 Ken Krawchuk 70 -
Barry Hess 53 Don Gorman 29 -
None 23 None 10 -
Dave Hollist 8 Gail Lightfoot 7 -
Scatter 6 Scatter 7 -
L. Neil Smith 5
Richard B. Boddie 2
George W. Bush 1
Russell Means 1
Total vote 877 Total vote 759 756
Needed to nominate 439 Needed to nominate 380 379
2004[edit]
2004 Libertarian presidential nomination vote 2004 Libertarian vice presidential nomination vote[14]
Candidates Token count 1st ballot 2nd ballot 3rd ballot Candidates Token count 1st ballot
Michael Badnarik 89 256 249 423 Richard Campagna 40 353
Aaron Russo 63 258 285 344 Tamara Millay 40 220
Gary Nolan 107 246 244 - Garrett Hayes 40 36
None - 10 5 11 None - 10
Jeffrey Diket 72 4 - - Scott Jameson 39 7
Drew Carey - 3 - -
Dave Hollist 39 1 - -
Jim Burns 72 - - -
Total vote 513 778 783 778 Total vote 159 626
Needed to nominate 30 390 392 390 Needed to nominate 30 314

Note: Jim Burns withdrew himself from consideration four hours before the balloting for the presidential nomination began.

Detailed map on the 1st ballot for the 2004 presidential nomination by individual state delegations
Detailed map on the 2nd ballot for the 2004 presidential nomination by individual state delegations
Detailed map on the 3rd and final ballot for the 2004 presidential nomination by individual state delegations
Detailed map on the 1st and only ballot for the 2004 vice presidential nomination by individual state delegations





































2008[edit]
2008 Libertarian presidential nomination vote 2008 Libertarian vice presidential nomination vote[1]
Candidates Token count 1st ballot 2nd ballot 3rd ballot 4th ballot 5th ballot 6th Ballot Candidates 1st ballot 2nd ballot
Bob Barr 94 153 188 186 202 229 324 Wayne Allyn Root 276 289
Mary Ruwart 94 152 162 186 202 223 276 Steve Kubby 209 259
Wayne Allyn Root 94 123 138 146 149 165 - Dan Williams 40 10
Mike Gravel 67 71 73 78 76 - - Jim Burns 20 -
George Phillies 62 49 36 31 - - - Gail Lightfoot 15 -
Steve Kubby 60 41 32 - - - - Leonard Schwartz 1 -
Michael Jingozian 63 23 1 - - - - None 2 6
Christine Smith 36 6 - - - - - Mary Ruwart 1 1
None - 2 1 2 3 6 26 Mike Ferguson 1 1
Ron Paul - 6 3 1 - - 1 Richard - 1
Penn Jillette - 3 - - - - -
William Koehler - 1 - - - - -
Daniel Imperato - 1 - - - - -
Jesse Ventura - - 1 - - - -
Stephen Kolbert - - 1 - - - -
Ralph Nader - - - - - - 1
Total vote ? 631 636 630 632 623 628 Total vote 565 567
Needed to nominate 30 316 319 316 317 312 315 Needed to nominate 283 284
Detailed map on the 1st ballot for the 2008 presidential nomination by individual state delegations
Detailed map on the 2nd ballot for the 2008 presidential nomination by individual state delegations
Detailed map on the 3rd ballot for the 2008 presidential nomination by individual state delegations
Detailed map on the 4th ballot for the 2008 presidential nomination by individual state delegations
Detailed map on the 5th ballot for the 2008 presidential nomination by individual state delegations
Detailed map on the 6th and final ballot for the 2008 presidential nomination by individual state delegations
Detailed map on the 1st ballot for the 2008 vice presidential nomination by individual state delegations
Detailed map on the 2nd and final ballot for the 2008 vice presidential nomination by individual state delegations







































































2012[edit]
2012 Libertarian presidential nomination vote 2012 Libertarian vice presidential nomination vote[3]
Candidates Token count 1st ballot Candidates Token count 1st ballot
Gary Johnson 264 419 Jim Gray 242 357
R. Lee Wrights 127 152 R. Lee Wrights 120 229
Jim Burns 35 12 None - 7
Carl Person 31 3 Jim Burns 31 6
Sam Sloan 12 2 Sam Sloan 10 1
Max Abramson - 2 Gary Johnson 6 -
Ron Paul 1 1 Carl Person 3 -
Wayne Allyn Root - 1 Pat Dixon 2 -
Rita Nunez Neumann 4 - Rita Nunez Neumann 2 -
James Ogle 2 - James Ogle 2 -
Jim Duensing 1 - Wayne Allyn Root 2 -
Roger Gary 1 - Roger Gary 1 -
James P. Gray 1 - Lenore Hawkins 1 -
Lori Sunthonchart 1 - Jim Jones 1 -
Joy Waymire 1 - Steve Mankowski 1 -
John Monds 1 -
Bill Redpath 1 -
Joy Waymire 1 -
Total vote 481 595 Total vote 427 600
Needed to nominate 30 298 Needed to nominate 30 301
Detailed map on the 2012 vote for the presidential nomination by individual state delegations
Detailed map on the 2012 vote for the vice presidential nomination by individual state delegations



















2016[edit]
2016 Libertarian presidential nomination vote 2016 Libertarian vice presidential nomination vote[15]
Candidates Token count 1st ballot Candidates Token count 1st ballot
Gary Johnson 458 518 Bill Weld 426 441
Austin Petersen 197 203 Larry Sharpe 264 409
John McAfee 131 131 None 6 12
Darryl Perry 63 52 Derrick Grayson 48 9
Marc A. Feldman 58 18 Mary Ruwart 1
None 5 2 Alicia Dearn 29
Kevin McCormick 9 1 Daniel Hogan 1
Derrick Grayson 1 1 Austin Petersen 1
Michael Shannon 1 Gary Johnson 1
Rhett Smith 1
Ron Paul 1
Vermin Supreme 1
Heidi Zemen 1
Total Vote 925 928 Total Vote 869 872
Needed to Nominate 30 465 Needed to Nominate 30 437
Map of the 2016 vote for the presidential nomination. First place by delegate votes.























2020[edit]
2020 Libertarian presidential nomination vote[16] 2020 Libertarian vice presidential nomination vote[17]
Candidates Token count 1st ballot 2nd ballot 3rd ballot 4th ballot Candidates Token count 1st ballot 2nd ballot 3rd ballot
Jo Jorgensen 193 248 339 390 524 Spike Cohen 302 416 474 533
Jacob Hornberger 218 236 257 264 285 John Monds 296 322 432 472
Vermin Supreme 103 171 184 188 206 Ken Armstrong 115 180 96 1
John Monds 95 147 169 174 1 Adam Kokesh 69 87 4 3
Jim Gray 89 98 64 None 7 12 10
Adam Kokesh 58 77 6 1 1 John McAfee 6 3
None 8 6 7 4 Nicholas Sarwark 20 3
Nicholas Sarwark 6 5 1 1 1 Justin Amash 1 1
Sorinne Ardeleanu 9 2 1 Sorinne Ardeleanu 1 1 1
John Ammens 1 Julian Assange 1 1
Ryan Graham 1 Rhett Boogie 1
Godzilla 1 Michael Cordova 1
Laura Ebke 1 Laura Ebke 1
Justin Amash 27 17 1 Michael Kalagias 1
Darryl Perry 1 Ron Paul 2 1 1
Arvin Vohra 27 3 Edward Snowden 1 2
Edward Snowden 2 Chris Spangle 2
Rhett Boogie 1 Vermin Supreme 7 1
Lincoln Chafee 1 Larry Sharpe 21
John Stossel 1 Zoltan Istvan 7
Dan Behrman 18 Jim Gray 6
Sam Robb 14 Sam Robb 5
Kim Ruff 11 Tulsi Gabbard 2
Spike Cohen 7 Michael Heise 2
Larry Sharpe 4
Total Vote 879 1,017 1,028 1,206 1,026 Total Vote 874 1,024 1,025 1,022
Needed to Nominate 30 509 515 514 514 Needed to Nominate 30 513 513 512
Map of the first ballot for the 2020 presidential nomination by first place in state delegations.
  Jo Jorgensen (18)
  Jacob Hornberger (11)
  John Monds (6)
  Vermin Supreme (4)
  Jim Gray (3)
  Justin Amash (1)
  Tie (8)
Map of the second ballot for the 2020 presidential nomination by first place in state delegations.
  Jo Jorgensen (23)
  Jacob Hornberger (10)
  John Monds (7)
  Vermin Supreme (3)
  Jim Gray (2)
  Tie (6)
Map of the third ballot for the 2020 presidential nomination by first place in state delegations.
  Jo Jorgensen (30)
  Jacob Hornberger (10)
  John Monds (4)
  Vermin Supreme (1)
  Tie (6)
Map of the fourth and final ballot for the 2020 presidential nomination by first place in state delegations.
  Jo Jorgensen (39)
  Jacob Hornberger (9)
  Vermin Supreme (2)
  Tie (1)


















































The Senate[edit]

Class I seats[edit]

Arizona Libertarian Party Senate Class I candidates
Year Nominee # votes % votes Place Notes
1976 Allan Norwitz 7,310
0.99 / 100
4th of 5 [18]
1982 Randall Clamons 20,100
2.78 / 100
3rd of 3 [19]
1988 Rick Tompkins 20,849
1.79 / 100
3rd of 4 [20]
1994 Scott Grainger 75,493
6.75 / 100
3rd of 3 [21]
2000 Barry Hess 70,724
5.06 / 100
4th of 4 [22]
2006 Richard Mack 48,231
3.16 / 100
3rd of 3 [23]
2012 Marc Victor 102,109
4.55 / 100
3rd of 3 [24]
California Libertarian Party Senate Class I candidates
Year Nominee # votes % votes Place Notes
1976 Lynn Kinsky 907 (W/I)
0.01 / 100
6th of 9 [25]
1982 Joseph Fuhrig 107,720
1.38 / 100
3rd of 5 [26]
1988 Jack Dean 79,997
0.82 / 100
4th of 5 [27]
1992 SE Richard B. Boddie 247,799
2.30 / 100
5th of 5 [28]
1994 Richard B. Boddie 179,100
2.10 / 100
4th of 5 [29]
2000 Gail K. Lightfoot 187,718
1.77 / 100
4th of 5 [30]
2006 Michael Metti 133,851
1.57 / 100
4th of 6 [31]
2012 BP Gail K. Lightfoot 101,648
2.09 / 100
9th of 24 [32]
2018 BP Derrick M. Reid 59,999
0.90 / 100
15th of 32 [33]
Massachusetts Libertarian Party Senate Class I candidates
Year Nominee # votes % votes Place Notes
1982 Howard S. Katz 18,878
0.92 / 100
3rd of 3 [34]
1988 Freda Lee Nason 13,199
0.51 / 100
4th of 4 [35]
1994 Lauraleigh Dozier 14,484
0.66 / 100
3rd of 4 [36]
2000 Carla Howell 308,748
11.88 / 100
3rd of 6 [37]
2010 SE Joseph L. Kennedy 22,388
0.99 / 100
3rd of 3 [38]
Nevada Libertarian Party Senate Class I candidates
Year Nominee # votes % votes Place Notes
1976 Dan Becan 2,307
1.14 / 100
5th of 5 [39]
1988 James Frye 5,523
1.58 / 100
4th of 4 [40]
1994 Bob Days 5,964
1.57 / 100
5th of 6 [41]
2000 J. J. Johnson 5,395
0.90 / 100
5th of 7 [42]
2006 Brenda Trainer 5,269
0.90 / 100
5th of 5 [43]
New Mexico Libertarian Party Senate Class I candidates
Year Nominee # votes % votes Place Notes
2018 Gary Johnson 107,201
15.38 / 100
3rd of 3
Texas Libertarian Party Senate Class I candidates
Year Nominee # votes % votes Place Notes
1982 John E. Ford 23,494
0.76 / 100
3rd of 4  
1988 Jeff Daiell 44,572
0.8 / 100
3rd of 3  
1994 Pierre Blondeau 36,107
0.84 / 100
3rd of 3  
2000 Mary J. Ruwart 72,657
1.2 / 100
4th of 4  
2006 Scott L. Jameson 97,672
2.26 / 100
3rd of 3  
2012 John J. Myers 162,354
2.06 / 100
3rd of 4  
2018 Neal Dikeman 65,470
0.78 / 100
3rd of 3  

Class II seats[edit]

Alaska Libertarian Party Senate Class II candidates
Year Nominee # votes % votes Place Notes
2002 Leonard J. Karpinski 2,354
1.03 / 100
5th of 5 [44]
2008 Fredrick D. Haase 2,483
0.78 / 100
4th of 5 [45]
2014 Mark Fish 10,512
3.72 / 100
3rd of 4
Kansas Libertarian Party Senate Class II candidates
Year Nominee # votes % votes Place Notes
1984 Douglas N. Merritt 6,755
0.68 / 100
5th of 6 [46]
1996 Steven Rosile 13,098
1.25 / 100
4th of 4 [46]
2002 Steven Rosile 70,725
9.10 / 100
2nd of 3 [47]
2008 Randall L. Hodgkinson 25,727
2.13 / 100
3rd of 4 [48]
2014 Randall Batson 37,469
4.32 / 100
3rd of 3 [49]
Massachusetts Libertarian Party Senate Class II candidates
Year Nominee # votes % votes Place Notes
2002 Michael Cloud 369,807
18.43 / 100
2nd of 2 [50]
2008 Robert J. Underwood 93,713
3.13 / 100
3rd of 3 [51]
Texas Libertarian Party Senate Class II candidates
Year Nominee # votes % votes Place Notes
1990 Gary Johnson 89,089
2.4 / 100
3rd of 3 [52]
1996 Michael Bird 51,516
0.9 / 100
3rd of 4 [53]
2002 Scott Jameson 35,538
0.8 / 100
3rd of 4 [54]
2008 Yvonne Adams Schick 185,241
2.34 / 100
3rd of 3  
2014 Rebecca Paddock 133,751
2.88 / 100
3rd of 4 [55]

Class III seats[edit]

Alaska Libertarian Party Senate Class III candidates
Year Nominee # votes % votes Place Notes
1986 BP Chuck House 4,265
2.94 / 100
3rd of 7 [56]
1986 Chuck House 3,161
1.75 / 100
3rd of 3 [57]
1998 BP Scott A. Kohlhaas 1,987
1.86 / 100
6th of 6 [58]
1998 Scott A. Kohlhaas 5,046
2.28 / 100
4th of 4 [59]
2004 BP Scott A. Kohlhaas 402
0.86 / 100
6th of 7 [60]
2004 Scott A. Kohlhaas 1,240
0.40 / 100
6th of 7 [61]
2010 BP Fredrick D. Haase 5,793
16.11 / 100
2nd of 4 [62]
2010 Fredrick D. Haase 1,459
0.57 / 100
4th of 6 [63]
2016 Joe Miller 85,833
29.36 / 100
2nd of 4 [64]
California Libertarian Party Senate Class III candidates
Year Nominee # votes % votes Place Notes
1974 Bill White 791 (W/I)
0.01 / 100
5th of 9 [65]
1980 David Bergland 202,481
2.43 / 100
3rd of 5 [66]
1986 Breck McKinley 66,261
0.90 / 100
4th of 5 [67]
1992 June R. Genis 235,919
2.18 / 100
5th of 5 [68]
1998 Ted Brown 93,959
1.13 / 100
3rd of 7 [69]
2004 Jim Gray 216,522
1.80 / 100
4th of 5 [70]
2010 Gail K. Lightfoot 175,242
1.75 / 100
3rd of 6 [71]
Nevada Libertarian Party Senate Class III candidates
Year Nominee # votes % votes Place Notes
1980 Allen Hacker 6,920
2.81 / 100
3rd of 4 [72]
1986 H. Kent Cromwell 4,899
1.87 / 100
4th of 4 [73]
1992 H. Kent Cromwell 7,222
1.46 / 100
6th of 7 [74]
1998 Michael Cloud 8,044
1.85 / 100
4th of 5 [75]
2004 Tom Hurst 9,559
1.18 / 100
4th of 6 [76]

House of Representatives[edit]

In April 2020, Representative Justin Amash from Michigan's 3rd congressional district became the first Libertarian member of Congress, after switching from the Republican Party and spending time as an independent. However, Amash has never been elected as a Libertarian, and is not seeking re-election in 2020.[77]

Overall summary[edit]

Libertarian Party U.S. House of Representatives elections
Year Contests # votes % votes Seats won Notes
1972 1 2,028
0.00 / 100
0 [78]
1974 1 3,099
0.01 / 100
0
1976 37 71,791
0.10 / 100
0
1978 20 64,310
0.12 / 100
0
1980 112 568,131
0.73 / 100
0
1982 148 462,767
0.72 / 100
0
1984 97 275,865
0.33 / 100
0
1986 47 121,076
0.20 / 100
0
1988 90 445,708
0.56 / 100
0
1990 47 396,131
0.64 / 100
0
1992 111 848,614
0.87 / 100
0
1994 76 415,944
0.59 / 100
0
1996 157 651,448
0.72 / 100
0
1998 129 880,024
1.20 / 100
0
2000 132 1,610,292
1.63 / 100
0
2004 214 1,050,766
0.93 / 100
0
2006 116 656,794
0.81 / 100
0
2008 125 1,083,096
0.88 / 100
0
2010 158 1,010,891
1.16 / 100
0
2012 136 1,366,338
1.12 / 100
0
2014 121 954,077
1.22 / 100
0
2016 119 1,661,199
1.29 / 100
0
2018 98 758,942
0.67 / 100
0
2020 80

Alaska[edit]

Alaska Libertarian Party House of Representatives candidates
Year District Nominee # votes % votes Place Notes
1986 At-large Betty Breck 4,182
2.32 / 100
3rd of 3 [79]
2000 At-large Len Karpinski 4,802
1.75 / 100
5th of 5
2002 At-large Rob Clift 3,797
1.67 / 100
4th of 4 [80]
2004 At-large Alvin Anders 7,157
2.39 / 100
4th of 4 [81]
2006 At-large Alexander Crawford 4,029
1.72 / 100
3rd of 5 [82]
2012 At-large Jim McDermott 15,028
5.19 / 100
3rd of 4 [83]
2014 At-large Jim McDermott 21,290
7.61 / 100
3rd of 3 [84]
2016 At-large Jim McDermott 31,770
10.31 / 100
3rd of 4 [85]

Nevada[edit]

Nevada Libertarian Party House of Representatives candidates
Year District Nominee # votes % votes Place Notes
1976 At-large Jim Burns 2,825
1.41 / 100
5th of 5 [86]
1978 At-large Linda West 6,029
3.16 / 100
4th of 4 [87]
1980 At-large Harry Joe Mangrum 7,759
3.17 / 100
4th of 4 [88]
1984 1st Joe Morris 1,885
1.44 / 100
3rd of 3 [89]
1986 1st Gordon M. Morris 2,145
1.88 / 100
3rd of 3 [90]
1988 1st Patrick O'Neill 3,724
2.34 / 100
3rd of 3 [91]
1990 1st William Moore 5,825
4.23 / 100
3rd of 3 [92]
1992 1st Scott A. Kjar 8,993
4.06 / 100
3rd of 3 [93]
1994 1st Gary Wood 6,065
3.99 / 100
3rd of 3 [94]
1996 1st James Dan 3,341
1.94 / 100
4th of 5 [95]
1998 1st Jim Burns 5,292
3.29 / 100
3rd of 4 [96]
2000 1st Charles E. Schneider 4,011
1.75 / 100
3rd of 5 [97]
2004 1st Jim Duensing 5,862
2.90 / 100
3rd of 3 [98]
2006 1st Jim Duensing 2,843
2.17 / 100
3rd of 4 [99]
2008 1st Jim Duensing 4,528
1.98 / 100
4th of 4 [100]
2010 1st Edward G. Klapproth 2,118
1.27 / 100
4th of 4 [101]
2012 1st William Pojunis 4,645
2.59 / 100
3rd of 4 [102]

Washington[edit]

Washington Libertarian Party House of Representatives candidates
Year District Nominee # votes % votes Place Notes
2002 1st Mark Wilson 6,251
3.05 / 100
3rd of 3 [103]
2nd Bruce Guthrie 7,966
2.52 / 100
3rd of 4
5th Rob Chase 10,379
5.13 / 100
3rd of 3
6th John Bennett 8,744
4.45 / 100
3rd of 3
7th Stan Lippman 8,447
4.00 / 100
3rd of 3
8th Mark Taff 5,771
2.84 / 100
3rd of 3
9th J. Mills 4,759
2.91 / 100
3rd of 3
2004 1st Charles Moore 5,798
1.77 / 100
3rd of 3 [104]
2018 2nd Brian Luke 84,646
28.71 / 100
2nd of 2 [105]

State elections[edit]

Gubernatorial elections[edit]

Alaska Libertarian Party gubernatorial candidates
Year Nominee # votes % votes Place Notes
1982 Dick Randolph 29,067
14.92 / 100
3rd of 4 [106]
1986 BP Mary Jane O'Brannon 205
0.14 / 100
12th of 15 [107]
1986 Mary Jane O'Brannon 1,050
0.59 / 100
5th of 5 [108]
2002 Billy Toien 1,109
0.48 / 100
6th of 6 [109]
2006 Billy Toien 682
0.29 / 100
5th of 6 [110]
2010 Billy Toien 2,682
1.05 / 100
4th of 4 [111]
California Libertarian Party gubernatorial candidates
Year Nominee # votes % votes Place Notes
1974 John Hospers 1,950 (W/I)
0.03 / 100
5th of 13 [112]
1978 Ed Clark (*) 377,960
5.46 / 100
3rd of 5 [113]
1982 Dan P. Dougherty 81,076
1.03 / 100
3rd of 5 [114]
1986 Joseph Fuhrig 52,628
0.71 / 100
3rd of 5 [115]
1990 Dennis Thompson 145,628
1.89 / 100
3rd of 5 [116]
1994 Richard Rider 149,281
1.72 / 100
3rd of 5 [117]
1998 Steve Kubby 73,845
0.88 / 100
4th of 7 [118]
2002 Gary David Copeland 161,203
2.16 / 100
4th of 6 [119]
2003 RE Ned Roscoe 2,250
0.03 / 100
34th of 135 [120]
Ken Hamidi 1,948
0.02 / 100
40th of 135 [120]
John Hickey 1,689
0.02 / 100
48th of 135 [120]
2006 Art Olivier 114,329
1.32 / 100
4th of 6 [121]
2010 Dale Ogden 150,895
1.50 / 100
4th of 6 [122]
Iowa Libertarian Party gubernatorial candidates
Year Nominee # votes % votes Place Notes
1978 John Ball 3,947
0.47 / 100
3rd of 4 [123]
1982 Marcia Farrington 3,307
0.32 / 100
3rd of 4 [124]
1994 Carl Olsen 2,772
0.28 / 100
4th of 5 [125]
2002 Clyde Cleveland 13,098
1.28 / 100
4th of 4 [126]
2006 Kevin Litten 5,735
0.54 / 100
4th of 4 [127]
2010 Eric Cooper 14,398
1.27 / 100
4th of 6 [128]
2014 Lee Hieb 20,321
1.80 / 100
3rd of 5 [129]
2018 Jake Porter 21,426
1.61 / 100
3rd of 4 [130]
Nevada Libertarian Party gubernatorial candidates
Year Nominee # votes % votes Place Notes
1978 John W. Grayson Jr. 1,487
0.77 / 100
5th of 5 [131]
1982 Dan Becan 4,621
1.93 / 100
4th of 4 [132]
1986 Louis R. Tomburello 2,555
0.98 / 100
4th of 4 [133]
1990 James Frye 8,059
2.51 / 100
4th of 4 [134]
1994 Dennis Sholty 3,978
1.05 / 100
5th of 5 [135]
1998 Terry Savage 7,307
1.69 / 100
5th of 5 [136]
2002 Dick Geyer 8,104
1.61 / 100
4th of 7 [137]
2010 Arthur Forest Lampitt, Jr. 4,672
0.65 / 100
6th of 8 [138]
New York Libertarian Party gubernatorial candidates
Year Nominee # votes % votes Place Notes
1974 Jerome Tuccille 10,503
0.20 / 100
4th of 8 [139]
1978 Gary Greenberg 18,990
0.40 / 100
4th of 7 [140]
1982 John H. Northrup 16,913
0.32 / 100
4th of 7 [141]
1990 W. Gary Johnson 24,611
0.61 / 100
6th of 7 [142]
1994 Robert L. Schulz 9,506
0.18 / 100
5th of 6 [143]
1998 Chris Garvey 4,722
0.10 / 100
9th of 10 [144]
2002 Scott Jeffrey 5,013
0.11 / 100
8th of 8 [145]
2006 John Clifton 14,736
0.33 / 100
4th of 6 [146]
2010 Warren Redlich 48,359
1.04 / 100
4th of 7 [147]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Texas faithless elector Bill Greene cast his vote for Ron Paul, a member of the Libertarian Party.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Convention Minutes, 2008" (PDF). www.lp.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 10, 2010. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
  2. ^ "Convention Minutes, 2010" (PDF). www.lp.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 21, 2016. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Convention Minutes, 2012" (PDF). www.lp.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 21, 2016. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
  4. ^ Hospers and Nathan received one electoral vote from Roger MacBride, a faithless elector from Virginia who was pledged to the Republican ticket of Richard Nixon and Spiro Agnew.
  5. ^ In Arizona, Browne and Olivier did not appear on the ballot; instead, L. Neil Smith and Vin Suprynowicz appeared as the Libertarian presidential and vice presidential nominees, respectively. Smith and Suprynowicz received an additional 5,775 votes.
  6. ^ Lau, Ryan (February 3, 2018). "Ron Paul Attacks Libertarian Leadership in Response to Controversy". 71Republic. Retrieved February 3, 2018. I paid my lifetime membership, in 1987, with a gold coin, to make a point.
  7. ^ While Johnson and Weld did not receive any electoral votes, Libertarian Ron Paul received one vote for President from a Texas faithless elector; the vice presidential vote went to Mike Pence, the Republican nominee.
  8. ^ "United States Elections Results: President - General". Associated Press. Retrieved November 26, 2020.
  9. ^ "Libertarian Party clears hurdles for ballot access in Ohio, New York". Libertarian Party. August 17, 2016.
  10. ^ "Ballot Access News". Ballot Access News (Richard Winger). July 30, 2016. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
  11. ^ Johnston, Bob (September 16, 2020). "LP Presidential Nominee On The Ballot in All 50 States Plus DC". Libertarian Party of the United States. Retrieved October 2, 2020.
  12. ^ "Ballot Access News - July 20, 1996". Ballot-access.org. Retrieved 2014-01-28.
  13. ^ "Ballot Access News - August 1, 2000". Ballot-access.org. Retrieved 2014-01-28.
  14. ^ "Libertarian Party Presidential Nominating Convention Atlanta 2004" (PDF). www.lp.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 2, 2006. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
  15. ^ "Libertarian Party National Convention, Day 2 Part 1". C-SPAN. May 29, 2016. Retrieved July 31, 2020.
  16. ^ LibertarianParty (May 23, 2020). "LNC Convention Day 2". YouTube. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
  17. ^ LibertarianParty (May 24, 2020). "LNC Convention Webinar Day 3". YouTube. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
  18. ^ "1976election.pdf" (PDF).
  19. ^ "1982election.pdf" (PDF).
  20. ^ "1988election.pdf" (PDF).
  21. ^ "1994 CONGRESSIONAL ELECTION STATISTICS". clerk.house.gov.
  22. ^ "2000 CONGRESSIONAL ELECTION STATISTICS". clerk.house.gov.
  23. ^ "2006 CONGRESSIONAL ELECTION STATISTICS". clerk.house.gov.
  24. ^ "Canvass2012GE.pdf" (PDF).
  25. ^ "CA US Senate Race - Nov 02, 1976". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2014-01-28.
  26. ^ "CA US Senate Race - Nov 02, 1982". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2014-01-28.
  27. ^ "CA US Senate Race - Nov 08, 1988". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2014-01-28.
  28. ^ "CA US Senate - Special Election Race - Nov 03, 1992". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  29. ^ "CA US Senate Race - Nov 08, 1994". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  30. ^ "CA US Senate Race - Nov 07, 2000". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  31. ^ "CA US Senate Race - Nov 07, 2006". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  32. ^ "CA US Senate - Open Primary Race - Jun 05, 2012". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  33. ^ "Statement of Vote" (PDF). California Department of State. Retrieved 2020-07-31.
  34. ^ "MA US Senate Race - Nov 02, 1982". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  35. ^ "MA US Senate Race - Nov 08, 1988". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  36. ^ "MA US Senate Race - Nov 08, 1994". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  37. ^ "MA US Senate Race - Nov 07, 2000". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  38. ^ "MA US Senate - Special Election Race - Jan 19, 2010". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  39. ^ "NV US Senate Race - Nov 02, 1976". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  40. ^ "NV US Senate Race - Nov 08, 1988". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  41. ^ "NV US Senate Race - Nov 08, 1994". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  42. ^ "NV US Senate Race - Nov 07, 2000". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  43. ^ "NV US Senate Race - Nov 07, 2006". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  44. ^ "AK US Senate Race - Nov 05, 2002". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  45. ^ "AK US Senate Race - Nov 04, 2008". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  46. ^ a b "KS US Senate Race - Nov 05, 1996". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  47. ^ "KS US Senate Race - Nov 05, 2002". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  48. ^ "KS US Senate Race - Nov 04, 2008". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  49. ^ "2014 General Election Official Results" (PDF). Kansas Secretary of State. Retrieved 2020-07-31.
  50. ^ "MA US Senate Race - Nov 05, 2002". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  51. ^ "MA US Senate Race - Nov 04, 2008". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  52. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=3508. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  53. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=187. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  54. ^ http://clerk.house.gov/Members#MemberProfiles. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  55. ^ https://elections.sos.state.tx.us/elchist175_state.htm. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  56. ^ "AK US Senate - Open Primary Race - Aug 26, 1986". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  57. ^ "AK US Senate Race - Nov 04, 1986". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  58. ^ "AK US Senate- All Party Primary Race - Aug 25, 1998". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  59. ^ "AK US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1998". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  60. ^ "AK US Senate - All Party Primary Race - Aug 24, 2004". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  61. ^ "AK US Senate Race - Nov 02, 2004". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  62. ^ "AK US Senate - ADL Primary Race - Aug 24, 2010". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  63. ^ "AK US Senate Race - Nov 02, 2010". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  64. ^ "Joe Miller Is Libertarian Nominee in Alaska Senate Race". U.S. News & World Report. September 6, 2016. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
  65. ^ "CA US Senate Race - Nov 05, 1974". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  66. ^ "CA US Senate Race - Nov 04, 1980". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  67. ^ "CA US Senate Race - Nov 04, 1986". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  68. ^ "CA US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1992". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  69. ^ "CA US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1998". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  70. ^ "CA US Senate Race - Nov 02, 2004". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  71. ^ "CA US Senate Race - Nov 02, 2010". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  72. ^ "NV US Senate Race - Nov 04, 1980". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  73. ^ "NV US Senate Race - Nov 04, 1986". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  74. ^ "NV US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1992". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  75. ^ "NV US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1998". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  76. ^ "NV US Senate Race - Nov 02, 2004". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  77. ^ Bowden, John (July 16, 2020). "Amash confirms he won't seek reelection". The Hill.
  78. ^ https://history.house.gov/Institution/Election-Statistics/Election-Statistics/. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  79. ^ http://clerk.house.gov/member_info/electionInfo/1986/1986Stat.htm#2. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  80. ^ http://clerk.house.gov/member_info/electionInfo/2002/2002Stat.htm#2. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  81. ^ http://clerk.house.gov/member_info/electionInfo/2004/2004Stat.htm#2. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  82. ^ http://clerk.house.gov/member_info/electionInfo/2006/2006Stat.htm#2. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  83. ^ "AK - At-Large Race - Nov 06, 2012". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  84. ^ https://www.elections.alaska.gov/results/14GENR/data/results.htm. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  85. ^ https://www.elections.alaska.gov/results/16GENR/data/results.htm. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  86. ^ "NV At-Large Race - Nov 02, 1976". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  87. ^ "NV At-Large Race - Nov 07, 1978". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  88. ^ "NV At-Large Race - Nov 04, 1980". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  89. ^ "NV District 1 Race - Nov 06, 1984". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  90. ^ "NV District 1 Race - Nov 04, 1986". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  91. ^ "NV District 1 Race - Nov 08, 1988". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  92. ^ "NV District 1 Race - Nov 06, 1990". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  93. ^ "NV District 1 Race - Nov 03, 1992". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  94. ^ "NV District 1 Race - Nov 08, 1994". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  95. ^ "NV District 1 Race - Nov 05, 1996". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  96. ^ "NV District 1 Race - Nov 03, 1998". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  97. ^ "NV District 1 Race - Nov 07, 2000". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  98. ^ "NV - District 01 Race - Nov 02, 2004". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  99. ^ "NV - District 01 Race - Nov 07, 2006". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  100. ^ "NV - District 01 Race - Nov 04, 2008". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  101. ^ "NV - District 1 Race - Nov 02, 2010". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  102. ^ "NV - District 01 Race - Nov 06, 2012". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  103. ^ "Member Profiles". Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives.
  104. ^ "Member Profiles". Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives.
  105. ^ "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 6, 2018".
  106. ^ "AK Governor Race - Nov 02, 1982". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  107. ^ "AK Governor - Open Primary Race - Aug 26, 1986". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  108. ^ "AK Governor Race - Nov 04, 1986". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  109. ^ "AK - Governor Race - Nov 05, 2002". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  110. ^ "AK Governor Race - Nov 07, 2006". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  111. ^ "AK Governor Race - Nov 02, 2010". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  112. ^ "CA Governor Race - Nov 05, 1974". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  113. ^ "CA Governor Race - Nov 07, 1978". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  114. ^ "CA Governor Race - Nov 02, 1982". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  115. ^ "CA Governor Race - Nov 04, 1986". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  116. ^ "CA Governor Race - Nov 06, 1990". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  117. ^ "CA Governor Race - Nov 08, 1994". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  118. ^ "CA Governor Race - Nov 03, 1998". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  119. ^ "CA Governor Race - Nov 05, 2002". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  120. ^ a b c "CA Governor Recall Race - Oct 07, 2003". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  121. ^ "CA Governor Race - Nov 07, 2006". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  122. ^ "CA Governor Race - Nov 02, 2010". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  123. ^ "Summary of Official Canvass of Votes Cast in Iowa General Election" (PDF). Secretary of State of Iowa. 1978. Retrieved December 29, 2018.
  124. ^ "Summary of Official Canvass of Votes Cast in Iowa General Election" (PDF). Secretary of State of Iowa. 1982. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
  125. ^ "1994gencanv.pdf" (PDF).
  126. ^ "Microsoft Word - Final Gov-Lt Gov ELECTION.doc" (PDF).
  127. ^ (PDF) http://www.sos.state.ia.us/pdfs/staff/offResultsGovLtGov.pdf. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  128. ^ "Official Results Report" (PDF).
  129. ^ "govcanvsummary.pdf" (PDF).
  130. ^ "State of Iowa - Canvass State" (PDF).
  131. ^ "NV Governor Race - Nov 07, 1978". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  132. ^ "NV Governor Race - Nov 02, 1982". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  133. ^ "NV Governor Race - Nov 04, 1986". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  134. ^ "NV Governor Race - Nov 06, 1990". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  135. ^ "NV Governor Race - Nov 08, 1994". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  136. ^ "NV Governor Race - Nov 03, 1998". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  137. ^ "NV - Governor Race - Nov 05, 2002". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  138. ^ "NV Governor Race - Nov 02, 2010". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  139. ^ "NY Governor Race - Nov 05, 1974". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  140. ^ "NY Governor Race - Nov 07, 1978". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  141. ^ "NY Governor Race - Nov 02, 1982". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  142. ^ "NY Governor Race - Nov 06, 1990". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  143. ^ "NY Governor Race - Nov 08, 1994". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  144. ^ "NY Governor Race - Nov 03, 1998". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  145. ^ "NY Governor Race - Nov 05, 2002". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  146. ^ "NY Governor Race - Nov 07, 2006". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  147. ^ "NY Governor Race - Nov 02, 2010". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-07-13.