Comparative homology modelling of this enzyme in L. donovani suggest that among all of the computationally screened compounds, pentamidine, 1,3-dinitroadamantane, acyclovir and analogs of acyclovir had higher binding affinities than the real substrate (guanosine monophosphate). The in silico and in-vitro correlation of these compounds were test in Leishmania HGPRT and validates the result.
Some men have partial (up to 20% less activity of the enzyme) HGPRT deficiency that causes high levels of uric acid in the blood, which leads to the development of gouty arthritis and the formation of uric acid stones in the urinary tract. This condition has been named the Kelley-Seegmiller syndrome.
Some mutations have been linked to gout, the risk of which is increased in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency.
HPRT expression on the mRNA and protein level is induced by hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1A). HIF-1 is a transcription factor that directs an array of cellular responses that are used for adaptation during oxygen deprivation. This finding implies that HPRT is a critical pathway that helps preserve the cell's purine nucleotide resources under hypoxic conditions as found in pathology such as myocardial ischemia.
^Ansari MY, Dikhit MR, Sahoo GC, Das P (Apr 2012). "Comparative modeling of HGPRT enzyme of L. donovani and binding affinities of different analogs of GMP". International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 50 (3): 637–49. doi:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2012.01.010. PMID22327112.
^Ansari MY, Equbal A, Dikhit MR, Mansuri R, Rana S, Ali V, Sahoo GC, Das P (Nov 2015). "Establishment of Correlation between In-Silico &In-Vitro Test Analysis against Leishmania HGPRT to inhibitors". International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 83: 78–96. doi:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2015.11.051. PMID26616453.
^Hladnik U, Nyhan WL, Bertelli M (Sep 2008). "Variable expression of HPRT deficiency in 5 members of a family with the same mutation". Archives of Neurology. 65 (9): 1240–3. doi:10.1001/archneur.65.9.1240. PMID18779430.
Sculley DG, Dawson PA, Emmerson BT, Gordon RB (Nov 1992). "A review of the molecular basis of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency". Human Genetics. 90 (3): 195–207. doi:10.1007/bf00220062. PMID1487231.
Ansari MY, Dikhit MR, Sahoo GC, Das P (Apr 2012). "Comparative modeling of HGPRT enzyme of L. donovani and binding affinities of different analogs of GMP". International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 50 (3): 637–49. doi:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2012.01.010. PMID22327112.
Sculley DG, Dawson PA, Beacham IR, Emmerson BT, Gordon RB (Oct 1991). "Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency: analysis of HPRT mutations by direct sequencing and allele-specific amplification". Human Genetics. 87 (6): 688–92. doi:10.1007/BF00201727. PMID1937471.
Tarlé SA, Davidson BL, Wu VC, Zidar FJ, Seegmiller JE, Kelley WN, Palella TD (Jun 1991). "Determination of the mutations responsible for the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome in 17 subjects". Genomics. 10 (2): 499–501. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(91)90341-B. PMID2071157.
Gordon RB, Sculley DG, Dawson PA, Beacham IR, Emmerson BT (1991). "Identification of a single nucleotide substitution in the coding sequence of in vitro amplified cDNA from a patient with partial HPRT deficiency (HPRTBRISBANE)". Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. 13 (5): 692–700. doi:10.1007/BF01799570. PMID2246854.
Edwards A, Voss H, Rice P, Civitello A, Stegemann J, Schwager C, Zimmermann J, Erfle H, Caskey CT, Ansorge W (Apr 1990). "Automated DNA sequencing of the human HPRT locus". Genomics. 6 (4): 593–608. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(90)90493-E. PMID2341149.
Gibbs RA, Nguyen PN, Edwards A, Civitello AB, Caskey CT (Jun 1990). "Multiplex DNA deletion detection and exon sequencing of the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene in Lesch-Nyhan families". Genomics. 7 (2): 235–44. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(90)90545-6. PMID2347587.
Skopek TR, Recio L, Simpson D, Dallaire L, Melancon SB, Ogier H, O'Neill JP, Falta MT, Nicklas JA, Albertini RJ (Jun 1990). "Molecular analyses of a Lesch-Nyhan syndrome mutation (hprtMontreal) by use of T-lymphocyte cultures". Human Genetics. 85 (1): 111–6. doi:10.1007/BF00276334. PMID2358296.
Yang TP, Stout JT, Konecki DS, Patel PI, Alford RL, Caskey CT (May 1988). "Spontaneous reversion of novel Lesch-Nyhan mutation by HPRT gene rearrangement". Somatic Cell and Molecular Genetics. 14 (3): 293–303. doi:10.1007/BF01534590. PMID2835825.
Fujimori S, Hidaka Y, Davidson BL, Palella TD, Kelley WN (May 1988). "Identification of a single nucleotide change in a mutant gene for hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT Ann Arbor)". Human Genetics. 79 (1): 39–43. doi:10.1007/BF00291707. PMID2896620.
Davidson BL, Pashmforoush M, Kelley WN, Palella TD (Jan 1989). "Human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency. The molecular defect in a patient with gout (HPRTAshville)". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (1): 520–5. PMID2909537.