With roots dating back to the 15th century, the contemporary version of the hammer throw is one of the oldest of Olympic Games competitions, first included at the 1900 games in Paris, France (the second Olympiad of the modern era). Its history since the late 1960s and legacy prior to inclusion in the Olympics have been dominated by European and Eastern European influence, which has had an impact on interest in the event in other parts of the world.
The hammer evolved from its early informal origins to become part of the Scottish Highland games in the late 18th century, where the original version of the event is still contested today. It is believed that, like many Highland games events, the origin of the hammer throw is tied to a prohibition by King Edward I of England against Scotsmen possessing weapons during the Wars of Scottish Independence in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.
In the absence of weapons of war, the Scots turned to alternative methods of military training. The Highland Games became a more formalized event after the Highland Clearances of the late 18th century, which were an agricultural revolution that involved forced displacement of commoners in the Scottish Highlands by the aristocracy.
While the men's hammer throw has been part of the Olympics since 1900, the International Association of Athletics Federations did not start ratifying women's marks until 1995. Women's hammer throw was first included in the Olympics at the 2000 summer games in Sydney, Australia, after having been included in the World Championships a year earlier.
The men's hammer weighs 16 pounds (7.257 kg) and measures 3 feet 11 3⁄4 inches (121.5 cm) in length and the women's hammer weighs 8.82 lb (4 kg) and 3 feet 11 inches (119.5 cm) in length. Like the other throwing events, the competition is decided by who can throw the implement the farthest.
Although commonly thought of as a strength event, technical advancements in the last 30 years have evolved hammer throw competition to a point where more focus is on speed in order to gain maximum distance.
The throwing motion involves about two swings from stationary position, then three, four or very rarely five rotations of the body in circular motion using a complicated heel-toe movement of the foot. The ball moves in a circular path, gradually increasing in velocity with each turn with the high point of the ball toward the sector and the low point at the back of the circle. The thrower releases the ball from the front of the circle.
All-time top 25
- Updated August 2015
|1||86.74 m (284 ft 63⁄4 in)||Yuriy Sedykh (URS)||Stuttgart||30 August 1986|
|2||86.04 m (282 ft 31⁄4 in)||Sergey Litvinov (URS)||Dresden||3 July 1986|
|3||84.90 m (278 ft 61⁄2 in)||Vadim Devyatovskiy (BLR)||Minsk||21 July 2005|
|4||84.86 m (278 ft 43⁄4 in)||Koji Murofushi (JPN)||Prague||29 June 2003|
|5||84.62 m (277 ft 71⁄4 in)||Igor Astapkovich (BLR)||Seville||6 June 1992|
|6||84.51 m (277 ft 3 in)||Ivan Tsikhan (BLR)||Grodno||9 July 2008|
|7||84.48 m (277 ft 13⁄4 in)||Igor Nikulin (URS)||Lausanne||12 July 1990|
|8||84.40 m (276 ft 103⁄4 in)||Jüri Tamm (URS)||Banská Bystrica||9 September 1984|
|9||84.19 m (276 ft 21⁄2 in)||Adrián Annus (HUN)||Szombathely||10 August 2003|
|10||83.93 m (275 ft 41⁄4 in)||Paweł Fajdek (POL)||Szczecin||9 August 2015|||
|11||83.68 m (274 ft 61⁄4 in)||Tibor Gécsek (HUN)||Zalaegerszeg||19 September 1998|
|12||83.46 m (273 ft 93⁄4 in)||Andrey Abduvaliyev (URS)||Sochi||26 May 1990|
|13||83.43 m (273 ft 81⁄2 in)||Aleksey Zagornyi (RUS)||Adler||10 February 2002|
|14||83.40 m (273 ft 71⁄4 in)||Ralf Haber (GDR)||Athens||16 May 1988|
|15||83.38 m (273 ft 61⁄2 in)||Szymon Ziółkowski (POL)||Edmonton||5 August 2001|
|16||83.30 m (273 ft 31⁄2 in)||Olli-Pekka Karjalainen (FIN)||Lahti||14 July 2004|
|17||83.04 m (272 ft 51⁄4 in)||Heinz Weis (GER)||Frankfurt||29 June 1997|
|18||83.00 m (272 ft 31⁄2 in)||Balázs Kiss (HUN)||Saint-Denis||4 June 1998|
|19||82.78 m (271 ft 7 in)||Karsten Kobs (GER)||Dortmund||26 June 1999|
|20||82.69 m (271 ft 31⁄2 in)||Krisztián Pars (HUN)||Zürich||16 August 2014|
|21||82.64 m (271 ft 11⁄2 in)||Günther Rodehau (GDR)||Dresden||3 August 1985|
|22=||82.62 m (271 ft 03⁄4 in)||Sergey Kirmasov (RUS)||Zalaegerszeg||30 May 1998|
|22=||82.62 m (271 ft 03⁄4 in)||Andriy Skvaruk (UKR)||Kyiv||27 April 2002|
|24||82.58 m (270 ft 11 in)||Primož Kozmus (SLO)||Celje||2 September 2009|
|25||82.54 m (270 ft 91⁄2 in)||Vasiliy Sidorenko (RUS)||Krasnodar||13 May 1992|
- Updated August 2015
|1||81.08 m (266 ft 0 in)||Anita Włodarczyk (POL)||Władysławowo||1 August 2015|||
|2||79.42 m (260 ft 63⁄4 in)||Betty Heidler (GER)||Halle||21 May 2011|
|3||78.80 m (258 ft 61⁄4 in)||Tatyana Lysenko (RUS)||Moscow||16 August 2013|
|4||78.69 m (258 ft 2 in)||Aksana Miankova (BLR)||Minsk||18 July 2012|
|5||77.68 m (254 ft 101⁄4 in)||Zheng Wang (CHN)||Chengdu||29 March 2014|
|6||77.33 m (253 ft 81⁄4 in)||Zhang Wenxiu (CHN)||Incheon||28 Sept 2014|
|7||77.26 m (253 ft 51⁄2 in)||Gulfiya Khanafeyeva (RUS)||Tula||12 June 2006|
|8||77.13 m (253 ft 01⁄2 in)||Oksana Kondratyeva (RUS)||Zhukovskiy||30 June 2013|
|9||76.90 m (252 ft 31⁄2 in)||Martina Hrašnová (SVK)||Trnava||16 May 2009|
|10||76.83 m (252 ft 03⁄4 in)||Kamila Skolimowska (POL)||Doha||11 May 2007|
|11||76.72 m (251 ft 81⁄4 in)||Mariya Bespalova (RUS)||Zhukovsky||23 June 2012|
|12||76.66 m (251 ft 6 in)||Volha Tsander (BLR)||Minsk||23 June 2006|
|13||76.63 m (251 ft 43⁄4 in)||Yekaterina Khoroshikh (RUS)||Zhukovsky||23 June 2006|
|14||76.62 m (251 ft 41⁄2 in)||Yipsi Moreno (CUB)||Zagreb||9 September 2008|
|15||76.56 m (251 ft 2 in)||Alena Matoshka (BLR)||Minsk||12 June 2012|
|16||76.33 m (250 ft 5 in)||Darya Pchelnik (BLR)||Minsk||29 June 2008|
|17||76.21 m (250 ft 01⁄4 in)||Yelena Konevtseva (RUS)||Sochi||26 May 2007|
|18||76.17 m (249 ft 103⁄4 in)||Anna Bulgakova (RUS)||Moscow||24 July 2013|
|19||76.07 m (249 ft 63⁄4 in)||Mihaela Melinte (ROU)||Rüdlingen||29 August 1999|
|20||76.05 m (249 ft 6 in)||Kathrin Klaas (GER)||London||10 August 2012|
|21=||75.73 m (248 ft 51⁄4 in)||Amanda Bingson (USA)||Des Moines||22 June 2013|
|21=||75.73 m (248 ft 51⁄4 in)||Sultana Frizell (CAN)||Tucson||22 May 2014|
|23||75.68 m (248 ft 31⁄2 in)||Olga Kuzenkova (RUS)||Tula||4 June 2000|
|24||75.09 m (246 ft 41⁄4 in)||Yelena Rigert (RUS)||Moscow||15 July 2013|
|25||75.08 m (246 ft 33⁄4 in)||Ivana Brkljačić (CRO)||Warsaw||17 June 2007|
||Kamila Skolimowska (POL)||Olga Kuzenkova (RUS)||Kirsten Münchow (GER)|
||Olga Kuzenkova (RUS)||Yipsi Moreno (CUB)||Yunaika Crawford (CUB)|
||Aksana Miankova (BLR)||Yipsi Moreno (CUB)||Zhang Wenxiu (CHN)|
||Tatyana Lysenko (RUS)||Anita Włodarczyk (POL)||Betty Heidler (GER)|
World Championships medalists
|1999 Seville||Mihaela Melinte (ROU)||Olga Kuzenkova (RUS)||Lisa Misipeka (ASA)|
|2001 Edmonton||Yipsi Moreno (CUB)||Olga Kuzenkova (RUS)||Bronwyn Eagles (AUS)|
|2003 Saint-Denis||Yipsi Moreno (CUB)||Olga Kuzenkova (RUS)||Manuela Montebrun (FRA)|
|2005 Helsinki||Olga Kuzenkova (RUS)||Yipsi Moreno (CUB)||Tatyana Lysenko (RUS)|
|2007 Osaka||Betty Heidler (GER)||Yipsi Moreno (CUB)||Zhang Wenxiu (CHN)|
|2009 Berlin||Anita Włodarczyk (POL)||Betty Heidler (GER)||Martina Hrašnová (SVK)|
|2011 Daegu||Tatyana Lysenko (RUS)||Betty Heidler (GER)||Zhang Wenxiu (CHN)|
|2013 Moscow||Tatyana Lysenko (RUS)||Anita Wlodarczyk (POL)||Zhang Wenxiu (CHN)|
|2015 Beijing||Anita Wlodarczyk (POL)||Zhang Wenxiu (CHN)||Alexandra Tavernier (FRA)|
Notes and references
- "Hammer Throw - Introduction". IAAF. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- Phil Minshull (9 August 2015). "Fajdek throws 83.93m in Szczecin". IAAF. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- Jon Mulkeen (1 August 2015). "Wlodarczyk smashes hammer world record with 81.08m in Cetniewo". IAAF. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
- 2004 Olympic Hammer Throw Medalists. Olympic.org. Retrieved on 2014-04-19.
- Engeler, Elaine (June 10, 2010). "CAS Reinstates Medals for Hammer Throwers". Yahoo! Sports. Associated Press. Retrieved 2010-06-15.
- HammerThrow.eu (Results, Top-Lists, Records, Videos, ...)
- HammerThrow.org (Information about the event, coaching tips and resources, ...)
- Hammer Throw Records
- Hammer Throw History