Hammer throw

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Athletics
Hammer throw
John Flanagan.jpg
Irish American John Flanagan in the hammer throw competition at the Summer Olympics 1908 in London
World records
MenSoviet Union Yuriy Sedykh 86.74 m (1986)
WomenPoland Anita Włodarczyk 82.98 m (2016)
Olympic records
MenSoviet Union Sergey Litvinov 84.80 m (1988)
WomenPoland Anita Włodarczyk 82.29 m (2016)
World Championship records
MenBelarus Ivan Tsikhan 83.63 m (2007)
WomenPoland Anita Włodarczyk 80.85 m (2015)
The traditional Highland games version of event

The hammer throw is one of the four throwing events in regular track and field competitions, along with the discus throw, shot put and javelin.

The "hammer" used in this sport is not like any of the tools also called by that name. It consists of a metal ball attached by a steel wire to a grip. The size of the ball varies between men's and women's competitions.

History[edit]

Scottish hammer throw illustration from Frank R. Stockton's book "Round-about Rambles in Lands of Fact and Fancy"

With roots dating back to the 15th century, the contemporary version of the hammer throw is one of the oldest of Olympic Games competitions, first included at the 1900 games in Paris, France (the second Olympiad of the modern era). Its history since the late 1960s and legacy prior to inclusion in the Olympics has been dominated by Europe and Eastern European influence, which has affected interest in the event in other parts of the world.

The hammer evolved from its early informal origins to become part of the Scottish Highland games in the late 18th century, where the original version of the event is still contested today.

The contemporary version of the hammer throw

While the men's hammer throw has been part of the Olympics since 1900, the International Association of Athletics Federations did not start ratifying women's marks until 1995. Women's hammer throw was first included in the Olympics at the 2000 summer games in Sydney, Australia after having been included in the World Championships a year earlier.

Competition[edit]

The men's hammer weighs 16 pounds (7.26 kg) and measures 3 feet 11+34 inches (121.3 cm) in length, and the women's hammer weighs 8.82 lb (4 kg) and 3 ft 11 in (119.4 cm) in length.[1] Like the other throwing events, the competition is decided by who can throw the implement the farthest.

Although commonly thought of as a strength event, technical advancements in the last 30 years have developed hammer throw competition to a point where more focus is on speed in order to gain maximum distance.

The throwing motion starts with the thrower swinging the hammer back-and-forth about two times to generate momentum. The thrower then makes three, four or (rarely) five full rotations using a complex heel-toe foot movement, spinning the hammer in a circular path and increasing its angular velocity with each rotation. Rather than spinning the hammer horizontally, it is instead spun in a plane that angles up towards the direction in which it will be launched. The thrower releases the hammer as its velocity is upward and toward the target.[2]

Throws are made from a throwing circle. The thrower is not allowed to step outside the throwing circle before the hammer has landed and may only enter and exit from the rear of the throwing circle. The hammer must land within a 34.92º throwing sector that is centered on the throwing circle. The sector angle was chosen because it provides a sector whose bounds are easy to measure and lay out on a field (10 metres out from the center of the ring, 6 metres across).[3][4] A violation of the rules results in a foul and the throw not being counted.

As of 2015 the men's hammer world record is held by Yuriy Sedykh, who threw 86.74 m (284 ft 6+34 in) at the 1986 European Athletics Championships in Stuttgart, West Germany on 30 August. The world record for the women's hammer is held by Anita Włodarczyk, who threw 82.98 m (272 ft 2+34 in) during the Kamila Skolimowska Memorial on 28 August 2016.

All-time top 25[edit]

Men[edit]

Men's Hammer Throw Final – 28th Summer Universiade in Gwangju, China, 2015 (Polish thrower Paweł Fajdek from Poland)
  • Correct as of May 2022.[5]
Ath.# Perf.# Mark Athlete Nation Date Place Ref
1 1 86.74 m (284 ft 6+34 in) Yuriy Sedykh  Soviet Union 30 AUG 1986 Stuttgart
2 86.66 m (284 ft 3+34 in) Sedykh #2 22 JUN 1986 Tallinn
3 86.34 m (283 ft 3 in) Sedykh #3 03 JUL 1984 Cork
2 4 86.04 m (282 ft 3+14 in) Sergey Litvinov  Soviet Union 03 JUL 1986 Dresden
5 85.74 m (281 ft 3+12 in) Litvinov #2 30 AUG 1986 Stuttgart
6 85.68 m (281 ft 1 in) Sedykh #4 11 AUG 1986 Budapest
7 85.60 m (280 ft 10 in) Sedykh #5 13 JUL 1984 London
Sedykh #6 17 AUG 1984 Moscow
9 85.20 m (279 ft 6+14 in) Litvinov #3 03 JUL 1984 Cork
10 85.14 m (279 ft 3+34 in) Litvinov #4 11 JUL 1986 London
Sedykh #7 04 SEP 1988 Moscow
12 85.02 m (278 ft 11 in) Sedykh #8 20 AUG 1984 Budapest
13 84.92 m (278 ft 7+14 in) Sedykh #9 03 JUL 1986 Dresden
3 14 84.90 m (278 ft 6+12 in) Vadim Devyatovskiy  Belarus 21 JUL 2005 Minsk
15 84.88 m (278 ft 5+12 in) Litvinov #5 10 SEP 1986 Rome
4 16 84.86 m (278 ft 4+34 in) Koji Murofushi  Japan 29 JUN 2003 Prague
17 84.80 m (278 ft 2+12 in) Litvinov #6 26 SEP 1988 Seoul
18 84.72 m (277 ft 11+14 in) Sedykh #10 09 JUL 1986 Moscow
19 84.64 m (277 ft 8+14 in) Litvinov #7 09 JUL 1986 Moscow
5 20 84.62 m (277 ft 7+14 in) Igor Astapkovich  Belarus 06 JUN 1992 Seville
21 84.60 m (277 ft 6+12 in) Sedykh #11 14 SEP 1984 Tokyo
22 84.58 m (277 ft 5+34 in) Sedykh #12 08 JUN 1986 Leningrad
6 23 84.51 m (277 ft 3 in) Ivan Tsikhan  Belarus 09 JUL 2008 Grodno
7 24 84.48 m (277 ft 1+34 in) Igor Nikulin  Soviet Union 12 JUL 1990 Lausanne
25 84.46 m (277 ft 1 in) Sedykh #13 14 SEP 1988 Vladivostok
Tsikhan #2 07 MAY 2004 Minsk
8 84.40 m (276 ft 10+34 in) Jüri Tamm  Soviet Union 09 SEP 1984 Banská Bystrica
9 84.19 m (276 ft 2+12 in) Adrián Annus  Hungary 10 AUG 2003 Szombathely
10 83.93 m (275 ft 4+14 in) Paweł Fajdek  Poland 09 AUG 2015 Szczecin [6]
11 83.68 m (274 ft 6+14 in) Tibor Gécsek  Hungary 19 SEP 1998 Zalaegerszeg
12 83.46 m (273 ft 9+34 in) Andrey Abduvaliyev  Soviet Union 26 MAY 1990 Adler
13 83.43 m (273 ft 8+12 in) Aleksey Zagornyi  Russia 10 FEB 2002 Adler
14 83.40 m (273 ft 7+14 in) Ralf Haber  East Germany 16 MAY 1988 Athens
15 83.38 m (273 ft 6+12 in) Szymon Ziółkowski  Poland 05 AUG 2001 Edmonton
16 83.30 m (273 ft 3+12 in) Olli-Pekka Karjalainen  Finland 14 JUL 2004 Lahti
17 83.04 m (272 ft 5+14 in) Heinz Weis  Germany 29 JUN 1997 Frankfurt
18 83.00 m (272 ft 3+12 in) Balázs Kiss  Hungary 04 JUN 1998 Saint-Denis
19 82.78 m (271 ft 7 in) Karsten Kobs  Germany 26 JUN 1999 Dortmund
20 82.71 m (271 ft 4+14 in) Rudy Winkler  United States 20 JUN 2021 Eugene [7]
21 82.69 m (271 ft 3+12 in) Krisztián Pars  Hungary 16 AUG 2014 Zürich
22 82.64 m (271 ft 1+12 in) Günther Rodehau  East Germany 03 AUG 1985 Dresden
23 82.62 m (271 ft 34 in) Sergey Kirmasov  Russia 30 MAY 1998 Bryansk
Andriy Skvaruk  Ukraine 27 APR 2002 Kyiv
25 82.58 m (270 ft 11 in) Primož Kozmus  Slovenia 02 SEP 2009 Celje

Annulled marks[edit]

  • Ivan Tsikhan of Belarus also threw 86.73 in Brest on 3 July 2005, but this performance was annulled due to doping offence.

Women[edit]

  • Correct as of June 2022.[8]
Ath.# Perf.# Mark Athlete Nation Date Place Ref
1 1 82.98 m (272 ft 2+34 in) Anita Włodarczyk  Poland 28 AUG 2016 Warsaw [9]
2 82.87 m (271 ft 10+12 in) Włodarczyk #2 29 JUL 2017 Władysławowo
3 82.29 m (269 ft 11+34 in) Włodarczyk #3 15 AUG 2016 Rio de Janeiro
4 81.08 m (266 ft 0 in) Włodarczyk #4 01 AUG 2015 Władysławowo
5 80.85 m (265 ft 3 in) Włodarczyk #5 27 AUG 2015 Beijing
6 80.79 m (265 ft 12 in) Włodarczyk #6 23 JUL 2017 Białystok
2 7 80.31 m (263 ft 5+34 in) DeAnna Price  United States 26 JUN 2021 Eugene [10]
8 80.26 m (263 ft 3+34 in) Włodarczyk #7 12 JUL 2016 Władysławowo
9 79.80 m (261 ft 9+12 in) Włodarczyk #8 15 AUG 2017 Warsaw
10 79.73 m (261 ft 6+34 in) Włodarczyk #9 06 MAY 2017 Doha
11 79.72 m (261 ft 6+12 in) Włodarczyk #10 27 JUN 2017 Ostrava
12 79.61 m (261 ft 2+14 in) Włodarczyk #11 18 JUN 2016 Szczecin
13 79.59 m (261 ft 1+14 in) Włodarczyk #12 22 JUL 2018 Lublin
14 79.58 m (261 ft 1 in) Włodarczyk #13 31 AUG 2014 Berlin
15 79.48 m (260 ft 9 in) Włodarczyk #14 21 MAY 2016 Halle
16 79.45 m (260 ft 7+34 in) Włodarczyk #15 29 MAY 2016 Forbach
3 17 79.42 m (260 ft 6+34 in) Betty Heidler  Germany 21 MAY 2011 Halle
4 18 79.02 m (259 ft 3 in) Brooke Andersen  United States 30 APR 2022 Tucson [11]
19 78.94 m (258 ft 11+34 in) Włodarczyk #16 12 AUG 2018 Berlin
20 78.76 m (258 ft 4+34 in) Włodarczyk #17 15 AUG 2014 Zürich
21 78.74 m (258 ft 4 in) Włodarczyk #18 14 JUL 2018 London
22 78.60 m (257 ft 10+14 in) Price #2 09 APR 2021 Warrensburg
23 78.54 m (257 ft 8 in) Włodarczyk #19 19 MAY 2016 Ostrava
5 24 78.51 m (257 ft 6+34 in) Tatyana Lysenko  Russia 05 JUL 2012 Cheboksary
25 78.48 m (257 ft 5+34 in) Włodarczyk #20 03 AUG 2021 Tokyo
6 78.00 m (255 ft 10+34 in) Janee Kassanavoid  United States 21 MAY 2022 Tucson [12]
7 77.78 m (255 ft 2 in) Gwen Berry  United States 08 JUN 2018 Chorzów [13]
8 77.68 m (254 ft 10+14 in) Wang Zheng  China 29 MAR 2014 Chengdu
9 77.67 m (254 ft 9+34 in) Camryn Rogers  Canada 09 JUN 2022 Eugene [14]
10 77.33 m (253 ft 8+14 in) Zhang Wenxiu  China 28 SEP 2014 Incheon
11 77.32 m (253 ft 8 in) Aksana Miankova  Belarus 29 JUN 2008 Minsk
12 77.26 m (253 ft 5+12 in) Gulfiya Agafonova  Russia 12 JUN 2006 Tula
13 77.13 m (253 ft 12 in) Oksana Kondratyeva  Russia 30 JUN 2013 Zhukovskiy
14 76.90 m (252 ft 3+12 in) Martina Hrašnová  Slovakia 16 MAY 2009 Trnava
15 76.85 m (252 ft 1+12 in) Malwina Kopron  Poland 26 AUG 2017 Taipei City [15]
16 76.83 m (252 ft 34 in) Kamila Skolimowska  Poland 11 MAY 2007 Doha
17 76.72 m (251 ft 8+14 in) Mariya Bespalova  Russia 23 JUN 2012 Zhukovsky
18 76.66 m (251 ft 6 in) Volha Tsander  Belarus 21 JUL 2005 Minsk
19 76.63 m (251 ft 4+34 in) Yekaterina Khoroshikh  Russia 24 JUN 2006 Zhukovsky
20 76.62 m (251 ft 4+12 in) Yipsi Moreno  Cuba 09 SEP 2008 Zagreb
21 76.56 m (251 ft 2 in) Alena Matoshka  Belarus 12 JUN 2012 Minsk
22 76.35 m (250 ft 5+34 in) Joanna Fiodorow  Poland 28 SEP 2019 Doha [16]
23 76.33 m (250 ft 5 in) Darya Pchelnik  Belarus 29 JUN 2008 Minsk
24 76.26 m (250 ft 2+14 in) Hanna Malyshik  Belarus 27 APR 2018 Brest
25 76.21 m (250 ft 14 in) Yelena Konevtseva  Russia 26 MAY 2007 Sochi

Annulled marks[edit]

The following athletes had their performances (over 77.00 m) annulled due to doping offences:

Olympic medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1900 Paris
details
John Flanagan
 United States
Truxtun Hare
 United States
Josiah McCracken
 United States
1904 St. Louis
details
John Flanagan
 United States
John DeWitt
 United States
Ralph Rose
 United States
1908 London
details
John Flanagan
 United States
Matt McGrath
 United States
Con Walsh
 Canada
1912 Stockholm
details
Matt McGrath
 United States
Duncan Gillis
 Canada
Clarence Childs
 United States
1920 Antwerp
details
Patrick Ryan
 United States
Carl Johan Lind
 Sweden
Basil Bennett
 United States
1924 Paris
details
Fred Tootell
 United States
Matt McGrath
 United States
Malcolm Nokes
 Great Britain
1928 Amsterdam
details
Pat O'Callaghan
 Ireland
Ossian Skiöld
 Sweden
Edmund Black
 United States
1932 Los Angeles
details
Pat O'Callaghan
 Ireland
Ville Pörhölä
 Finland
Peter Zaremba
 United States
1936 Berlin
details
Karl Hein
 Germany
Erwin Blask
 Germany
Fred Warngård
 Sweden
1948 London
details
Imre Németh
 Hungary
Ivan Gubijan
 Yugoslavia
Robert Bennett
 United States
1952 Helsinki
details
József Csermák
 Hungary
Karl Storch
 Germany
Imre Németh
 Hungary
1956 Melbourne
details
Hal Connolly
 United States
Mikhail Krivonosov
 Soviet Union
Anatoliy Samotsvetov
 Soviet Union
1960 Rome
details
Vasily Rudenkov
 Soviet Union
Gyula Zsivótzky
 Hungary
Tadeusz Rut
 Poland
1964 Tokyo
details
Romuald Klim
 Soviet Union
Gyula Zsivótzky
 Hungary
Uwe Beyer
 United Team of Germany
1968 Mexico City
details
Gyula Zsivótzky
 Hungary
Romuald Klim
 Soviet Union
Lázár Lovász
 Hungary
1972 Munich
details
Anatoliy Bondarchuk
 Soviet Union
Jochen Sachse
 East Germany
Vasiliy Khmelevskiy
 Soviet Union
1976 Montreal
details
Yuriy Sedykh
 Soviet Union
Aleksey Spiridonov
 Soviet Union
Anatoliy Bondarchuk
 Soviet Union
1980 Moscow
details
Yuriy Sedykh
 Soviet Union
Sergey Litvinov
 Soviet Union
Jüri Tamm
 Soviet Union
1984 Los Angeles
details
Juha Tiainen
 Finland
Karl-Hans Riehm
 West Germany
Klaus Ploghaus
 West Germany
1988 Seoul
details
Sergey Litvinov
 Soviet Union
Yuriy Sedykh
 Soviet Union
Jüri Tamm
 Soviet Union
1992 Barcelona
details
Andrey Abduvaliyev
 Unified Team
Igor Astapkovich
 Unified Team
Igor Nikulin
 Unified Team
1996 Atlanta
details
Balázs Kiss
 Hungary
Lance Deal
 United States
Oleksandr Krykun
 Ukraine
2000 Sydney
details
Szymon Ziółkowski
 Poland
Nicola Vizzoni
 Italy
Igor Astapkovich
 Belarus
2004 Athens
details
Koji Murofushi
 Japan
Not awarded[17] Eşref Apak
 Turkey
2008 Beijing
details
Primož Kozmus
 Slovenia
Vadim Devyatovskiy
 Belarus[18]
Ivan Tsikhan
 Belarus[18]
2012 London
details
Krisztián Pars
 Hungary
Primož Kozmus
 Slovenia
Koji Murofushi
 Japan
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Dilshod Nazarov
 Tajikistan
Ivan Tsikhan
 Belarus
Wojciech Nowicki
 Poland
2020 Tokyo
details
Wojciech Nowicki
 Poland
Eivind Henriksen
 Norway
Paweł Fajdek
 Poland

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
2000 Sydney
details
Kamila Skolimowska
 Poland
Olga Kuzenkova
 Russia
Kirsten Münchow
 Germany
2004 Athens
details
Olga Kuzenkova
 Russia
Yipsi Moreno
 Cuba
Yunaika Crawford
 Cuba
2008 Beijing
details
Yipsi Moreno
 Cuba
Zhang Wenxiu
 China
Manuela Montebrun
 France
2012 London
details
Anita Włodarczyk
 Poland
Betty Heidler
 Germany
Zhang Wenxiu
 China
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Anita Włodarczyk
 Poland
Zhang Wenxiu
 China
Sophie Hitchon
 Great Britain
2020 Tokyo
details
Anita Włodarczyk
 Poland
Wang Zheng
 China
Malwina Kopron
 Poland

World Championships medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Sergey Litvinov (URS)  Yuriy Sedykh (URS)  Zdzisław Kwaśny (POL)
1987 Rome
details
 Sergey Litvinov (URS)  Jüri Tamm (URS)  Ralf Haber (GDR)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Yuriy Sedykh (URS)  Igor Astapkovich (URS)  Heinz Weis (GER)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Andrey Abduvaliyev (TJK)  Igor Astapkovich (BLR)  Tibor Gécsek (HUN)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Andrey Abduvaliyev (TJK)  Igor Astapkovich (BLR)  Tibor Gécsek (HUN)
1997 Athens
details
 Heinz Weis (GER)  Andriy Skvaruk (UKR)  Vasiliy Sidorenko (RUS)
1999 Seville
details
 Karsten Kobs (GER)  Zsolt Németh (HUN)  Vladyslav Piskunov (UKR)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Szymon Ziółkowski (POL)  Koji Murofushi (JPN)  Ilya Konovalov (RUS)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Ivan Tsikhan (BLR)  Adrián Annus (HUN)  Koji Murofushi (JPN)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Szymon Ziółkowski (POL)  Markus Esser (GER)  Olli-Pekka Karjalainen (FIN)
2007 Osaka
details
 Ivan Tsikhan (BLR)  Primož Kozmus (SLO)  Libor Charfreitag (SVK)
2009 Berlin
details
 Primož Kozmus (SLO)  Szymon Ziółkowski (POL)  Aleksey Zagornyi (RUS)
2011 Daegu
details
 Koji Murofushi (JPN)  Krisztián Pars (HUN)  Primož Kozmus (SLO)
2013 Moscow
details
 Paweł Fajdek (POL)  Krisztián Pars (HUN)  Lukáš Melich (CZE)
2015 Beijing
details
 Paweł Fajdek (POL)  Dilshod Nazarov (TJK)  Wojciech Nowicki (POL)
2017 London
details
 Paweł Fajdek (POL)  Valeriy Pronkin (ANA)  Wojciech Nowicki (POL)
2019 Doha
details
 Paweł Fajdek (POL)  Quentin Bigot (FRA)  Bence Halász (HUN)
 Wojciech Nowicki (POL)

Women[edit]

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1999 Seville
details
 Mihaela Melinte (ROU)  Olga Kuzenkova (RUS)  Lisa Misipeka (ASA)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Yipsi Moreno (CUB)  Olga Kuzenkova (RUS)  Bronwyn Eagles (AUS)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Yipsi Moreno (CUB)  Olga Kuzenkova (RUS)  Manuela Montebrun (FRA)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Yipsi Moreno (CUB)  Tatyana Lysenko (RUS)  Manuela Montebrun (FRA)
2007 Osaka
details
 Betty Heidler (GER)  Yipsi Moreno (CUB)  Zhang Wenxiu (CHN)
2009 Berlin
details
 Anita Włodarczyk (POL)  Betty Heidler (GER)  Martina Hrašnová (SVK)
2011 Daegu
details
 Tatyana Lysenko (RUS)  Betty Heidler (GER)  Zhang Wenxiu (CHN)
2013 Moscow
details
 Anita Włodarczyk (POL)  Zhang Wenxiu (CHN)  Wang Zheng (CHN)
2015 Beijing
details
 Anita Włodarczyk (POL)  Zhang Wenxiu (CHN)  Alexandra Tavernier (FRA)
2017 London
details
 Anita Włodarczyk (POL)  Wang Zheng (CHN)  Malwina Kopron (POL)
2019 Doha
details
 DeAnna Price (USA)  Joanna Fiodorow (POL)  Wang Zheng (CHN)

Season's bests[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "Hammer Throw". World Athletics. Archived from the original on 19 November 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2022.
  2. ^ Johannsen, Dana (1 August 2021). "Tokyo 2020: Why the Olympic hammer throw may become a new national obsession". Stuff. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  3. ^ "Hammer Throw". World Athletics. World Athletics.
  4. ^ "Laying Out Sector Angles for the Track and Field Throwing Events" (PDF). USA Track & Field Pacific Northwest. Retrieved 19 March 2022. The shot, discus, hammer & weight throw sector is 34.92º. This angle was chosen due to its simple geometry.
  5. ^ "All-time men's best hammer throw". IAAF. 7 May 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  6. ^ Phil Minshull (9 August 2015). "Fajdek throws 83.93m in Szczecin". IAAF. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  7. ^ Roy Jordan (21 June 2021). "Bromell back to his best while Felix and Winkler make history in Eugene". World Athletics. Retrieved 4 July 2021.
  8. ^ "All-time women's best hammer throw". IAAF. 7 May 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  9. ^ "Wlodarczyk extends hammer world record in Warsaw". IAAF. 28 August 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
  10. ^ Roy Jordan (27 June 2021). "Holloway, Thomas, Benjamin and Price shine on superb day in Eugene". World Athletics. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
  11. ^ "World U20 sprint records fall as Knighton runs 19.49 and Tebogo clocks 9.96". World Athletics. 30 April 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  12. ^ "Kassanavoid climbs to No.6 all time with 78.00m hammer throw". World Athetlics. 22 May 2022. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  13. ^ Jon Mulkeen (8 June 2018). "Berry and Nowicki topple hammer favourites in Chorzow". IAAF. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
  14. ^ "Fahnbulleh takes sprint double at NCAA Championships". World Athletics. 11 June 2022. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  15. ^ "Women's Hammer Final Results" (PDF). 2017.taipei. 26 August 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  16. ^ "Hammer Throw Results" (PDF). IAAF. 28 September 2019. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  17. ^ 2004 Olympic Hammer Throw Medalists. Olympic.org. Retrieved on 2014-04-19.
  18. ^ a b Engeler, Elaine (10 June 2010). "CAS Reinstates Medals for Hammer Throwers". Yahoo! Sports. Associated Press. Retrieved 15 June 2010.

External links[edit]