Triple jump

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the athletics event. For the jump with three revolutions in figure ice-skating and roller-skating, see Figure skating jump.
Athletics
Triple jump
Willie Banks Jr. in Seoul 1988.jpg
Former world record holder Willie Banks.
Men's records
World Jonathan Edwards 18.29 m (60 ft 0 in) (1995)
Olympic Kenny Harrison 18.09 m (59 ft 4 in) (1996)
Women's records
World Inessa Kravets 15.50 m (50 ft 10 in) (1995)
Olympic Françoise Mbango 15.39 m (50 ft 534 in) (2008)
International University Sports Federation - Gwangju 2015 - Men's Triple Jump Final, Dmitrii SOROKIN (RUS 17.29) wins Gold.

The triple jump, sometimes referred to as the hop, step and jump or the hop, skip and jump, is a track and field event, similar to the long jump. The competitor runs down the track and performs a hop, a bound and then a jump into the sand pit. The triple jump was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games and has been a modern Olympics event since the Games' inception in 1896.

According to IAAF rules, "the hop shall be made so that an athlete lands first on the same foot as that from which he has taken off; in the step he shall land on the other foot, from which, subsequently, the jump is performed." [1]

The current male and female world record holders are Jonathan Edwards of Great Britain, with a jump of 18.29 m (60 ft 0 in), and Inessa Kravets of Ukraine, with a jump of 15.50 m (50 ft 10 in). Both records were set during 1995 World Championships in Gothenburg.

History[edit]

Historical sources on the ancient Olympic Games occasionally mention jumps of 15 meters or more. This led sports historians to conclude that these must have been a series of jumps, thus providing the basis for the triple jump.[2] However, there is no evidence for the triple jump being included in the ancient Olympic Games, and it is possible that the recorded extraordinary distances are due to artistic license of the authors of victory poems, rather than attempts to report accurate results.[3]

The triple jump was a part of the inaugural modern Olympics in Athens, although at the time it consisted of two hops on the same foot and then a jump. In fact, the first modern Olympic champion, James Connolly, was a triple jumper. Early Olympics also included the standing triple jump, although this has since been removed from the Olympic program and is rarely performed in competition today. The women's triple jump was introduced into the Atlanta Olympics in 1996.[4]

In Irish mythology the geal-ruith (triple jump), was an event contested in the ancient Irish Tailteann Games as early as 1829 BC.[5]

Technique[edit]

Approach[edit]

The athlete sprints down a runway to a takeoff mark, from which the triple jump is measured. The takeoff mark is commonly a physical piece of wood or similar material embedded in the runway, or a rectangle painted on the runway surface. In modern championships a strip of plasticine, tape, or modeling clay is attached to the far edge of the board to record athletes overstepping or "scratching" the mark, defined by the trailing edge of the board. There are three phases of the triple jump: the "hop" phase, the "bound" or "step" phase, and the "jump" phase. These three phases are executed in one continuous sequence.

Phases of Phillips Idowu jumping at the 2008 Summer Olympics

Hop[edit]

The hop starts with the athlete jumping from the take off board on one leg, which for descriptive purposes will be the right leg . The objective of the first phase is to hop out, focusing all momentum forward. The hop landing phase is very active, involving a powerful backward "pawing" action of the right leg, with the right take-off foot landing heel first on the runway.

Step[edit]

The hop landing also marks the beginning of the step phase, where the athlete utilises the backward momentum of the right leg to immediately execute a powerful jump forwards and upwards, the left leg assisting the take-off with a powerful hip flexion thrust. This leads to the familiar step-phase mid-air position, with the right take off leg trailing flexed at the knee, and the left leg now leading flexed at the hip and knee. The jumper then holds this position for as long as possible, before extending the knee of the leading left leg and then immediately beginning a powerful backward motion of the whole left leg, again landing on the runway with a powerful pawing action.

Jump[edit]

The step landing forms the beginning of the take-off of the final phase (the jump), where the athlete utilises the backward force from the left leg to take off again. The jump phase is very similar to the long jump although most athletes have lost too much speed by this time to manage a full hitch kick, and most use a hang or sail technique.


When landing in the sand-filled pit, the jumper should aim to avoid sitting back on landing, or placing either hand behind the feet. The sand pit usually begins 13m from the take off board for male international competition, or 11m from the board for international female and club-level male competition. Each phase of the triple jump should get progressively higher, and there should be a regular rhythm to the 3 landings.

Foul[edit]

A "foul", also known as a "scratch," or missed jump, occurs when a jumper oversteps the takeoff mark, misses the pit entirely, does not use the correct foot sequence throughout the phases, or does not perform the attempt in the allotted amount of time (usually about 90 seconds). When a jumper "scratches," the seated official will raise a red flag and the jumper who was "on deck," or up next, prepares to jump.

Records[edit]

Outdoor[edit]

Area Men's Women's
Mark (m) Athlete Mark (m) Athlete
World 18.29 m (60 ft 0 in)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR) 15.50 m (50 ft 10 in)  Inessa Kravets (UKR)
Continental records
Africa 17.37 m (56 ft 1134 in)  Tarik Bouguetaïb (MAR) 15.39 m (50 ft 534 in)  Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR)
Asia 17.59 m (57 ft 812 in)  Yanxi Li (CHN) 15.25 m (50 ft 014 in)  Olga Rypakova (KAZ)
Europe 18.29 m (60 ft 0 in)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR) 15.50 m (50 ft 10 in)  Inessa Kravets (UKR)
North, Central America
and Caribbean
18.21 m (59 ft 834 in)  Christian Taylor (USA) 15.29 m (50 ft 134 in)  Yamilé Aldama (CUB)
Oceania 17.46 m (57 ft 314 in)  Ken Lorraway (AUS) 14.04 m (46 ft 034 in)  Nicole Mladenis (AUS)
South America 17.90 m (58 ft 812 in)  Jadel Gregório (BRA) 15.31 m (50 ft 234 in)  Caterine Ibargüen (COL)

Note: As in all track-and-field events, results cannot count towards records if they are Wind assisted (>2.0 m/s).

All-time top 25 athletes[edit]

Men (absolute)[edit]

Rank Mark Wind (m/s) Athlete Location Date Ref
1 18.29 m (60 ft 0 in) 1.3  Jonathan Edwards (GBR) Gothenburg 7 August 1995
2 18.21 m (59 ft 834 in) 0.2  Christian Taylor (USA) Beijing 27 August 2015 [12]
3 18.09 m (59 ft 4 in) −0.4  Kenny Harrison (USA) Atlanta 27 July 1996
4 18.08 m (59 ft 334 in) 0.0  Pedro Pablo Pichardo (CUB) Havana 28 May 2015 [13]
5 18.04 m (59 ft 2 in) 0.3  Teddy Tamgho (FRA) Moscow 18 August 2013
6 17.97 m (58 ft 1114 in) 1.5  Willie Banks (USA) Indianapolis 16 June 1985
7 17.92 m (58 ft 912 in) 1.6  Khristo Markov (BUL) Rome 31 August 1987
1.9  James Beckford (JAM) Odessa 20 May 1995
9 17.90 m (58 ft 812 in) 0.4  Jadel Gregório (BRA) Belém 20 May 2007
1.0  Vladimir Inozemtsev (URS) Bratislava 20 June 1990
11 17.89 m (58 ft 814 in) 0.0  João Carlos de Oliveira (BRA) Mexico City 15 October 1975
12 17.87 m (58 ft 712 in) 1.7  Mike Conley (USA) San Jose 27 June 1987
13 17.86 m (58 ft 7 in) 1.3  Charles Simpkins (USA) Kobe 2 September 1985
14 17.85 m (58 ft 634 in) 0.0  Yoelbi Quesada (CUB) Athens 8 August 1997
15 17.83 m (58 ft 534 in) indoor  Aliecer Urrutia (CUB) Sindelfingen 1 March 1997
indoor  Christian Olsson (SWE) Budapest 7 March 2004
17 17.81 m (58 ft 5 in) 1.0  Marian Oprea (ROU) Lausanne 5 July 2005
0.1  Phillips Idowu (GBR) Barcelona 29 July 2009
19 17.78 m (58 ft 4 in) 1.0  Nikolay Musiyenko (URS) Leningrad 7 June 1986
0.6  Lazaro Betancourt (CUB) Havana 15 June 1986
0.8  Melvin Lister (USA) Havana 17 July 2004
22 17.77 m (58 ft 312 in) 1.0  Aleksandr Kovalenko (URS) Bryansk 18 July 1987
indoor  Leonid Voloshin (RUS) Grenoble 6 February 1994
24 17.75 m (58 ft 234 in) 0.3  Oleg Protsenko (URS) Moscow 10 June 1990
0.8  Will Claye (USA) Sacramento 27 June 2014

Women (absolute)[edit]

Rank Mark Wind (m/s) Athlete Location Date
1 15.50 m (50 ft 10 in) 0.9  Inessa Kravets (UKR) Gothenburg 10 August 1995
2 15.39 m (50 ft 534 in) 0.5  Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR) Beijing 17 August 2008
3 15.36 m (50 ft 412 in) indoor  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS) Budapest 6 March 2004
4 15.32 m (50 ft 3 in) 0.9  Hrysopiyi Devetzi (GRE) Athens 21 August 2004
5 15.31 m (50 ft 234 in) 0.0  Catherine Ibargüen (COL) Monaco 18 July 2014
6 15.29 m (50 ft 134 in) 0.3  Yamilé Aldama (CUB) Rome 11 July 2003
7 15.28 m (50 ft 112 in) 0.9  Yargelis Savigne (CUB) Osaka 31 August 2007
8 15.25 m (50 ft 014 in) 1.7  Olga Rypakova (KAZ) Split 4 September 2010
9 15.20 m (49 ft 1014 in) 0.0  Šárka Kašpárková (CZE) Athens 4 August 1997
−0.3  Tereza Marinova (BUL) Sydney 24 September 2000
11 15.18 m (49 ft 912 in) 0.3  Iva Prandzheva (BUL) Goteborg 10 August 1995
12 15.16 m (49 ft 834 in) 0.1  Rodica Mateescu (ROU) Athens 4 August 1997
0.7  Trecia Smith (JAM) Linz 2 August 2004
indoor  Ashia Hansen (GBR) Valencia 28 February 1998
15 15.14 m (49 ft 8 in) 1.9  Nadezhda Alekhina (RUS) Cheboksary 26 July 2009
16 15.09 m (49 ft 6 in) 0.5  Anna Biryukova (RUS) Stuttgart 29 August 1993
−0.3  Inna Lasovskaya (RUS) Valencia 31 May 1997
18 15.08 m (49 ft 512 in) indoor  Marija Šestak (SLO) Peania 13 February 2008
19 15.07 m (49 ft 514 in) −0.6  Paraskevi Tsiamita (GRE) Sevilla 22 August 1999
20 15.04 m (49 ft 4 in) 1.7  Ekaterina Koneva (RUS) Eugene 30 May 2015
21 15.03 m (49 ft 312 in) 1.9  Magdelin Martinez (ITA) Rome 26 June 2004
indoor  Iolanda Chen (RUS) Barcelona 11 March 1995
23 15.02 m (49 ft 314 in) 0.9  Anna Pyatykh (RUS) Goteborg 9 August 2006
24 15.00 m (49 ft 212 in) 1.2  Kene Ndoye (SEN) Iraklio 4 July 2004
25 14.99 m (49 ft 2 in) 0.2  Olga Saladukha (UKR) Helsinki 29 June 2012

Olympic medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
 James Connolly (USA)  Alexandre Tuffèri (FRA)  Ioannis Persakis (GRE)
1900 Paris
details
 Myer Prinstein (USA)  James Connolly (USA)  Lewis Sheldon (USA)
1904 St. Louis
details
 Myer Prinstein (USA)  Fred Englehardt (USA)  Robert Stangland (USA)
1908 London
details
 Tim Ahearne (GBR)  Garfield MacDonald (CAN)  Edvard Larsen (NOR)
1912 Stockholm
details
 Gustaf Lindblom (SWE)  Georg Åberg (SWE)  Erik Almlöf (SWE)
1920 Antwerp
details
 Vilho Tuulos (FIN)  Folke Jansson (SWE)  Erik Almlöf (SWE)
1924 Paris
details
 Nick Winter (AUS)  Luis Brunetto (ARG)  Vilho Tuulos (FIN)
1928 Amsterdam
details
 Mikio Oda (JPN)  Levi Casey (USA)  Vilho Tuulos (FIN)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 Chuhei Nambu (JPN)  Erik Svensson (SWE)  Kenkichi Oshima (JPN)
1936 Berlin
details
 Naoto Tajima (JPN)  Masao Harada (JPN)  Jack Metcalfe (AUS)
1948 London
details
 Arne Åhman (SWE)  George Avery (AUS)  Ruhi Sarialp (TUR)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Adhemar da Silva (BRA)  Leonid Shcherbakov (URS)  Arnoldo Devonish (VEN)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Adhemar da Silva (BRA)  Vilhjálmur Einarsson (ISL)  Vitold Kreyer (URS)
1960 Rome
details
 Józef Szmidt (POL)  Vladimir Goryaev (URS)  Vitold Kreyer (URS)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Józef Szmidt (POL)  Oleg Fyodoseyev (URS)  Viktor Kravchenko (URS)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Viktor Saneyev (URS)  Nelson Prudencio (BRA)  Giuseppe Gentile (ITA)
1972 Munich
details
 Viktor Saneyev (URS)  Jörg Drehmel (GDR)  Nelson Prudencio (BRA)
1976 Montreal
details
 Viktor Saneyev (URS)  James Butts (USA)  João Carlos de Oliveira (BRA)
1980 Moscow
details
 Jaak Uudmäe (URS)  Viktor Saneyev (URS)  João Carlos de Oliveira (BRA)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Al Joyner (USA)  Mike Conley, Sr. (USA)  Keith Connor (GBR)
1988 Seoul
details
 Khristo Markov (BUL)  Igor Lapshin (URS)  Aleksandr Kovalenko (URS)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Mike Conley, Sr. (USA)  Charles Simpkins (USA)  Frank Rutherford (BAH)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Kenny Harrison (USA)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR)  Yoelbi Quesada (CUB)
2000 Sydney
details
 Jonathan Edwards (GBR)  Yoel García (CUB)  Denis Kapustin (RUS)
2004 Athens
details
 Christian Olsson (SWE)  Marian Oprea (ROU)  Danil Burkenya (RUS)
2008 Beijing
details
 Nelson Évora (POR)  Phillips Idowu (GBR)  Leevan Sands (BAH)
2012 London
details
 Christian Taylor (USA)  Will Claye (USA)  Fabrizio Donato (ITA)

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1996 Atlanta
details
 Inessa Kravets (UKR)  Inna Lasovskaya (RUS)  Šárka Kašpárková (CZE)
2000 Sydney
details
 Tereza Marinova (BUL)  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)  Olena Hovorova (UKR)
2004 Athens
details
 Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR)  Hrysopiyí Devetzí (GRE)  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)
2008 Beijing
details
 Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR)  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)  Hrysopiyí Devetzí (GRE)
2012 London
details
 Olga Rypakova (KAZ)  Caterine Ibargüen (COL)  Olha Saladukha (UKR)

World Championships medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki  Zdzisław Hoffmann (POL)  Willie Banks (USA)  Ajayi Agbebaku (NGR)
1987 Rome  Khristo Markov (BUL)  Mike Conley (USA)  Oleg Sakirkin (URS)
1991 Tokyo  Kenny Harrison (USA)  Leonid Voloshin (URS)  Mike Conley (USA)
1993 Stuttgart  Mike Conley (USA)  Leonid Voloshin (RUS)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR)
1995 Gothenburg  Jonathan Edwards (GBR)  Brian Wellman (BER)  Jerome Romain (DMA)
1997 Athens  Yoelbi Quesada (CUB)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR)  Aliecer Urrutia (CUB)
1999 Seville  Charles Friedek (GER)  Rostislav Dimitrov (BUL)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR)
2001 Edmonton  Jonathan Edwards (GBR)  Christian Olsson (SWE)  Igor Spasovkhodskiy (RUS)
2003 Saint-Denis  Christian Olsson (SWE)  Yoandri Betanzos (CUB)  Leevan Sands (BAH)
2005 Helsinki  Walter Davis (USA)  Yoandri Betanzos (CUB)  Marian Oprea (ROU)
2007 Osaka  Nelson Évora (POR)  Jadel Gregório (BRA)  Walter Davis (USA)
2009 Berlin  Phillips Idowu (GBR)  Nelson Évora (POR)  Alexis Copello (CUB)
2011 Daegu  Christian Taylor (USA)  Phillips Idowu (GBR)  Will Claye (USA)
2013 Moscow  Teddy Tamgho (FRA)  Pedro Pablo Pichardo (CUB)  Will Claye (USA)
2015 Beijing  Christian Taylor (USA)  Pedro Pablo Pichardo (CUB)  Nelson Évora (POR)

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1993 Stuttgart  Anna Biryukova (RUS)  Yolanda Chen (RUS)  Iva Prandzheva (BUL)
1995 Gothenburg  Inessa Kravets (UKR)  Iva Prandzheva (BUL)  Anna Biryukova (RUS)
1997 Athens  Šárka Kašpárková (CZE)  Rodica Mateescu (ROU)  Olena Hovorova (UKR)
1999 Seville  Paraskevi Tsiamita (GRE)  Yamilé Aldama (CUB)  Olga Vasdeki (GRE)
2001 Edmonton  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)  Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR)  Tereza Marinova (BUL)
2003 Saint-Denis  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)  Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR)  Magdelin Martinez (ITA)
2005 Helsinki  Trecia Smith (JAM)  Yargelis Savigne (CUB)  Anna Pyatykh (RUS)
2007 Osaka  Yargelis Savigne (CUB)  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)  Hrysopiyí Devetzí (GRE)
2009 Berlin  Yargelis Savigne (CUB)  Mabel Gay (CUB)  Anna Pyatykh (RUS)
2011 Daegu  Olha Saladukha (UKR)  Olga Rypakova (KAZ)  Caterine Ibargüen (COL)
2013 Moscow  Caterine Ibargüen (COL)  Ekaterina Koneva (RUS)  Olha Saladukha (UKR)
2015 Beijing  Caterine Ibargüen (COL)  Hanna Knyazyeva-Minenko (ISR)  Olga Rypakova (KAZ)

Season's bests[edit]

  • "i" denotes indoor performance.

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "IAAF Competition Rules 2012-2013" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-08-18. 
  2. ^ Rosenbaum, Mike (2012). An Illustrated History of the Triple Jump. Retrieved from http://trackandfield.about.com/od/triplejump/ss/illustriplejump.htm.
  3. ^ Koski, Rissanen & Tahvanainen (2004). Antiikin urheilu. Olympian kentiltä Rooman areenoille. [The Sports of Antiquity. From the Fields of Olympia to Roman Arenas.] Jyväskylä: Atena Kustannus Oy. ISBN 951-796-341-6
  4. ^ "Athletics at the 1996 Atlanta Summer Games: Women's Triple Jump". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 2013-08-18. 
  5. ^ Adams, Patricia (2006-03-01). History of the Highland Games and Women in Scottish Athletics. ...contained in the Irish "Book of Leinster", which was written in the twelfth century AD...this book describes the Tailteann Games held at Telltown, County Meath from 1829 BC until at least 554 BC...included in these events...were the geal-ruith (triple jump). Clan MacTavish Genealogy and History, 1 March 2006. Retrieved from http://www.dunardry.net/ladies_lounge.html.
  6. ^ Men's Outdoor Triple Jump Records. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  7. ^ Women's Outdoor Triple Jump Records. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  8. ^ Triple Jump - men - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  9. ^ Triple Jump - women - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  10. ^ Triple Jump - men - senior - indoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  11. ^ Triple Jump - women - senior - indoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  12. ^ "Triple Jump Results" (PDF). IAAF. 27 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015. 
  13. ^ Javier Clavelo Robinson; Phil Minshull (29 May 2015). "Pichardo triple jumps 18.08m in Havana". IAAF. Retrieved 30 May 2015. 

External links[edit]