Triple jump

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This article is about the athletics event. For the jump with three revolutions in figure ice-skating and roller-skating, see Figure skating jump.
Triple jump
Willie Banks Jr. in Seoul 1988.jpg
Former world record holder Willie Banks during the 1988 Summer Olympics Seoul, South Korea.
Men's records
World Jonathan Edwards 18.29 m (60 ft 0 in) (1995)
Olympic Kenny Harrison 18.09 m (59 ft 4 in) (1996)
Women's records
World Inessa Kravets 15.50 m (50 ft 10 in) (1995)
Olympic Françoise Mbango 15.39 m (50 ft 534 in) (2008)
International University Sports Federation - Gwangju 2015 - Men's Triple Jump Final, Dmitrii SOROKIN (RUS 17.29) wins Gold.

The triple jump, sometimes referred to as the hop, step and jump or the hop, skip and jump, is a track and field event, similar to the long jump. As a group, the two events are referred to as the "horizontal jumps." The competitor runs down the track and performs a hop, a bound and then a jump into the sand pit. The triple jump was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games and has been a modern Olympics event since the Games' inception in 1896.

According to IAAF rules, "the hop shall be made so that an athlete lands first on the same foot as that from which he has taken off; in the step he shall land on the other foot, from which, subsequently, the jump is performed."[1]

The current male and female world record holders are Jonathan Edwards of Great Britain, with a jump of 18.29 m (60 ft 0 in), and Inessa Kravets of Ukraine, with a jump of 15.50 m (50 ft 10 in). Both records were set during 1995 World Championships in Gothenburg.


Historical sources on the ancient Olympic Games occasionally mention jumps of 15 meters or more. This led sports historians to conclude that these must have been a series of jumps, thus providing the basis for the triple jump.[2] However, there is no evidence for the triple jump being included in the ancient Olympic Games, and it is possible that the recorded extraordinary distances are due to artistic license of the authors of victory poems, rather than attempts to report accurate results.[3]

The triple jump was a part of the inaugural modern Olympics in Athens, although at the time it consisted of two hops on the same foot and then a jump. In fact, the first modern Olympic champion, James Connolly, was a triple jumper. Early Olympics also included the standing triple jump, although this has since been removed from the Olympic program and is rarely performed in competition today. The women's triple jump was introduced into the Atlanta Olympics in 1996.[4]

In Irish mythology the geal-ruith (triple jump), was an event contested in the ancient Irish Tailteann Games as early as 1829 BC.[5]



The athlete sprints down a runway to a takeoff mark, from which the triple jump is measured. The takeoff mark is commonly a physical piece of wood or similar material embedded in the runway, or a rectangle painted on the runway surface. In modern championships a strip of plasticine, tape, or modeling clay is attached to the far edge of the board to record athletes overstepping or "scratching" the mark, defined by the trailing edge of the board. There are three phases of the triple jump: the "hop" phase, the "bound" or "step" phase, and the "jump" phase. These three phases are executed in one continuous sequence.

Phases of Phillips Idowu jumping at the 2008 Summer Olympics


The hop starts with the athlete jumping from the take off board on one leg, which for descriptive purposes will be the right leg . The objective of the first phase is to hop out, focusing all momentum forward. The hop landing phase is very active, involving a powerful backward "pawing" action of the right leg, with the right take-off foot landing heel first on the runway.


The hop landing also marks the beginning of the step phase, where the athlete utilises the backward momentum of the right leg to immediately execute a powerful jump forwards and upwards, the left leg assisting the take-off with a powerful hip flexion thrust. This leads to the familiar step-phase mid-air position, with the right take off leg trailing flexed at the knee, and the left leg now leading flexed at the hip and knee. The jumper then holds this position for as long as possible, before extending the knee of the leading left leg and then immediately beginning a powerful backward motion of the whole left leg, again landing on the runway with a powerful pawing action.


The step landing forms the beginning of the take-off of the final phase (the jump), where the athlete utilises the backward force from the left leg to take off again. The jump phase is very similar to the long jump although most athletes have lost too much speed by this time to manage a full hitch kick, and most use a hang or sail technique.

When landing in the sand-filled pit, the jumper should aim to avoid sitting back on landing, or placing either hand behind the feet. The sand pit usually begins 13m from the take off board for male international competition, or 11m from the board for international female and club-level male competition. Each phase of the triple jump should get progressively higher, and there should be a regular rhythm to the 3 landings.


A "foul", also known as a "scratch," or missed jump, occurs when a jumper oversteps the takeoff mark, misses the pit entirely, does not use the correct foot sequence throughout the phases, or does not perform the attempt in the allotted amount of time (usually about 90 seconds). When a jumper "scratches," the seated official will raise a red flag and the jumper who was "on deck," or up next, prepares to jump.

It shall not be considered a foul if an athlete, while jumping, should touch or scrape the ground with his/her "sleeping leg". Also called a "scrape foul", "sleeping leg" touch violations were ruled as fouls prior to the mid-1980s. The IAAF changed the rules following outrage at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, when Russian field officials in the Men's Triple Jump ruled as foul 8 of the 12 jumps made by two leading competitors (from Brazil and Australia) thus helping two Russian jumpers win the Gold and Silver medals.



Area Men's Women's
Mark (m) Athlete Mark (m) Athlete
World 18.29 m (60 ft 0 in)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR) 15.50 m (50 ft 10 in)  Inessa Kravets (UKR)
Continental records
Africa 17.37 m (56 ft 1134 in)  Tarik Bouguetaïb (MAR) 15.39 m (50 ft 534 in)  Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR)
Asia 17.59 m (57 ft 812 in)  Yanxi Li (CHN) 15.25 m (50 ft 014 in)  Olga Rypakova (KAZ)
Europe 18.29 m (60 ft 0 in)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR) 15.50 m (50 ft 10 in)  Inessa Kravets (UKR)
North, Central America
and Caribbean
18.21 m (59 ft 834 in)  Christian Taylor (USA) 15.29 m (50 ft 134 in)  Yamilé Aldama (CUB)
Oceania 17.46 m (57 ft 314 in)  Ken Lorraway (AUS) 14.04 m (46 ft 034 in)  Nicole Mladenis (AUS)
South America 17.90 m (58 ft 812 in)  Jadel Gregório (BRA) 15.31 m (50 ft 234 in)  Caterine Ibargüen (COL)

Note: As in all track-and-field events, results cannot count towards records if they are Wind assisted (>2.0 m/s).

All-time top 25 athletes[edit]


  set prior to IAAF acceptance of indoor events as equivalent with outdoor events (in 2000)

Men (Absolute)[edit]

Rank Mark Wind (m/s) Athlete Date Location Ref
1 18.29 m (60 ft 0 in) 1.3  Jonathan Edwards (GBR) | 7 August 1995 Gothenburg
2 18.21 m (59 ft 834 in) 0.2  Christian Taylor (USA) 27 August 2015 Beijing [12]
3 18.09 m (59 ft 4 in) −0.4  Kenny Harrison (USA) 27 July 1996 Atlanta
4 18.08 m (59 ft 334 in) 0.0  Pedro Pablo Pichardo (CUB) 28 May 2015 Havana [13]
5 18.04 m (59 ft 2 in) 0.3  Teddy Tamgho (FRA) 18 August 2013 Moscow
6 17.97 m (58 ft 1114 in) 1.5  Willie Banks (USA) 16 June 1985 Indianapolis
7 17.92 m (58 ft 912 in) 1.6  Khristo Markov (BUL) 31 August 1987 Rome
1.9  James Beckford (JAM) 20 May 1995 Odessa
9 17.90 m (58 ft 812 in) 0.4  Jadel Gregório (BRA) 20 May 2007 Belém
1.0  Vladimir Inozemtsev (URS) 20 June 1990 Bratislava
11 17.89 m (58 ft 814 in) 0.0  João Carlos de Oliveira (BRA) 15 October 1975 Mexico City
12 17.87 m (58 ft 712 in) 1.7  Mike Conley (USA) 27 June 1987 San Jose
13 17.86 m (58 ft 7 in) 1.3  Charles Simpkins (USA) 2 September 1985 Kobe
14 17.85 m (58 ft 634 in) 0.0  Yoelbi Quesada (CUB) 8 August 1997 Athens
15 17.83 m (58 ft 534 in)
indoor  Aliecer Urrutia (CUB) 1 March 1997 Sindelfingen
indoor  Christian Olsson (SWE) 7 March 2004 Budapest
17 17.81 m (58 ft 5 in) 1.0  Marian Oprea (ROU) 5 July 2005 Lausanne
0.1  Phillips Idowu (GBR) 29 July 2009 Barcelona
19 17.78 m (58 ft 4 in) 1.0  Nikolay Musiyenko (URS) 7 June 1986 Leningrad
0.6  Lazaro Betancourt (CUB) 15 June 1986 Havana
0.8  Melvin Lister (USA) 17 July 2004 Havana
22 17.77 m (58 ft 312 in) 1.0  Aleksandr Kovalenko (URS) 18 July 1987 Bryansk
indoor  Leonid Voloshin (RUS) 6 February 1994 Grenoble
24 17.76 m (58 ft 3 in) 0.4  Will Claye (USA) 16 August 2016 Rio de Janeiro [14]
25 17.75 m (58 ft 234 in) 0.3  Oleg Protsenko (URS) 10 June 1990 Moscow
  • Note: Jonathan Edwards also jumped 18.16 m (1995), 18.01 m (1998), 17.92 m (2001), 17.88 m (1996) and 17.86 m (2002).
  • Note: Pedro Pablo Pichardo also jumped 18.06 (2015) and 17.94 (2015).
  • Note: Christian Taylor also jumped 17.86 (2016), 17.80 (2016), 17.78 (2016) and 17.76 m (2016).
  • Note: Will Claye also jumped 17.75 (2014).

Women (absolute)[edit]

Rank Mark Wind (m/s) Athlete Date Location Ref
1 15.50 m (50 ft 10 in) 0.9  Inessa Kravets (UKR) 10 August 1995 Gothenburg
2 15.39 m (50 ft 534 in) 0.5  Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR) 17 August 2008 Beijing
3 15.36 m (50 ft 412 in) indoor  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS) 6 March 2004 Budapest
4 15.32 m (50 ft 3 in) 0.9  Hrysopiyi Devetzi (GRE) 21 August 2004 Athens
5 15.31 m (50 ft 234 in) 0.0  Catherine Ibargüen (COL) 18 July 2014 Monaco
6 15.29 m (50 ft 134 in) 0.3  Yamilé Aldama (CUB) 11 July 2003 Rome
7 15.28 m (50 ft 112 in) 0.9  Yargelis Savigne (CUB) 31 August 2007 Osaka
8 15.25 m (50 ft 014 in) 1.7  Olga Rypakova (KAZ) 4 September 2010 Split
9 15.20 m (49 ft 1014 in) 0.0  Šárka Kašpárková (CZE) 4 August 1997 Athens
−0.3  Tereza Marinova (BUL) 24 September 2000 Sydney
11 15.18 m (49 ft 912 in) 0.3  Iva Prandzheva (BUL) 10 August 1995 Gothenburg
12 15.16 m (49 ft 834 in) 0.1  Rodica Mateescu (ROU) 4 August 1997 Athens
0.7  Trecia Smith (JAM) 2 August 2004 Linz
indoor  Ashia Hansen (GBR) 28 February 1998 Valencia
15 15.14 m (49 ft 8 in) 1.9  Nadezhda Alekhina (RUS) 26 July 2009 Cheboksary
16 15.09 m (49 ft 6 in) 0.5  Anna Biryukova (RUS) 29 August 1993 Stuttgart
−0.5  Inna Lasovskaya (RUS) 31 May 1997 Valencia
18 15.08 m (49 ft 512 in) indoor  Marija Šestak (SLO) 13 February 2008 Peania
19 15.07 m (49 ft 514 in) −0.6  Paraskevi Tsiamita (GRE) 22 August 1999 Sevilla
20 15.04 m (49 ft 4 in) 1.7  Ekaterina Koneva (RUS) 30 May 2015 Eugene
21 15.03 m (49 ft 312 in) 1.9  Magdelin Martinez (ITA) 26 June 2004 Rome
indoor  Iolanda Chen (RUS) 11 March 1995 Barcelona
23 15.02 m (49 ft 314 in) 0.9  Anna Pyatykh (RUS) 9 August 2006 Gothenburg
–0.4  Yolimar Rojas (VEN) 23 June 2016 Madrid [15]
25 15.00 m (49 ft 212 in) 1.2  Kene Ndoye (SEN) 4 July 2004 Iraklio

Olympic medalists[edit]


Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
 James Connolly (USA)  Alexandre Tuffère (FRA)  Ioannis Persakis (GRE)
1900 Paris
 Myer Prinstein (USA)  James Connolly (USA)  Lewis Sheldon (USA)
1904 St. Louis
 Myer Prinstein (USA)  Fred Englehardt (USA)  Robert Stangland (USA)
1908 London
 Tim Ahearne (GBR)  Garfield MacDonald (CAN)  Edvard Larsen (NOR)
1912 Stockholm
 Gustaf Lindblom (SWE)  Georg Åberg (SWE)  Erik Almlöf (SWE)
1920 Antwerp
 Vilho Tuulos (FIN)  Folke Jansson (SWE)  Erik Almlöf (SWE)
1924 Paris
 Nick Winter (AUS)  Luis Brunetto (ARG)  Vilho Tuulos (FIN)
1928 Amsterdam
 Mikio Oda (JPN)  Levi Casey (USA)  Vilho Tuulos (FIN)
1932 Los Angeles
 Chuhei Nambu (JPN)  Erik Svensson (SWE)  Kenkichi Oshima (JPN)
1936 Berlin
 Naoto Tajima (JPN)  Masao Harada (JPN)  Jack Metcalfe (AUS)
1948 London
 Arne Åhman (SWE)  George Avery (AUS)  Ruhi Sarialp (TUR)
1952 Helsinki
 Adhemar da Silva (BRA)  Leonid Shcherbakov (URS)  Arnoldo Devonish (VEN)
1956 Melbourne
 Adhemar da Silva (BRA)  Vilhjálmur Einarsson (ISL)  Vitold Kreyer (URS)
1960 Rome
 Józef Szmidt (POL)  Vladimir Goryaev (URS)  Vitold Kreyer (URS)
1964 Tokyo
 Józef Szmidt (POL)  Oleg Fyodoseyev (URS)  Viktor Kravchenko (URS)
1968 Mexico City
 Viktor Saneyev (URS)  Nelson Prudencio (BRA)  Giuseppe Gentile (ITA)
1972 Munich
 Viktor Saneyev (URS)  Jörg Drehmel (GDR)  Nelson Prudencio (BRA)
1976 Montreal
 Viktor Saneyev (URS)  James Butts (USA)  João Carlos de Oliveira (BRA)
1980 Moscow
 Jaak Uudmäe (URS)  Viktor Saneyev (URS)  João Carlos de Oliveira (BRA)
1984 Los Angeles
 Al Joyner (USA)  Mike Conley, Sr. (USA)  Keith Connor (GBR)
1988 Seoul
 Khristo Markov (BUL)  Igor Lapshin (URS)  Aleksandr Kovalenko (URS)
1992 Barcelona
 Mike Conley, Sr. (USA)  Charles Simpkins (USA)  Frank Rutherford (BAH)
1996 Atlanta
 Kenny Harrison (USA)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR)  Yoelbi Quesada (CUB)
2000 Sydney
 Jonathan Edwards (GBR)  Yoel García (CUB)  Denis Kapustin (RUS)
2004 Athens
 Christian Olsson (SWE)  Marian Oprea (ROU)  Danil Burkenya (RUS)
2008 Beijing
 Nelson Évora (POR)  Phillips Idowu (GBR)  Leevan Sands (BAH)
2012 London
 Christian Taylor (USA)  Will Claye (USA)  Fabrizio Donato (ITA)
2016 Rio de Janeiro
 Christian Taylor (USA)  Will Claye (USA)  Dong Bin (CHN)


Games Gold Silver Bronze
1996 Atlanta
 Inessa Kravets (UKR)  Inna Lasovskaya (RUS)  Šárka Kašpárková (CZE)
2000 Sydney
 Tereza Marinova (BUL)  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)  Olena Hovorova (UKR)
2004 Athens
 Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR)  Hrysopiyí Devetzí (GRE)  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)
2008 Beijing
 Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR)  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)  Hrysopiyí Devetzí (GRE)
2012 London
 Olga Rypakova (KAZ)  Caterine Ibargüen (COL)  Olha Saladukha (UKR)
2016 Rio de Janeiro
 Caterine Ibargüen (COL)  Yulimar Rojas (VEN)  Olga Rypakova (KAZ)

World Championships medalists[edit]


Games Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki  Zdzisław Hoffmann (POL)  Willie Banks (USA)  Ajayi Agbebaku (NGR)
1987 Rome  Khristo Markov (BUL)  Mike Conley (USA)  Oleg Sakirkin (URS)
1991 Tokyo  Kenny Harrison (USA)  Leonid Voloshin (URS)  Mike Conley (USA)
1993 Stuttgart  Mike Conley (USA)  Leonid Voloshin (RUS)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR)
1995 Gothenburg  Jonathan Edwards (GBR)  Brian Wellman (BER)  Jerome Romain (DMA)
1997 Athens  Yoelbi Quesada (CUB)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR)  Aliecer Urrutia (CUB)
1999 Seville  Charles Friedek (GER)  Rostislav Dimitrov (BUL)  Jonathan Edwards (GBR)
2001 Edmonton  Jonathan Edwards (GBR)  Christian Olsson (SWE)  Igor Spasovkhodskiy (RUS)
2003 Saint-Denis  Christian Olsson (SWE)  Yoandri Betanzos (CUB)  Leevan Sands (BAH)
2005 Helsinki  Walter Davis (USA)  Yoandri Betanzos (CUB)  Marian Oprea (ROU)
2007 Osaka  Nelson Évora (POR)  Jadel Gregório (BRA)  Walter Davis (USA)
2009 Berlin  Phillips Idowu (GBR)  Nelson Évora (POR)  Alexis Copello (CUB)
2011 Daegu  Christian Taylor (USA)  Phillips Idowu (GBR)  Will Claye (USA)
2013 Moscow  Teddy Tamgho (FRA)  Pedro Pablo Pichardo (CUB)  Will Claye (USA)
2015 Beijing  Christian Taylor (USA)  Pedro Pablo Pichardo (CUB)  Nelson Évora (POR)


Games Gold Silver Bronze
1993 Stuttgart  Anna Biryukova (RUS)  Yolanda Chen (RUS)  Iva Prandzheva (BUL)
1995 Gothenburg  Inessa Kravets (UKR)  Iva Prandzheva (BUL)  Anna Biryukova (RUS)
1997 Athens  Šárka Kašpárková (CZE)  Rodica Mateescu (ROU)  Olena Hovorova (UKR)
1999 Seville  Paraskevi Tsiamita (GRE)  Yamilé Aldama (CUB)  Olga Vasdeki (GRE)
2001 Edmonton  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)  Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR)  Tereza Marinova (BUL)
2003 Saint-Denis  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)  Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR)  Magdelin Martinez (ITA)
2005 Helsinki  Trecia Smith (JAM)  Yargelis Savigne (CUB)  Anna Pyatykh (RUS)
2007 Osaka  Yargelis Savigne (CUB)  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)  Hrysopiyí Devetzí (GRE)
2009 Berlin  Yargelis Savigne (CUB)  Mabel Gay (CUB)  Anna Pyatykh (RUS)
2011 Daegu  Olha Saladukha (UKR)  Olga Rypakova (KAZ)  Caterine Ibargüen (COL)
2013 Moscow  Caterine Ibargüen (COL)  Ekaterina Koneva (RUS)  Olha Saladukha (UKR)
2015 Beijing  Caterine Ibargüen (COL)  Hanna Knyazyeva-Minenko (ISR)  Olga Rypakova (KAZ)

Season's bests[edit]

  • "i" denotes indoor performance.

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "IAAF Competition Rules 2012-2013" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-08-18. 
  2. ^ Rosenbaum, Mike (2012). An Illustrated History of the Triple Jump. Retrieved from
  3. ^ Koski, Rissanen & Tahvanainen (2004). Antiikin urheilu. Olympian kentiltä Rooman areenoille. [The Sports of Antiquity. From the Fields of Olympia to Roman Arenas.] Jyväskylä: Atena Kustannus Oy. ISBN 951-796-341-6
  4. ^ "Athletics at the 1996 Atlanta Summer Games: Women's Triple Jump". Retrieved 2013-08-18. 
  5. ^ Adams, Patricia (2006-03-01). History of the Highland Games and Women in Scottish Athletics. ...contained in the Irish "Book of Leinster", which was written in the twelfth century AD...this book describes the Tailteann Games held at Telltown, County Meath from 1829 BC until at least 554 BC...included in these events...were the geal-ruith (triple jump). Clan MacTavish Genealogy and History, 1 March 2006. Retrieved from
  6. ^ Men's Outdoor Triple Jump Records. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  7. ^ Women's Outdoor Triple Jump Records. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  8. ^ Triple Jump - men - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  9. ^ Triple Jump - women - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  10. ^ Triple Jump - men - senior - indoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  11. ^ Triple Jump - women - senior - indoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  12. ^ "Triple Jump Results" (PDF). IAAF. 27 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015. 
  13. ^ Javier Clavelo Robinson; Phil Minshull (29 May 2015). "Pichardo triple jumps 18.08m in Havana". IAAF. Retrieved 30 May 2015. 
  14. ^ "Men's triple jump" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 16 August 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2016. 
  15. ^ "34th Meeting Madrid 2016 – Women's Triple Jump Results" (PDF). RFEA. 23 June 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016. 

External links[edit]