Jump to content


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Competitors during the 2007 Berlin Marathon
World records
MenKenya Kelvin Kiptum 2:00:35 (2023)
WomenEthiopia Tigst Assefa 2:11:53 (2023)
Olympic records
MenKenya Samuel Wanjiru 2:06:32 (2008)
WomenEthiopia Tiki Gelana 2:23:07 (2012)
World Championship records
MenEthiopia Tamirat Tola 2:05:36 (2022)
WomenEthiopia Gotytom Gebreslase 2:18:11 (2022)
Competitors during the 2014 Orlen Warsaw Marathon
Aerial view of runners in the Kigali International Peace Marathon in Rwanda, 2019
Participant at the 2016 Boston Marathon

The marathon (from Greek Μαραθώνιος) is a long-distance foot race with a distance of 42.195 km (26 mi 385 yd),[1] usually run as a road race, but the distance can be covered on trail routes. The marathon can be completed by running or with a run/walk strategy. There are also wheelchair divisions. More than 800 marathons are held throughout the world each year, with the vast majority of competitors being recreational athletes, as larger marathons can have tens of thousands of participants.[2]

A creation of the French philologist Michel Bréal, the marathon was one of the original modern Olympic events in 1896. The distance did not become standardized until 1921. The distance is also included in the World Athletics Championships, which began in 1983. It is the only running road race included in both championship competitions (walking races on the roads are also contested in both).



Luc-Olivier Merson's 1869 painting depicting the runner announcing the victory at the Battle of Marathon to the people of Athens

The name Marathon comes from the legend of Pheidippides, the Greek messenger. The legend states that, while he was taking part in the Battle of Marathon, which took place in August or September 490 BC,[3] he witnessed a Persian vessel changing its course towards Athens as the battle was near a victorious end for the Greek army. He interpreted this as an attempt by the defeated Persians to rush into the city to claim a false victory or simply raid,[4] hence claiming their authority over Greek land. It was said that he ran the entire distance to Athens without stopping, discarding his weapons and even clothes to lose as much weight as possible, and burst into the assembly, exclaiming "we have won!", before collapsing and dying.[5]

The account of the run from Marathon to Athens first appeared in Plutarch's On the Glory of Athens in the first century AD, which quoted from Heraclides Ponticus's lost work, giving the runner's name as either Thersipus of Erchius or Eucles.[6] This was the account adopted by Benjamin Haydon for his painting Eucles Announcing the Victory of Marathon, published as an engraving in 1836 with a poetical illustration by Letitia Elizabeth Landon.[7] Satirist Lucian of Samosata gave one of the earliest accounts similar to the modern version of the story, but its historical veracity is disputed based on its tongue-in-cheek writing and the runner being referred to as Philippides and not Pheidippides.[8][9][full citation needed]

There is debate about the historical accuracy of this legend.[10][11] The Greek historian Herodotus, the main source for the Greco-Persian Wars, mentioned Philippides as the messenger who ran from Athens to Sparta asking for help, and then ran back, a distance of over 240 kilometres (150 mi) each way.[12] In some Herodotus manuscripts, the name of the runner between Athens and Sparta is given as Philippides. Herodotus makes no mention of a messenger sent from Marathon to Athens, and relates that the main part of the Athenian army, having fought and won the grueling battle, and fearing a naval raid by the Persian fleet against an undefended Athens, marched quickly back from the battle to Athens, arriving the same day.[13]

In 1879, Robert Browning wrote the poem Pheidippides. Browning's poem, his composite story, became part of late 19th century popular culture and was accepted as a historic legend.[14]

Mount Pentelicus stands between Marathon and Athens, which means that Philippides would have had to run around the mountain, either to the north or to the south. The latter and more obvious route is followed by the modern Marathon-Athens highway (EO83EO54), which follows the lay of the land southwards from Marathon Bay and along the coast, then takes a gentle but protracted climb westwards towards the eastern approach to Athens, between the foothills of Mounts Hymettus and Penteli, and then gently downhill to Athens proper. This route, as it existed when the Olympics were revived in 1896, was approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) long. It was the approximate distance originally used for marathon races. However, there have been suggestions that Philippides might have followed another route: a westward climb along the eastern and northern slopes of Mount Penteli to the pass of Dionysos, and then a straight southward downhill path to Athens. This route is slightly shorter, 35 kilometres (22 mi), but includes a very steep climb over the first 5 kilometres (3.1 mi).

Modern Olympic marathon[edit]

When the modern Olympics began in 1896, the initiators and organizers were looking for a great popularizing event, recalling the glory of ancient Greece. The idea of a marathon race came from Michel Bréal, who wanted the event to feature in the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens. This idea was heavily supported by Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympics, as well as by the Greeks.[15] A selection race for the Olympic marathon was held on 22 March 1896 (Gregorian)[a] that was won by Charilaos Vasilakos in 3 hours and 18 minutes.[16] The winner of the first Olympic marathon, on 10 April 1896 (a male-only race), was Spyridon Louis, a Greek water-carrier, in 2 hours 58 minutes and 50 seconds.[17] The marathon of the 2004 Summer Olympics was run on the traditional route from Marathon to Athens, ending at Panathinaiko Stadium, the venue for the 1896 Summer Olympics. That men's marathon was won by Italian Stefano Baldini in 2 hours 10 minutes and 55 seconds, a record time for this route until the non-Olympics Athens Classic Marathon of 2014, when Felix Kandie lowered the course record to 2 hours 10 minutes and 37 seconds.

Burton Holmes's photograph entitled "1896: Three athletes in training for the marathon at the Olympic Games in Athens".[18][19]

The women's marathon was introduced at the 1984 Summer Olympics (Los Angeles, US) and was won by Joan Benoit of the United States with a time of 2 hours 24 minutes and 52 seconds.[20]

It has become a tradition for the men's Olympic marathon to be the last event of the athletics calendar, on the final day of the Olympics.[21] For many years the race finished inside the Olympic stadium; however, at the 2012 Summer Olympics (London), the start and finish were on The Mall,[22] and at the 2016 Summer Olympics (Rio de Janeiro), the start and finish were in the Sambódromo, the parade area that serves as a spectator mall for Carnival.[23]

Often, the men's marathon medals are awarded during the closing ceremony (including the 2004 games, 2012 games and 2016 games).

The Olympic men's record is 2:06:32, set at the 2008 Summer Olympics by Samuel Kamau Wanjiru of Kenya.[24] The Olympic women's record is 2:23:07, set at the 2012 Summer Olympics by Tiki Gelana of Ethiopia.[25] The men's London 2012 Summer Olympic marathon winner was Stephen Kiprotich of Uganda (2:08:01). Per capita, the Kalenjin ethnic group of Rift Valley Province in Kenya has produced a highly disproportionate share of marathon and track-and-field winners.[26]

Marathon mania in the US[edit]

The Boston Marathon began on 19 April 1897, and was inspired by the success of the first marathon competition in the 1896 Summer Olympics. It is the world's oldest annual marathon, and ranks as one of the world's most prestigious road racing events. Its course runs from Hopkinton in southern Middlesex County to Copley Square in Boston. Johnny Hayes' victory at the 1908 Summer Olympics also contributed to the early growth of long-distance running and marathoning in the United States.[27][28] Later that year, races around the holiday season including the Empire City Marathon held on New Year's Day 1909 in Yonkers, New York, marked the early running craze referred to as "marathon mania".[29] Following the 1908 Olympics, the first five amateur marathons in New York City were held on days that held special meanings: Thanksgiving Day, the day after Christmas, New Year's Day, Washington's Birthday, and Lincoln's Birthday.[30]

Frank Shorter's victory in the marathon at the 1972 Summer Olympics would spur national enthusiasm for the sport more intensely than that which followed Hayes' win 64 years earlier.[28] In 2014, an estimated 550,600 runners completed a marathon within the United States.[31] This can be compared to 143,000 in 1980. Today marathons are held all around the world on a nearly weekly basis.[32]

Inclusion of women[edit]

For a long time after the Olympic marathon started, there were no long-distance races, such as the marathon, for women. Although a few women, such as Stamata Revithi in 1896, had run the marathon distance, they were not included in any official results.[33][34] Marie-Louise Ledru has been credited as the first woman to complete a marathon, in 1918.[35][36][37] Violet Piercy has been credited as the first woman to be officially timed in a marathon, in 1926.[33]

Arlene Pieper became the first woman to officially finish a marathon in the United States when she completed the Pikes Peak Marathon in Manitou Springs, Colorado, in 1959.[38][39] Kathrine Switzer was the first woman to run the Boston Marathon "officially" (with a number), in 1967.[40] However, Switzer's entry, which was accepted through an "oversight" in the screening process, was in "flagrant violation of the rules", and she was treated as an interloper once the error was discovered.[41] Bobbi Gibb had completed the Boston race unofficially the previous year (1966),[42] and was later recognized by the race organizers as the women's winner for that year, as well as 1967 and 1968.[43]


Olympic marathon distances
Year Distance
1896 40 24.85
1900 40.26 25.02
1904 40 24.85
1906 41.86 26.01
1908 42.195 26.22
1912 40.2 24.98
1920 42.75 26.56
1924 onward 42.195 26.22

The length of an Olympic marathon was not precisely fixed at first, but the marathon races in the first few Olympic Games were about 40 kilometres (25 mi),[44] roughly the distance from Marathon to Athens by the longer, flatter route. The exact length depended on the route established for each venue.

1908 Olympics[edit]

The International Olympic Committee agreed in 1907 that the distance for the 1908 London Olympic marathon would be about 25 miles or 40 kilometers. The organizers decided on a course of 26 miles from the start at Windsor Castle to the royal entrance to the White City Stadium, followed by a lap (586 yards 2 feet; 536 m) of the track, finishing in front of the Royal Box.[45][46] The course was later altered to use a different entrance to the stadium, followed by a partial lap of 385 yards to the same finish.

The modern 42.195 km (26.219 mi) standard distance for the marathon was set by the International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF) in May 1921[47][48][49][50] directly from the length used at the 1908 Summer Olympics in London.

IAAF and world records[edit]

Samuel Wanjiru raises his hand in acknowledgment of the crowd as he runs to a gold medal in the 2008 Olympic marathon

An official IAAF marathon course is 42.195 km (42 m tolerance only in excess).[51] Course officials add a short course prevention factor of up to one meter per kilometer to their measurements to reduce the risk of a measuring error producing a length below the minimum distance.

For events governed by IAAF rules, it is mandatory that the route be marked so that all competitors can see the distance covered in kilometers.[1] The rules make no mention of the use of miles. The IAAF will only recognize world records that are established at events that are run under IAAF rules. For major events, it is customary to publish competitors' timings at the midway mark and also at 5 km splits; marathon runners can be credited with world records for lesser distances recognized by the IAAF (such as 20 km, 30 km and so on) if such records are established while the runner is running a marathon, and completes the marathon course.[52]

Marathon races[edit]

2007 Barcelona Marathon

Annually, more than 800 marathons are organized worldwide.[53] Some of these belong to the Association of International Marathons and Distance Races (AIMS) which has grown since its foundation in 1982 to embrace over 300 member events in 83 countries and territories.[54] The marathons of Berlin, Boston, Chicago, London, New York City and Tokyo form the biennial World Marathon Majors series, awarding $500,000 annually to the best overall male and female performers in the series.

In 2006, the editors of Runner's World selected a "World's Top 10 Marathons",[55] in which the Amsterdam, Honolulu, Paris, Rotterdam, and Stockholm marathons were featured along with the five original World Marathon Majors events (excluding Tokyo). Other notable large marathons include United States Marine Corps Marathon, Los Angeles, and Rome. The Boston Marathon is the world's oldest annual marathon, inspired by the success of the 1896 Olympic marathon and held every year since 1897 to celebrate Patriots' Day, a holiday marking the beginning of the American Revolution, thereby purposely linking Athenian and American struggle for democracy.[56] The oldest annual marathon in Europe is the Košice Peace Marathon, held since 1924 in Košice, Slovakia. The historic Polytechnic Marathon was discontinued in 1996. The Athens Classic Marathon traces the route of the 1896 Olympic course, starting in Marathon on the eastern coast of Attica, site of the Battle of Marathon of 490 BC, and ending at the Panathenaic Stadium in Athens.[57]

Start of the 2012 Helsinki City Marathon

The Midnight Sun Marathon is held in Tromsø, Norway at 70 degrees north. Using unofficial and temporary courses, measured by GPS, races of marathon distance are now held at the North Pole, in Antarctica and over desert terrain. Other unusual marathons include the Great Wall Marathon on The Great Wall of China, the Big Five Marathon among the safari wildlife of South Africa, the Great Tibetan Marathon – a marathon in an atmosphere of Tibetan Buddhism at an altitude of 3,500 metres (11,500 ft), and the Polar Circle Marathon on the permanent ice cap of Greenland.

A few marathons cross international and geographical borders. The Istanbul Marathon is the only marathon where participants run over two continents (Europe and Asia) during the course of a single event.[b] In the Detroit Free Press Marathon, participants cross the US/Canada border twice.[59] The Niagara Falls International Marathon includes one international border crossing, via the Peace Bridge from Buffalo, New York, United States to Fort Erie, Ontario, Canada. In the Three Countries Marathon [de], participants run through Germany, Switzerland and Austria.[60]

On 20 March 2018, an indoor Marathon took place in the Armory in New York City. The 200 m track saw a world record in the women's and men's field. Lindsey Scherf (USA) set the indoor women's world record with 2:40:55. Malcolm Richards (USA) won in 2:19:01 with a male indoor world record.[61]

Wheelchair division[edit]

A pack of Wheelchair Division participants in the 2009 Boston Marathon

Many marathons feature a wheelchair division. Typically, those in the wheelchair racing division start their races earlier than their running counterparts.

The first wheelchair marathon was in 1974 in Toledo, Ohio, won by Bob Hall in 2:54.[62][63] Hall competed in the 1975 Boston Marathon and finished in 2:58, inaugurating the introduction of wheelchair divisions into the Boston Marathon.[64][65] From 1977 the race was declared the US National Wheelchair championship.[66] The Boston Marathon awards $10,000 to the winning push-rim athlete.[67] Ernst van Dyk has won the Boston Marathon wheelchair division ten times and holds the world record at 1:18:27, set in Boston in 2004.[68] Jean Driscoll won eight times (seven consecutively) and holds the women's world record at 1:34:22.[69]

The New York City Marathon banned wheelchair entrants in 1977, citing safety concerns, but then voluntarily allowed Bob Hall to compete after the state Division of Human Rights ordered the marathon to show cause.[70][71] The Division ruled in 1979 that the New York City Marathon and New York Road Runners club had to allow wheelchair athletes to compete, and confirmed this at appeal in 1980,[72] but the New York Supreme Court ruled in 1981 that a ban on wheelchair racers was not discriminatory as the marathon was historically a foot race.[73] However, by 1986 14 wheelchair athletes were competing,[74] and an official wheelchair division was added to the marathon in 2000.[67]

Some of the quickest people to complete a wheel-chair marathon include Thomas Geierpichler (Austria) who won gold in men's T52-class marathon (no lower limb function) in 1 hr 49 min 7 sec in Beijing China, on 17 September 2008; and, Heinz Frei (Switzerland) who won the men's T54 marathon (for racers with spinal cord injuries) in a time of 1 hr 20 min and 14 sec in Oita, Japan, 31 October 1999.[75]


World records and world's best[edit]

World records were not officially recognized by the IAAF, now known as World Athletics, until 1 January 2004; previously, the best times for the marathon were referred to as the 'world best'. Courses must conform to World Athletics standards for a record to be recognized. However, marathon routes still vary greatly in elevation, course, and surface, making exact comparisons impossible. Typically, the fastest times are set over relatively flat courses near sea level, during good weather conditions and with the assistance of pacesetters.[76]

The current world record time for men over the distance is 2 hours and 35 seconds, set in the Chicago Marathon by the late Kelvin Kiptum of Kenya on 8 October 2023.

The world record for women was set by Tigst Assefa of Ethiopia in the Berlin Marathon on 24 September 2023, in 2 hours 11 minutes and 53 seconds. This broke the previous record set by Brigid Kosgei of Kenya in the Chicago Marathon on 13 October 2019, in 2 hours 14 minutes and 4 seconds who broke the record Paula Radcliffe of Great Britain had set over 16 years earlier at the London Marathon.

All-time top 25[edit]

Tables show data for two definitions of "Top 25" - the top 25 marathon times and the top 25 athletes:
- denotes top performance for an athlete in the top 25 marathon times
- denotes lesser performances, still in the top 25 marathon times, by a repeat athlete
- denotes top performance (only) for other top 25 athletes who fall outside the top 25 marathon times

The data is correct as of 22 April 2024.[77][78][79][80]


Ath.# Perf.# Time Athlete Nation Date Place Ref.
1 1 2:00:35 Kelvin Kiptum  Kenya 8 October 2023 Chicago [81]
2 2 2:01:09 Eliud Kipchoge  Kenya 25 September 2022 Berlin [82]
3 2:01:25 Kiptum #2 23 April 2023 London
4 2:01:39 Kipchoge #2 16 September 2018 Berlin
3 5 2:01:41 Kenenisa Bekele  Ethiopia 29 September 2019 Berlin [83]
4 6 2:01:48 Sisay Lemma  Ethiopia 3 December 2023 Valencia [84]
7 2:01:53 Kiptum #3 4 December 2022 Valencia [85]
5 8 2:02:16 Benson Kipruto  Kenya 3 March 2024 Tokyo [86]
9 2:02:37 Kipchoge #3 28 April 2019 London [87]
10 2:02:40 Kipchoge #4 6 March 2022 Tokyo [88]
11 2:02:42 Kipchoge #5 24 September 2023 Berlin [89]
6 12 2:02:48 Birhanu Legese  Ethiopia 29 September 2019 Berlin [83]
7 13 2:02:55 Mosinet Geremew  Ethiopia 28 April 2019 London [87]
Timothy Kiplagat  Kenya 3 March 2024 Tokyo [86]
9 15 2:02:57 Dennis Kipruto Kimetto  Kenya 28 September 2014 Berlin [90]
10 16 2:03:00 Evans Chebet  Kenya 6 December 2020 Valencia [91]
Gabriel Geay  Tanzania 4 December 2022 Valencia [85]
18 2:03:03 Bekele #2 25 September 2016 Berlin [92]
12 19 2:03:04 Lawrence Cherono  Kenya 6 December 2020 Valencia [91]
20 2:03:05 Kipchoge #6 24 April 2016 London
13 21 2:03:11 Alexander Mutiso  Kenya 3 December 2023 Valencia [84]
14 22 2:03:13 Emmanuel Kipchirchir Mutai  Kenya 28 September 2014 Berlin [90]
Wilson Kipsang Kiprotich  Kenya 25 September 2016 Berlin [92]
Amos Kipruto  Kenya 6 March 2022 Tokyo [88]
Vincent Kipkemoi  Kenya 24 September 2023 Berlin [89]
18 2:03:16 Mule Wasihun  Ethiopia 28 April 2019 London [87]
19 2:03:24 Tadese Takele  Ethiopia 24 September 2023 Berlin [89]
20 2:03:27 Deresa Geleta  Ethiopia 18 February 2024 Seville [93]
21 2:03:34 Getaneh Molla  Ethiopia 25 January 2019 Dubai [94]
22 2:03:36 Bashir Abdi  Belgium 24 October 2021 Rotterdam [95]
23 2:03:38 Patrick Makau Musyoki  Kenya 25 September 2011 Berlin [96]
24 2:03:39 Tamirat Tola  Ethiopia 17 October 2021 Amsterdam [97]
25 2:03:40 Herpasa Negasa  Ethiopia 25 January 2019 Dubai [94]


  • Eliud Kipchoge (Kenya) ran a time of 1:59:40.2 at the Ineos 1:59 Challenge in Vienna on 12 October 2019. This event was run with no other competitors, and with the assistance of fuel and hydration on demand, and in-out pacemakers. Therefore, the attempt was not eligible for official ratification.[98] This was faster than his previous assisted run of 2:00:25 at the Nike Breaking2 in Monza on 6 May 2017, which was also ineligible.[99]
  • Titus Ekiru (Kenya) ran a time of 2:02:57 at the Milano City Marathon on 16 May 2021,[100] but was later was disqualified due to doping violations.
  • Geoffrey Mutai (Kenya) ran a time of 2:03:02 at the Boston Marathon on 18 April 2011 that was run on an assisted course (in the case of Boston, a point-to-point, net downhill course in excess of the standards) and is therefore ineligible for record purposes per IAAF rule 260.28
  • Moses Mosop (Kenya) ran a time of 2:03:06 at the Boston Marathon on 18 April 2011 that was run on an assisted course and is therefore ineligible for record purposes per IAAF rule 260.28


Ath.# Perf.# Time Athlete Nation Date Place Ref.
1 1 2:11:53 Tigist Assefa  Ethiopia 24 September 2023 Berlin [89]
2 2 2:13:44 Sifan Hassan  Netherlands 8 October 2023 Chicago [81]
3 3 2:14:04 Brigid Kosgei  Kenya 13 October 2019 Chicago [101]
4 4 2:14:18 Ruth Chepng'etich  Kenya 9 October 2022 Chicago [102]
5 5 2:14:58 Amane Beriso Shankule  Ethiopia 4 December 2022 Valencia [85]
6 6 2:15:25 Paula Radcliffe  Great Britain 13 April 2003 London [103]
7 2:15:37 Assefa #2 25 September 2022 Berlin [104][105]
Chepng'etich #2 8 October 2023 Chicago [81]
7 9 2:15:51 Worknesh Degefa  Ethiopia 3 December 2023 Valencia [84]
8 10 2:15:55 Sutume Asefa Kebede  Ethiopia 3 March 2024 Tokyo [86]
11 2:16:02 Kosgei #2 6 March 2022 Tokyo
9 12 2:16:07 Tigist Ketema  Ethiopia 7 January 2024 Dubai [106]
10 13 2:16:14 Rosemary Wanjiru  Kenya 3 March 2024 Tokyo [107]
11 14 2:16:16 Wo Peres Jepchirchir  Kenya 21 April 2024 London [108]
12 15 2:16:22 Almaz Ayana  Ethiopia 3 December 2023 Valencia [84]
16 2:16:23 Wo Assefa #3 21 April 2024 London [108]
13 17 2:16:24 Wo Joyciline Jepkosgei  Kenya 21 April 2024 London [108]
18 2:16:28 Wanjiru #2 5 March 2023 Tokyo [109]
14 19 2:16:34 Wo Alemu Megertu  Ethiopia 21 April 2024 London [108]
15 20 2:16:49 Letesenbet Gidey  Ethiopia 4 December 2022 Valencia [85]
16 21 2:16:56 Tsehay Gemechu  Ethiopia 5 March 2023 Tokyo [109]
22 2:16:58 Shankule #2 3 March 2024 Tokyo [86]
17 23 2:17:01 Wo Mary Jepkosgei Keitany  Kenya 23 April 2017 London [110]
24 2:17:08 Chepng'etich #3 25 January 2019 Dubai [94]
25 2:17:09 Megertu #2 8 October 2023 Chicago [81]
18 2:17:23 Wo Yalemzerf Yehualaw  Ethiopia 24 April 2022 Hamburg [111]
19 2:17:29 Sheila Chepkirui  Kenya 4 December 2022 Valencia [85]
20 2:17:36 Tadu Teshome Nare  Ethiopia 4 December 2022 Valencia [85]
21 2:17:45 Lonah Chemtai Salpeter  Israel 1 March 2020 Tokyo [112]
22 2:17:56 Wo Tirunesh Dibaba  Ethiopia 23 April 2017 London [110]
23 2:17:57 Angela Tanui  Kenya 17 October 2021 Amsterdam [97]
24 2:17:58 Degitu Azimeraw  Ethiopia 3 October 2021 London [113]
Ashete Bekere  Ethiopia 6 March 2022 Tokyo [88]

Season's bests[edit]

Year Time Athlete Place
2000 2:06:36  António Pinto (POR) London
2001 2:06:50  Josephat Kiprono (KEN) Rotterdam
2002 2:05:38  Khalid Khannouchi (USA) London
2003 2:04:55  Paul Tergat (KEN) Berlin
2004 2:06:14  Felix Limo (KEN) Rotterdam
2005 2:06:20  Haile Gebrselassie (ETH) Amsterdam
2006 2:05:56  Haile Gebrselassie (ETH) Berlin
2007 2:04:26  Haile Gebrselassie (ETH) Berlin
2008 2:03:59  Haile Gebrselassie (ETH) Berlin
2009 2:04:27  Duncan Kibet (KEN) Rotterdam
 James Kwambai (KEN)
2010 2:04:48  Patrick Makau Musyoki (KEN) Rotterdam
2011 2:03:38  Patrick Makau Musyoki (KEN) Berlin
2012 2:04:15  Geoffrey Mutai (KEN) Berlin
2013 2:03:23  Wilson Kipsang Kiprotich (KEN) Berlin
2014 2:02:57  Dennis Kimetto (KEN) Berlin
2015 2:04:00  Eliud Kipchoge (KEN) Berlin
2016 2:03:03  Kenenisa Bekele (ETH) Berlin
2017 2:03:32  Eliud Kipchoge (KEN) Berlin
2018 2:01:39  Eliud Kipchoge (KEN) Berlin
2019 2:01:41  Kenenisa Bekele (ETH) Berlin
2020 2:03:00  Evans Chebet (KEN) Valencia
2021 2:03:36  Bashir Abdi (BEL) Rotterdam
2022 2:01:09  Eliud Kipchoge (KEN) Berlin
2023 2:00:35  Kelvin Kiptum (KEN) Chicago
Year Time Athlete Place
2000 2:21:33  Catherine Ndereba (KEN) Chicago
2001 2:18:47  Catherine Ndereba (KEN) Chicago
2002 2:17:18  Paula Radcliffe (GBR) Chicago
2003 2:15:25  Paula Radcliffe (GBR) London
2004 2:19:41  Yoko Shibui (JPN) Berlin
2005 2:17:42  Paula Radcliffe (GBR) London
2006 2:19:36  Deena Kastor (USA) London
2007 2:20:38  Zhou Chunxiu (CHN) London
2008 2:19:19  Irina Mikitenko (GER) Berlin
2009 2:22:11  Irina Mikitenko (GER) London
2010 2:22:04  Atsede Bayisa (ETH) Paris
2011 2:19:19  Mary Jepkosgei Keitany (KEN) London
2012 2:18:37  Mary Jepkosgei Keitany (KEN) London
2013 2:19:57  Rita Jeptoo (KEN) Chicago
2014 2:20:18  Tirfi Tsegaye (ETH) Berlin
2015 2:19:25  Gladys Cherono Kiprono (KEN) Berlin
2016 2:19:41  Tirfi Tsegaye (ETH) Berlin
2017 2:17:01  Mary Jepkosgei Keitany (KEN) Dubai
2018 2:18:11  Gladys Cherono Kiprono (KEN) Berlin
2019 2:14:04  Brigid Kosgei (KEN) Chicago
2020 2:17:16  Peres Jepchirchir (KEN) Valencia
2021 2:17:43  Joyciline Jepkosgei (KEN) London
2022 2:14:18  Ruth Chepng'etich (KEN) Chicago
2023 2:11:53  Tigst Assefa (ETH) Berlin

Oldest marathoner[edit]

Fauja Singh, then 100, finished the Toronto Waterfront Marathon, becoming the first centenarian ever to officially complete that distance. Singh, a British citizen, finished the race on 16 October 2011 with a time of 8:11:05.9, making him the oldest marathoner.[114] Because Singh could not produce a birth certificate from rural 1911 Colonial India, the place of his birth, his age could not be verified and his record was not accepted by the official governing body World Masters Athletics.

Johnny Kelley ran his last full Boston Marathon at the documented age of 84 in 1992. He previously had won the Boston Marathon in both 1935 and 1945 respectively. Between 1934 and 1950, Johnny finished in the top five 15 times, consistently running in the 2:30s and finishing in second place a record seven times at Boston. A fixture at Boston for more than a half century, his 1992 61st start and 58th finish in Boston is a record which still stands today.

Gladys Burrill, a 92-year-old Prospect, Oregon woman and part-time resident of Hawaii, previously held the Guinness World Records title of oldest person to complete a marathon with her 9 hours 53 minutes performance at the 2010 Honolulu Marathon.[115][116] The records of the Association of Road Racing Statisticians, at that time, however, suggested that Singh was overall the oldest marathoner, completing the 2004 London Marathon at the age of 93 years and 17 days, and that Burrill was the oldest female marathoner, completing the 2010 Honolulu Marathon at the age of 92 years and 19 days.[117] Singh's age was also reported to be 93 by other sources.[118][119]

In 2015, 92-year-old Harriette Thompson of Charlotte, North Carolina, completed the Rock 'n' Roll San Diego Marathon in 7 hours 24 minutes 36 seconds, thus becoming the oldest woman to complete a marathon.[120] While Gladys Burrill was 92 years and 19 days old when she completed her record-setting marathon, Harriette Thompson was 92 years and 65 days old when she completed hers.[120]

English born Canadian Ed Whitlock is the oldest to complete a marathon in under 3 hours at age 74, and under 4 hours at age 85.[121][122]

Youngest marathoner[edit]

Budhia Singh, a boy from Odisha, India, completed his first marathon at age five. He trained under the coach Biranchi Das, who saw potential in him. In May 2006, Budhia was temporarily banned from running by the ministers of child welfare, as his life could be at risk. His coach was also arrested for exploiting and cruelty to a child and was later murdered in an unrelated incident. Budhia is now at a state-run sports academy.[123]

The youngest under 4 hours is Mary Etta Boitano at age 7 years, 284 days; under 3 hours Julie Mullin at 10 years 180 days; and under 2:50 Carrie Garritson at 11 years 116 days.[121]


In 2016, Running USA estimated that there were approximately 507,600 marathon finishers in the United States,[124] while other sources reported greater than 550,000 finishers.[125] The chart below from Running USA provides the estimated U.S. Marathon Finisher totals going back to 1976.

Marathon running has become an obsession in China, with 22 marathon races in 2011 increasing to 400 in 2017. In 2015, 75 Chinese runners participated in the Boston Marathon and this increased to 278 in 2017.[126]

Multiple marathons[edit]

As marathon running has become more popular, some athletes have undertaken challenges involving running a series of marathons.

The 100 Marathon Club is intended to provide a focal point for all runners, particularly from the United Kingdom or Ireland, who have completed 100 or more races of marathon distance or longer. At least 10 of these events must be United Kingdom or Ireland Road Marathons.[127] Club chairman Roger Biggs has run more than 700 marathons or ultras. Brian Mills completed his 800th marathon on 17 September 2011.

Steve Edwards, a member of the 100 Marathon Club, set the world record for running 500 marathons in the fastest average finish time of 3 hours 15 minutes, at the same time becoming the first man to run 500 marathons with an official time below 3 hours 30 minutes, on 11 November 2012 at Milton Keynes, England. The records took 24 years to achieve. Edwards was 49 at the time.[128]

Over 350 individuals have completed a marathon in each state of the United States plus Washington, D.C., and some have done it as many as eight times.[129] Beverly Paquin, a 22-year-old nurse from Iowa, was the youngest woman to run a marathon in all 50 states in 2010.[130] A few weeks later, still in 2010, Morgan Cummings (also 22) became the youngest woman to complete a marathon in all 50 states and DC.[131] In 2004, Chuck Bryant of Miami, Florida, who lost his right leg below the knee, became the first amputee to finish this circuit.[132] Bryant has completed a total of 59 marathons on his prosthesis. Twenty-seven people have run a marathon on each of the seven continents, and 31 people have run a marathon in each of the Canadian provinces. In 1980, in what was termed the Marathon of Hope, Terry Fox, who had lost a leg to cancer and so ran with one artificial leg, attained 5,373 km (3,339 mi) of his proposed cross-Canada cancer fundraising run, maintaining an average of over 37 km (23 mi), close to the planned marathon distance, for each of 143 consecutive days.[133]

Kevin Counihan (right), of the Achilles Track Club, with his guide, running the 2011 Boston Marathon. He completed his 150th marathon at Boston in April 2014.

On 25 September 2011, Patrick Finney of Grapevine, Texas became the first person with multiple sclerosis to finish a marathon in each state of the United States. In 2004, "the disease had left him unable to walk. But unwilling to endure a life of infirmity, Finney managed to regain his ability to balance on two feet, to walk – and eventually to run – through extensive rehabilitation therapy and new medications."[134]

In 2003, British adventurer Sir Ranulph Fiennes completed seven marathons on seven continents in seven days.[135] He completed this feat despite suffering from a heart attack and undergoing a double heart bypass operation just four months before.[136] This feat has since been eclipsed by Irish ultramarathon runner Richard Donovan who in 2009 completed seven marathons on seven continents in under 132 hours (five and a half days).[137] Starting 1 February 2012 he improved on this by completing the 7 on 7 in under 120 hours or in less than five days.[138][139]

On 30 November 2013, 69-year-old Larry Macon set a Guinness World Record for Most Marathons Run in a Year by Man by running 238 marathons. Larry Macon celebrated his 1,000th career marathon at the Cowtown Marathon in Ft. Worth on 24 February 2013.[140]

Other goals are to attempt to run marathons on a series of consecutive weekends (Richard Worley on 159 weekends),[141] or to run the most marathons during a particular year or the most in a lifetime. A pioneer in running multiple marathons was Sy Mah of Toledo, Ohio, who ran 524 before he died in 1988.[142] As of 30 June 2007, Horst Preisler of Germany had successfully completed 1214 marathons plus 347 ultramarathons, a total of 1561 events at marathon distance or longer.[143] Sigrid Eichner, Christian Hottas and Hans-Joachim Meyer have also all completed over 1000 marathons each.[144] Norm Frank of the United States is credited with 945 marathons.[145]

Christian Hottas is meanwhile the first runner who ever completed 2000 marathons. He ran his 2000th at TUI Marathon Hannover on 5 May 2013 together with a group of more than 80 friends from 11 countries, including 8 officers from the 100 Marathons Clubs U.K., North-America, Germany, Denmark, Austria and Italy.[146] Hottas completed his 2500th marathon on 4 December 2016.[147]

In 2010, Stefaan Engels, a Belgian, set out to run the marathon distance every day of the year. Because of a foot injury he had to resort to a handcycle near the end of January 2010. However, on 5 February he was fully recovered and decided to reset the counter back to zero.[148] By 30 March he broke the existing record of Akinori Kusuda, from Japan, who completed 52 marathons in a row in 2009. On 5 February 2011, Engels had run 365 marathon distances in as many days.[149] Ricardo Abad Martínez, from Spain, later ran 150 marathons in 150 consecutive days in 2009,[150] and subsequently 500 marathons in a row, from October 2010 to February 2012.[151]

Some runners compete to run the same marathons for the most consecutive years. For example, Johnny Kelley completed 58 Boston Marathons (he entered the race 61 times).[152][circular reference][153] Currently, the longest consecutive streak of Boston Marathon finishes—45 in a row—is held by Bennett Beach, of Bethesda, Maryland.[154]

Olympic medalists[edit]


Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
Spyridon Louis
Charilaos Vasilakos
Gyula Kellner
1900 Paris
Michel Théato
Émile Champion
Ernst Fast
1904 St. Louis
Thomas Hicks
 United States
Albert Corey
Arthur Newton
 United States
1908 London
Johnny Hayes
 United States
Charles Hefferon
 South Africa
Joseph Forshaw
 United States
1912 Stockholm
Ken McArthur
 South Africa
Christian Gitsham
 South Africa
Gaston Strobino
 United States
1920 Antwerp
Hannes Kolehmainen
Jüri Lossmann
Valerio Arri
1924 Paris
Albin Stenroos
Romeo Bertini
Clarence DeMar
 United States
1928 Amsterdam
Boughera El Ouafi
Manuel Plaza
Martti Marttelin
1932 Los Angeles
Juan Carlos Zabala
Sam Ferris
 Great Britain
Armas Toivonen
1936 Berlin
Sohn Kee-chung
Ernest Harper
 Great Britain
Nam Sung-yong
1948 London
Delfo Cabrera
Tom Richards
 Great Britain
Étienne Gailly
1952 Helsinki
Emil Zátopek
Reinaldo Gorno
Gustaf Jansson
1956 Melbourne
Alain Mimoun
Franjo Mihalić
Veikko Karvonen
1960 Rome
Abebe Bikila
Rhadi Ben Abdesselam
Barry Magee
 New Zealand
1964 Tokyo
Abebe Bikila
Basil Heatley
 Great Britain
Kōkichi Tsuburaya
1968 Mexico City
Mamo Wolde
Kenji Kimihara
Mike Ryan
 New Zealand
1972 Munich
Frank Shorter
 United States
Karel Lismont
Mamo Wolde
1976 Montreal
Waldemar Cierpinski
 East Germany
Frank Shorter
 United States
Karel Lismont
1980 Moscow
Waldemar Cierpinski
 East Germany
Gerard Nijboer
Satymkul Dzhumanazarov
 Soviet Union
1984 Los Angeles
Carlos Lopes
John Treacy
Charlie Spedding
 Great Britain
1988 Seoul
Gelindo Bordin
Douglas Wakiihuri
Ahmed Salah
1992 Barcelona
Hwang Young-cho
 South Korea
Kōichi Morishita
Stephan Freigang
1996 Atlanta
Josia Thugwane
 South Africa
Lee Bong-ju
 South Korea
Erick Wainaina
2000 Sydney
Gezahegne Abera
Erick Wainaina
Tesfaye Tola
2004 Athens
Stefano Baldini
Meb Keflezighi
 United States
Vanderlei de Lima
2008 Beijing
Samuel Wanjiru
Jaouad Gharib
Tsegay Kebede
2012 London
Stephen Kiprotich
Abel Kirui
Wilson Kipsang Kiprotich
2016 Rio de Janeiro
Eliud Kipchoge
Feyisa Lelisa
Galen Rupp
 United States
2020 Tokyo
Eliud Kipchoge
Abdi Nageeye
Bashir Abdi
2024 Paris


Games Gold Silver Bronze
1984 Los Angeles
Joan Benoit
 United States
Grete Waitz
Rosa Mota
1988 Seoul
Rosa Mota
Lisa Martin
Katrin Dörre
 East Germany
1992 Barcelona
Valentina Yegorova
 Unified Team
Yuko Arimori
Lorraine Moller
 New Zealand
1996 Atlanta
Fatuma Roba
Valentina Yegorova
Yuko Arimori
2000 Sydney
Naoko Takahashi
Lidia Șimon
Joyce Chepchumba
2004 Athens
Mizuki Noguchi
Catherine Ndereba
Deena Kastor
 United States
2008 Beijing
Constantina Tomescu
Catherine Ndereba
Zhou Chunxiu
2012 London
Tiki Gelana
Priscah Jeptoo
Tatyana Petrova Arkhipova
2016 Rio de Janeiro
Jemima Sumgong
Eunice Kirwa
Mare Dibaba
2020 Tokyo
Peres Jepchirchir
Brigid Kosgei
Molly Seidel
 United States
2024 Paris

World Championships medalists[edit]


Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
 Robert de Castella (AUS)  Kebede Balcha (ETH)  Waldemar Cierpinski (GDR)
1987 Rome
 Douglas Wakiihuri (KEN)  Hussein Ahmed Salah (DJI)  Gelindo Bordin (ITA)
1991 Tokyo
 Hiromi Taniguchi (JPN)  Hussein Ahmed Salah (DJI)  Steve Spence (USA)
1993 Stuttgart
 Mark Plaatjes (USA)  Luketz Swartbooi (NAM)  Bert van Vlaanderen (NED)
1995 Gothenburg
 Martín Fiz (ESP)  Dionicio Cerón (MEX)  Luíz Antônio dos Santos (BRA)
1997 Athens
 Abel Antón (ESP)  Martín Fiz (ESP)  Steve Moneghetti (AUS)
1999 Seville
 Abel Antón (ESP)  Vincenzo Modica (ITA)  Nobuyuki Sato (JPN)
2001 Edmonton
 Gezahegne Abera (ETH)  Simon Biwott (KEN)  Stefano Baldini (ITA)
2003 Saint-Denis
 Jaouad Gharib (MAR)  Julio Rey (ESP)  Stefano Baldini (ITA)
2005 Helsinki
 Jaouad Gharib (MAR)  Christopher Isengwe (TAN)  Tsuyoshi Ogata (JPN)
2007 Osaka
 Luke Kibet Bowen (KEN)  Mubarak Hassan Shami (QAT)  Viktor Röthlin (SUI)
2009 Berlin
 Abel Kirui (KEN)  Emmanuel Kipchirchir Mutai (KEN)  Tsegaye Kebede (ETH)
2011 Daegu
 Abel Kirui (KEN)  Vincent Kipruto (KEN)  Feyisa Lilesa (ETH)
2013 Moscow
 Stephen Kiprotich (UGA)  Lelisa Desisa (ETH)  Tadese Tola (ETH)
2015 Beijing
 Ghirmay Ghebreslassie (ERI)  Yemane Tsegay (ETH)  Solomon Mutai (UGA)
2017 London
 Geoffrey Kirui (KEN)  Tamirat Tola (ETH)  Alphonce Simbu (TAN)
2019 Doha
 Lelisa Desisa (ETH)  Mosinet Geremew (ETH)  Amos Kipruto (KEN)
2022 Eugene
 Tamirat Tola (ETH)  Mosinet Geremew (ETH)  Bashir Abdi (BEL)
2023 Budapest
 Victor Kiplangat (UGA)  Maru Teferi (ISR)  Leul Gebresilase (ETH)


Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
 Grete Waitz (NOR)  Marianne Dickerson (USA)  Raisa Smekhnova (URS)
1987 Rome
 Rosa Mota (POR)  Zoya Ivanova (URS)  Jocelyne Villeton (FRA)
1991 Tokyo
 Wanda Panfil (POL)  Sachiko Yamashita (JPN)  Katrin Dörre (GER)
1993 Stuttgart
 Junko Asari (JPN)  Manuela Machado (POR)  Tomoe Abe (JPN)
1995 Gothenburg
 Manuela Machado (POR)  Anuța Cătună (ROU)  Ornella Ferrara (ITA)
1997 Athens
 Hiromi Suzuki (JPN)  Manuela Machado (POR)  Lidia Slăvuțeanu (ROU)
1999 Seville
 Jong Song-ok (PRK)  Ari Ichihashi (JPN)  Lidia Șimon (ROU)
2001 Edmonton
 Lidia Șimon (ROU)  Reiko Tosa (JPN)  Svetlana Zakharova (RUS)
2003 Saint-Denis
 Catherine Ndereba (KEN)  Mizuki Noguchi (JPN)  Masako Chiba (JPN)
2005 Helsinki
 Paula Radcliffe (GBR)  Catherine Ndereba (KEN)  Constantina Diţă-Tomescu (ROU)
2007 Osaka
 Catherine Ndereba (KEN)  Zhou Chunxiu (CHN)  Reiko Tosa (JPN)
2009 Berlin
 Bai Xue (CHN)  Yoshimi Ozaki (JPN)  Aselefech Mergia (ETH)
2011 Daegu
 Edna Kiplagat (KEN)  Priscah Jeptoo (KEN)  Sharon Cherop (KEN)
2013 Moscow
 Edna Kiplagat (KEN)  Valeria Straneo (ITA)  Kayoko Fukushi (JPN)
2015 Beijing
 Mare Dibaba (ETH)  Helah Kiprop (KEN)  Eunice Kirwa (BHR)
2017 London
 Rose Chelimo (BHR)  Edna Kiplagat (KEN)  Amy Cragg (USA)
2019 Doha
 Ruth Chepng'etich (KEN)  Rose Chelimo (BHR)  Helalia Johannes (NAM)
2022 Eugene
 Gotytom Gebreslase (ETH)  Judith Korir (KEN)  Lonah Chemtai Salpeter (ISR)
2023 Budapest
 Amane Beriso Shankule (ETH)  Gotytom Gebreslase (ETH)  Fatima Ezzahra Gardadi (MAR)

General participation[edit]

Start of the 2009 Stockholm Marathon

Most participants do not run a marathon to win. More important for most runners is their personal finishing time and their placement within their specific gender and age group, though some runners just want to finish. Strategies for completing a marathon include running the whole distance[160] and a run–walk strategy.[4] In 2005, the average marathon time in the U.S. was 4 hours 32 minutes 8 seconds for men, 5 hours 6 minutes 8 seconds for women.[161] In 2015, the men's and women's median marathon times were 4 hours 20 minutes 13 seconds and 4 hours 45 minutes 30 seconds respectively.[162]

A goal many runners aim for is to break certain time barriers. For example, recreational first-timers often try to run the marathon under four hours; more competitive runners may attempt to finish under three hours.[163] Other benchmarks are the qualifying times for major marathons. The Boston Marathon, the oldest marathon in the United States, requires a qualifying time for all non-professional runners.[164] The New York City Marathon also requires a qualifying time for guaranteed entry, at a significantly faster pace than Boston's.[165]

Typically, there is a maximum allowed time of about six hours after which the marathon route is closed, although some larger marathons keep the course open considerably longer (eight hours or more). Many marathons around the world have such time limits by which all runners must have crossed the finish line. Anyone slower than the limit will be picked up by a sweeper bus. In many cases the marathon organizers are required to reopen the roads to the public so that traffic can return to normal.

With the growth in popularity of marathon-running, many marathons across the United States and the world have been filling to capacity faster than ever before. When the Boston Marathon opened up registration for its 2011 running, the field capacity was filled within eight hours.[166]


MoonWalk is a nocturnal charity marathon to raise money for breast cancer research.

The long run is an important element in marathon training.[167] Recreational runners commonly try to reach a maximum of about 32 km (20 mi) in their longest weekly run and a total of about 64 km (40 mi) a week when training for the marathon, but wide variability exists in practice and in recommendations. More experienced marathoners may run a longer distance during the week. Greater weekly training mileages can offer greater results in terms of distance and endurance, but also carry a greater risk of training injury.[168] Most male elite marathon runners will complete weekly distances of over 160 km (100 mi).[168] It is recommended that those new to running should get a checkup from their doctor, as there are certain warning signs and risk factors that should be evaluated before undertaking any new workout program, especially marathon training.[169]

Many training programs last a minimum of five or six months, with a gradual increase in the distance run and finally, for recovery, a period of tapering in the one to three weeks preceding the race. For beginners wishing to merely finish a marathon, a minimum of four months of running four days a week is recommended.[170][171] Many trainers recommend a weekly increase in mileage of no more than 10%. It is also often advised to maintain a consistent running program for six weeks or so before beginning a marathon training program, to allow the body to adapt to the new stresses.[172] The marathon training program itself would suppose variation between hard and easy training, with a periodization of the general plan.[173]

Training programs can be found at the websites of Runner's World,[174] Hal Higdon,[160] Jeff Galloway,[4] RunnersWorld Tulsa Archived 30 May 2023 at the Wayback Machine, and the Boston Athletic Association,[175] and in numerous other published sources, including the websites of specific marathons.

Many local running stores sponsor training programs for the community. RunnersWorld Tulsa Archived 30 May 2023 at the Wayback Machine, for example, has half and full marathon training programs that consider an individual's pace and desired distance. These kinds of groups offer connection to your running community—an invaluable source of support, encouragement, and accountability.

The last long training run might be undertaken up to two weeks prior to the event. Many marathon runners also "carbo-load" (increase carbohydrate intake while holding total caloric intake constant) during the week before the marathon to allow their bodies to store more glycogen.

Glycogen and "the wall"[edit]

Carbohydrates that a person eats are converted by the liver and muscles into glycogen for storage. Glycogen burns rapidly to provide quick energy. Runners can store about 8 MJ or 2,000 kcal worth of glycogen in their bodies, enough for about 30 km/18–20 miles of running. Many runners report that running becomes noticeably more difficult at that point.[176] When glycogen runs low, the body must then obtain energy by burning stored fat, which does not burn as readily. When this happens, the runner will experience dramatic fatigue and is said to "hit the wall". The aim of training for the marathon, according to many coaches,[177] is to maximize the limited glycogen available so that the fatigue of the "wall" is not as dramatic. This is accomplished in part by utilizing a higher percentage of energy from burned fat even during the early phase of the race, thus conserving glycogen.[citation needed]

Carbohydrate-based "energy gels" are used by runners to avoid or reduce the effect of "hitting the wall", as they provide easy to digest energy during the run. Energy gels usually contain varying amounts of sodium and potassium and some also contain caffeine. They need to be consumed with a certain amount of water. Recommendations for how often to take an energy gel during the race range widely.[177]

A runner getting encouragement at Mile 25 of the Boston Marathon

Alternatives to gels include various forms of concentrated sugars, and foods high in simple carbohydrates that can be digested easily. Many runners experiment with consuming energy supplements during training runs to determine what works best for them. Consumption of food while running sometimes makes the runner sick. Runners are advised not to ingest a new food or medicine just prior to or during a race.[177] It is also important to refrain from taking any of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory class of pain relievers (NSAIDs, e.g., aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen), as these drugs may change the way the kidneys regulate their blood flow and may lead to serious kidney problems, especially in cases involving moderate to severe dehydration. NSAIDS block the COX-2 enzyme pathway to prevent the production of prostaglandins. These prostaglandins may act as inflammation factors throughout the body, but they also play a crucial role in maintenance of water retention. In less than 5% of the whole population that take NSAIDS, individuals may be more negatively sensitive to renal prostaglandin synthesis inhibition.[178]


A study of the performance of 1.8 million participants in the Berlin, London, Paris, Boston, Chicago, and New York marathons during the years from 2001 to 2010 found that runners recorded their fastest times when the temperature was around 6 °C (43 °F), with an increase of 10 °C (18 °F) leading to a 1.5% reduction in speed.[179][180] A July 2020 study found that increasing temperatures affected faster runners' performance more than slower ones.[181]

After a marathon[edit]

Marathon participation may result in various medical, musculoskeletal, and dermatological complaints.[182] Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a common condition affecting runners during the first week following a marathon.[183] Various types of mild exercise or massage have been recommended to alleviate pain secondary to DOMS.[183] Dermatological issues frequently include "jogger's nipple", "jogger's toe", and blisters.[184]

The immune system is reportedly suppressed for a short time.[185] Changes to the blood chemistry may lead physicians to mistakenly diagnose heart malfunction.[186]

After long training runs and the marathon itself, consuming carbohydrates to replace glycogen stores and protein to aid muscle recovery is commonly recommended. In addition, soaking the lower half of the body for approximately 20 minutes in cold or ice water may force blood through the leg muscles to speed recovery.[187][188]

Health risks[edit]

Marathon running has various health risks, though these can be diminished with preparation and care.[189] Training and the races themselves can put runners under stress. While very rare, even death is a possibility during a race.

Common minor health risks include blisters, tendonitis, fatigue, knee or ankle sprain, dehydration (electrolyte imbalance), and other conditions. Many are categorised as overuse injuries.

Cardiac health[edit]

Officers patrolling a marathon course in Ukraine

In 2016, a systematic medical review found that the risk of sudden cardiac death during or immediately after a marathon was between 0.6 and 1.9 deaths per 100,000 participants, varying across the specific studies and the methods used, and not controlling for age or gender.[190] Since the risk is small, cardiac screening programs for marathons are uncommon. However, this review was not an attempt to assess the overall cardiac health impact of marathon running.

A 2006 study of non-elite Boston Marathon participants tested runners for certain proteins that indicate heart damage or dysfunction (see Troponin) and gave them echocardiogram scans, before and after the marathon. The study revealed that, in that sample of 60 people, runners who had averaged fewer than 56 km (35 mi) of weekly training in the 4 months before the race were most likely to show some heart damage or dysfunction, while runners who had done more than 72 km (45 mi) of weekly training showed few or no heart problems.[191]

According to a Canadian study presented in 2010, running a marathon can temporarily result in decreased function of more than half the muscle segments in the heart's main pumping chamber, but neighboring segments are generally able to compensate. Full recovery is reached within three months. The fitter the runner, the less the effect. The runners with decreased left ventricle function had an average peak weekly training distance of 55.1 km (34.2 mi), while those who did not averaged 69.1 km (42.9 mi). The marathon was held in 35 °C (95 °F) weather. According to one of the researchers: "Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular risk by a factor of two or three in the long run, but while we're doing vigorous exercise such as marathon running, our cardiac risk increases by seven."[192][193]


A volunteer hands out fluids at a marathon water stop

Overconsumption is the most significant concern associated with water consumption during marathons. Drinking excessive amounts of fluid during a race can lead to dilution of sodium in the blood, a condition called exercise-associated hyponatremia, which may result in vomiting, seizures, coma and even death.[194] Dr. Lewis G. Maharam, medical director for the New York City Marathon, stated in 2005: "There are no reported cases of dehydration causing death in the history of world running, but there are plenty of cases of people dying of hyponatremia."[195]

For example, Dr. Cynthia Lucero died at the age of 28 while participating in the 2002 Boston Marathon. It was Lucero's second marathon.[196] At mile 22, Lucero complained of feeling "dehydrated and rubber-legged."[197] She soon wobbled and collapsed to the ground, and was unconscious by the time the paramedics reached her. Lucero was admitted to Brigham and Women's Hospital and died two days later.[198]

Lucero's cause of death was determined to be hyponatremic encephalopathy, a condition that causes swelling of the brain due to an imbalance of sodium in the blood known as exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH). While EAH is sometimes referred to as "water intoxication", Lucero drank large amounts of Gatorade during the race,[199][200] demonstrating that runners who consume sodium-containing sports drinks in excess of thirst can still develop EAH.[199][201] Because hyponatremia is caused by excessive water retention, and not just loss of sodium, consumption of sports drinks or salty foods may not prevent hyponatremia.[202]

Women are more prone to hyponatremia than men. A study in the New England Journal of Medicine found that 13% of runners completing the 2002 Boston Marathon had hyponatremia.[203]

The International Marathon Medical Directors Association (IMMDA) advised in 2006 that fluid intake should be adjusted individually according to factors such as body weight, sex, climate, pace, fitness (VO2 max), and sweat rate, as fluid requirements can vary between people depending on these variables. The IMMDA also recommended sports drinks that include carbohydrates and electrolytes instead of plain water and said that runners should "drink to thirst", trying to refrain from drinking at every fluid station before feeling thirsty.[204] Heat exposure leads to diminished thirst drive and thirst may not be a sufficient incentive to drink in many situations.[205] The IMMDA and HSL Harpur Hill give recommendations to drink fluid in small volumes frequently at an approximate rate falling between 100–250 ml (3.4–8.5 US fl oz) every 15 minutes.[205][204] A patient suffering hyponatremia can be given a small volume of a concentrated salt solution intravenously to raise sodium concentrations in the blood. Some runners weigh themselves before running and write the results on their bibs. If anything goes wrong, first aid workers can use the weight information to tell if the patient had consumed too much water.

Body temperature[edit]

Exertional heat stroke is an emergency condition in which thermoregulation fails and the body temperature rises dangerously above 40 °C (104 °F). It becomes a greater risk in warm and humid weather, even for young and fit individuals. Treatment requires rapid physical cooling of the body.[206]

Charity involvement[edit]

Some charities seek to associate with various races. Some marathon organizers set aside a portion of their limited entry slots for charity organizations to sell to members in exchange for donations. Runners are given the option to sign up to run particular races, especially when marathon entries are no longer available to the general public.[citation needed] In some cases, charities organize their own marathon as a fund-raiser, gaining funds via entry fees or sponsorships.[citation needed]


Mars rover marathon
Mars rover Opportunity's traverse in 2015 as it approached the Marathon Valley, and then traveled distance of a traditional marathon (about 42 kilometres (26 mi))

In 2015 the Mars rover Opportunity attained the distance of a marathon from its starting location on Mars, and the valley where it achieved this distance was called Marathon Valley, which was then explored.[207][208]

See also[edit]



Related races

Other endurance races


Notable races

Other related topics


  1. ^ This date is specified as 10 March in some sources as Greece used the Julian calendar at the time.
  2. ^ A marathon in Yekaterinburg, Russia, the Europe-Asia International Marathon, also claims to cross the border between Europe and Asia.[58]


  1. ^ a b "IAAF Competition Rules for Road Races". International Association of Athletics Federations. 2009. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
  2. ^ "Marathons in history with >30,000 finishers". AIMS: World Running. Association of International Marathons and Distance Races. 11 July 2016. Archived from the original on 10 March 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  3. ^ "Astronomers Unravel Marathon Mystery". Sky & Telescope. 19 July 2004. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  4. ^ a b c "Retreats — Athens". Jeffgalloway.com. Archived from the original on 1 June 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
  5. ^ "Ancient Olympics FAQ 10". Perseus.tufts.edu. Archived from the original on 20 July 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
  6. ^ Moralia 347C
  7. ^ Landon, Letitia Elizabeth (1837). Fisher's Drawing Room Scrap Book. Fisher, Son, and Jackson. p. 60.
  8. ^ "The Myth of Pheidippides and the Marathon". findingdulcinea.com. 4 November 2011. Archived from the original on 6 November 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  9. ^ A slip of the tongue in Salutation, Chapter 3
  10. ^ "Prologue: The Legend". Marathonguide.com. Archived from the original on 16 April 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
  11. ^ Holland, Tom (2007) Persian Fire, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, ISBN 0307386988.
  12. ^ Kemp, Ian (27 September 2013). "The Great Marathon Myth". Cool Running New Zealand. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016.
  13. ^ Herodotus, The Histories Herodotus makes no mention of a runner following the battle runner, and such a runner is mentioned only in much later sources, Nowadays the story of the "Marathon runner" is generally rejected as a fiction, possibly arising from confusion with the runner sent to Sparta before the battle. (Penguin Books: New York, 1977) p. 425.
  14. ^ Burfoot, Amby (26 October 2010). "The Truth about Pheidippides and the Early Years of Marathon History". Runner's World. Archived from the original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  15. ^ Richard Benyo; Joe Henderson (2002). Running Encyclopedia. Human Kinetics. pp. 250. ISBN 9780736037341. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  16. ^ Anthony Bijkerk; David C. Young (Winter 1999). "That Memorable First Marathon" (PDF). Journal of Olympic History. ISOH: 27. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 September 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2017.. Results summary: page 27, annotation 3.
  17. ^ Bill Mallon; Ture Widlund (1997). 1896 Olympic Games: Results for All Competitors in All Events, with Commentary. McFarland. p. 69. ISBN 9781476609508. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  18. ^ "1896, Marathon Runners, Burton Holmes". Getty Images. 10 March 2004. Archived from the original on 19 June 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  19. ^ Burton Holmes (1905). The Burton Holmes Lectures: The Olympian games in Athens. Grecian journeys. The wonders of Thessaly. New York: McClure, Phillips & Co. p. 69. ISBN 9781276985949. Archived from the original on 16 March 2016. Retrieved 25 April 2015.(Digital compilation from original title: The Burton Holmes Lectures (Volume 3): With Illustrations from Photographs by the Author, Year:1901, ISBN 9781151940469, on 6 November 2008, University of Michigan)
  20. ^ "Olympic Champion Joan Benoit Samuelson To Be Guest of Honor at Manchester Marathon — Registration Closed". Cool Running. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012.
  21. ^ "Marathon Race". Marathon Run Museum. Archived from the original on 22 August 2016. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
  22. ^ "Mapping out the London Olympic Marathon course". The AZ Blog. 31 July 2012. Archived from the original on 23 August 2016. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
  23. ^ "Visualizing the Rio Olympic Marathon Course". Runner's World. Archived from the original on 22 August 2016. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
  24. ^ Wanjiru and Gharib break OR in Men's Marathon. En.beijing2008.cn (24 August 2008). Archived 4 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ "Women's Marathon – Olympic Athletics". Official site of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Archived from the original on 3 August 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  26. ^ Warner, Gregory (1 November 2013). "How One Kenyan Tribe Produces The World's Best Runners". NPR.
  27. ^ "Track and Field Athletics". The World 1910 Almanac and Encyclopedia. New York: Press Publishing Company. 1909. pp. 384–385. Archived from the original on 9 May 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
  28. ^ a b Whorton, James C. (1992). ""Athlete's Heart": The Medical Debate over Athleticism, 1870–1920". In Berryman, Jack W.; Park, Robert J. (eds.). Sport and Exercise Science: Essays in the History of Sports Medicine. University of Illinois Press. p. 127. ISBN 0-252-06242-6.
  29. ^ Robinson, Roger (January–February 2009). "Footsteps: 'Tis the (Racing) Season; 100 Years of Holiday Running". Running Times Magazine. Archived from the original on 22 December 2010. Retrieved 10 February 2011.
  30. ^ Cooper, Pamela (1999). "New York City Marathon Culture". The American Marathon. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. pp. 27–48. ISBN 0-8156-0573-0. Archived from the original on 8 May 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
  31. ^ "2015 Running USA Annual Marathon Report". RunningUSA.org. Running USA. 25 May 2016. Archived from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  32. ^ "Marathon Guide: International Marathons Report". MarathonGuide. Archived from the original on 16 February 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
  33. ^ a b "Olympic Marathon (excerpt)". Charlie Lovett. Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. 1997. Archived from the original on 17 February 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
  34. ^ Karl Lennartz. "Two Women Ran the Marathon in 1896" (PDF). International Society of Olympic Historians ISOH. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 April 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  35. ^ "World Best Progressions- Road". Association of Road Racing Statisticians. Archived from the original on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
  36. ^ Krise, Raymond and Squires, Bill (1982). Fast Tracks: The History of Distance Running Since 884 B.C., S. Greene Press, p. 43, ISBN 0828904820.
  37. ^ Gross, Albert C. (1986) Endurance, Dodd Mead, ISBN 0396088880.
  38. ^ "First woman to run marathon in US". Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  39. ^ "Arlene Pieper – 1st Lady Marathoner | Marathon and Beyond". marathonandbeyond.com. 5 November 2017. Archived from the original on 16 September 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  40. ^ "Boston, 1967: When marathons were just for men". BBC News. 16 April 2012. Archived from the original on 30 December 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014. Kathrine Switzer became the first woman to officially run the race 45 years ago, despite stewards trying to physically force the 20-year-old off the road.
  41. ^ Semple, Jock; with John J. Kelley and Tom Murphy (1981). Just Call Me Jock: The Story of Jock Semple, Boston's Mr. Marathon, pages 7, 114–118, Waterford Publishing Co., ISBN 978-0942052015
  42. ^ Boston Marathon History. baa.org
  43. ^ Boston Marathon History: Past Women's Open Champions. baa.org
  44. ^ Bryant, J. (2007) 100 Years and Still Running, Marathon News
  45. ^ Wilcock, Bob (March 2008). "The 1908 Olympic Marathon". Journal of Olympic History. 16 (1).
  46. ^ "History of the Athens Marathon". Archived from the original on 15 August 2012. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
  47. ^ "Marathon: How it works" Archived 11 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine, IAAF website
  48. ^ "The Marathon journey to reach 42.195km". european-athletics.org. 25 April 2008. Archived from the original on 24 September 2008. Retrieved 23 July 2009.
  49. ^ Martin, David E.; Roger W. H. Gynn (May 2000). The Olympic Marathon. Human Kinetics Publishers. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-88011-969-6.
  50. ^ "IAAF Competition Rules 2008" (PDF). IAAF. p. 195. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2009.
  51. ^ IAAF Competition Rules 2012–2013 – Rule 240 Archived 9 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine. None. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  52. ^ "IAAF Competition Rules 2010–2011" (PDF). IAAF. pp. 230–235. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
  53. ^ Day, Sharlene M.; Thompson, Paul D. (4 June 2010). "Cardiac risks associated with marathon running". Sports Health. 2 (4): 301–306. doi:10.1177/1941738110373066. PMC 3445091. PMID 23015951.
  54. ^ AIMS – About AIMS Archived 16 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Aimsworldrunning.org (30 March 2007). Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  55. ^ The World's Top 10 Marathons. runnersworld.com. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  56. ^ "The History of the Boston Marathon: A Perfect Way to Celebrate Patriot's Day". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 22 April 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  57. ^ guest (8 November 2012). "In Pheidippides' Footsteps: 30th Annual Athens Classic Marathon | GreekReporter.com". Greece.greekreporter.com. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  58. ^ "Europe-Asia International Marathon". Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  59. ^ Detroit Free Press Marathon Archived 3 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Freepmarathon.com. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  60. ^ "Home". Sparkasse 3-Länder Marathon. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  61. ^ Snyder, Paul (20 March 2018). "You Won't Believe the Pace (and Patience) Needed to Set the Indoor Marathon World Record". Runner's World. Archived from the original on 30 April 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  62. ^ Sports medicine, training, and rehabilitation. Vol. 3. 1991. p. 95.
  63. ^ Patrick, Dwyne R.; Bignall, John E. (1987). "Creating the competent self: The case of the wheelchair runner". In Joseph A. Kotarba; Andrea Fontana (eds.). The Existential Self in Society. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-45141-0.
  64. ^ Davis, Alison (1996). "The History of Wheelchair Racing at the Boston Marathon". Against the Wind. University of Illinois Board of Trustees. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011.
  65. ^ Davis, Alison (1996). "Interview with Bob Hall". Against the Wind. University of Illinois Board of Trustees. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011.
  66. ^ Couch, Aaron (18 April 2011). "Boston Marathon: five historic moments". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 21 April 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
  67. ^ a b Dicker, Ron (5 November 2000). "New York City Marathon; New Equipment Stirs Division Within Wheelchair Ranks". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 November 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
  68. ^ Vega, Michael (19 April 2010). "Ernst Van Dyk wins record 9th wheelchair title". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
  69. ^ Cooper, Rory A.; Boninger, Michael L.; Rice, Ian; Sean D. Shimada; Rosemarie Cooper (1996). "Elite athletes with impairments". In Walter R. Frontera; David M. Slovik; David Michael Dawson (eds.). Exercise in rehabilitation medicine. Human Kinetics. p. 333. ISBN 0-7360-5541-X. Archived from the original on 29 June 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
  70. ^ "Wheelchair entrants axed from marathon". Calgary Herald. 17 October 1977. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
  71. ^ Association Press (22 October 1977). "Marathon entry on wheels". Lakeland Ledger. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
  72. ^ "Wheelchair athletes win marathon appeal". Tri City Herald. 26 October 1980. Retrieved 20 May 2011.[permanent dead link]
  73. ^ United Press International (11 April 1981). "Marathon Wins Wheelchair Ban". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 November 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
  74. ^ "Fast Forward in Reverse". The New York Times. 11 November 1986. Archived from the original on 14 November 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
  75. ^ Glenday, Craig (2013). Guinness World Records Limited. Jane Boatfield. pp. 247. ISBN 978-1-908843-15-9.
  76. ^ "Runner's World | What Will It Take to Run A 2-Hour Marathon". rw.runnersworld.com. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  77. ^ "Marathon - men - senior - outdoor". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  78. ^ "Marathon - women - senior - outdoor". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  79. ^ "All-time men's best marathon". alltime-athletics.com. 12 October 2021. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  80. ^ "All-time women's best marathon". alltime-athletics.com. 12 October 2021. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  81. ^ a b c d "Kiptum smashes world marathon record with 2:00:35, Hassan runs 2:13:44 in Chicago | REPORT | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 8 October 2023.
  82. ^ "Kenya's Kipchoge shatters marathon world record in Berlin". Reuters. 25 September 2022. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  83. ^ a b Bob Ramsak (29 September 2019). "Bekele clocks 2:01:41 in Berlin, second fastest marathon ever". IAAF. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
  84. ^ a b c d Emeterio Valiente (3 December 2023). "Lemma breaks course record, Degefa dominates in Valencia". World Athletics. Retrieved 3 December 2023.
  85. ^ a b c d e f Emeterio Valiente (4 December 2022). "Kiptum and Beriso break course records in Valencia". World Athletics. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  86. ^ a b c d "Kipruto and Kebede run Japanese all-comers' records in Tokyo". World Athletics. 3 March 2024. Retrieved 3 March 2024.
  87. ^ a b c Simon Hart (28 April 2019). "Kipchoge cracks course record in London with second-fastest time in history". IAAF. Archived from the original on 3 May 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  88. ^ a b c Jess Whittington (6 March 2022). "Kipchoge and Kosgei race to Japanese all-comers' records in Tokyo". World Athletics. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
  89. ^ a b c d "Assefa smashes world marathon record in Berlin with 2:11:53, Kipchoge achieves record fifth win". World Athletics. 24 September 2023. Retrieved 24 September 2023.
  90. ^ a b "Kimetto breaks marathon world record in Berlin with 2:02:57". World Athletics. 28 September 2014. Archived from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  91. ^ a b "Maratón Valencia Trinidad Alfonso EDP". World Athletics. 6 December 2020. Archived from the original on 4 June 2021. Retrieved 28 August 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  92. ^ a b Cathal Dennehy (25 September 2016). "Bekele gets back to his brilliant best at Berlin Marathon". IAAF. Archived from the original on 26 September 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2016.
  93. ^ "Zurich Maratón de Sevilla | Results". worldathletics.org. World Athletics. 18 February 2024. Retrieved 19 February 2024.
  94. ^ a b c "Debutant Molla and Chepngetich smash course records in Dubai". IAAF. 25 January 2019. Archived from the original on 25 January 2019. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  95. ^ "Rotterdam Marathon 2021 Race Results". Watch Athletics. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  96. ^ "World records ratified" (Press release). World Athletics. 20 December 2011. Archived from the original on 28 August 2021. Retrieved 28 August 2021.{{cite press release}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  97. ^ a b Jon Mulkeen (17 October 2021). "Tanui and Tola smash Dutch all-comers' records in Amsterdam". World Athletics. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  98. ^ Bob Ramsak (12 October 2019). "Kipchoge Breaks 2-Hour Barrier in Vienna". IAAF. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  99. ^ Jon Mulkeen (6 May 2017). "Kipchoge a 'happy man' in Monza". IAAF. Archived from the original on 6 May 2017. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  100. ^ Diego Sampaolo (16 May 2021). "Ekiru and Gebrekidan break Italian all-comers' records in Milan". World Athletics. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
  101. ^ Jon Mulkeen (13 October 2019). "Kosgei smashes marathon world record in Chicago". IAAF. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  102. ^ "Chepngetich dominates in Chicago with second-fastest marathon in history". World Athletics. 9 October 2022. Retrieved 9 October 2022.
  103. ^ "Radcliffe runs 2:15:25 in London!". World Athletics. 13 April 2003. Archived from the original on 28 August 2021. Retrieved 28 August 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  104. ^ "Tigist Assefa 2022 Berlin Marathon Results". mikatiming.com. 25 September 2022. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  105. ^ "Kipchoge breaks world record in Berlin with 2:01:09". World Athletics. 25 September 2022. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  106. ^ "Ketema stuns with 2:16:07 marathon debut in Dubai". World Athletics. 7 January 2024. Retrieved 7 January 2024.
  107. ^ "Kipruto and Kebede run Japanese all-comers' records in Tokyo". World Athletics. 3 March 2024. Retrieved 3 March 2024.
  108. ^ a b c d "Jepchirchir breaks women-only world marathon record in London". World Athletics. 21 April 2024. Retrieved 22 April 2024.
  109. ^ a b "Wanjiru and Gelmisa triumph in Tokyo Marathon". World Athletics. 5 March 2023. Retrieved 12 March 2023.
  110. ^ a b "Keitany breaks women's-only world record at London Marathon". World Athletics. 23 April 2017. Archived from the original on 28 August 2021. Retrieved 28 August 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  111. ^ "Yehualaw runs 2:17:23 in Hamburg for fastest ever women's marathon debut". World Athletics. 24 April 2022. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  112. ^ Ken Nakamura (1 March 2020). "Legese retains Tokyo Marathon crown while Salpeter smashes course record". IAAF. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  113. ^ Simon Hart (3 October 2021). "Jepkosgei and Lemma reign supreme in London". World Athletics. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
  114. ^ "100-year-old sets record with marathon finish". CBC News. 16 October 2011. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
  115. ^ 'Gladyator' aged 92 breaks marathon record Archived 15 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Telegraph (6 April 2011). Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  116. ^ Brit woman, 92, breaks world record after finishing Honolulu Marathon Archived 9 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Dailyindia.com. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  117. ^ "World Single Age Records- Marathon". Association of Road Racing Statisticians. 20 January 2011. Archived from the original on 15 September 2018. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
  118. ^ Fenton, Ben. (19 April 2004) Everything you wanted to know about the marathon but were too exhausted to ask Archived 15 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Telegraph. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  119. ^ London Marathon: 25 reasons to celebrate the London Marathon – More Sports, Sport Archived 11 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine. The Independent (16 April 2005). Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  120. ^ a b "Harriette Thompson, 92, becomes oldest woman to complete a marathon | Sport". The Guardian. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  121. ^ a b "Single Age Records Marathon". arrs.run. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  122. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 December 2018. Retrieved 21 September 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  123. ^ 3 year-old marathon runner Archived 7 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 4 July 2013
  124. ^ "2016 Running USA Annual Marathon Report | Running USA". www.runningusa.org. Archived from the original on 20 August 2017. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
  125. ^ "Marathon Statistics — FindMyMarathon.com". findmymarathon.com. Archived from the original on 20 August 2017. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
  126. ^ Meyers, Jessica (11 September 2017). "As running booms in China, marathoners look to Boston". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 17 December 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  127. ^ "100 Marathon Club". 100 Marathon Club. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
  128. ^ Trevallion, Lucy (13 November 2012). "New multi marathon world record". Runner's World UK. Archived from the original on 16 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
  129. ^ 50&DC Marathon Group U.S.A. Archived 27 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 11 April 2010.
  130. ^ Mile posts: And now the rest of the story with Beverly Paquin | Des Moines Register Staff Blogs Archived 12 July 2012 at archive.today. Blogs.desmoinesregister.com (20 October 2010). Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  131. ^ Alumna Runs Marathons in 50 States and D.C., Sets Record! « Slice of MIT by the Alumni Association. Alum.mit.edu (16 November 2010). Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  132. ^ "Accolades". 50anddcmarathongroupusa.com. Archived from the original on 1 June 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
  133. ^ "CBC Archives: television and radio spots on Terry Fox". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 14 June 2006. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
  134. ^ Richter, Marice (26 September 2011). "Multiple sclerosis patient finishes 50th marathon". Reuters. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  135. ^ "Fiennes relishes marathon feat". BBC News. 3 November 2003. Archived from the original on 27 May 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  136. ^ I am not a madman Archived 11 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Interview with Guardian, 5 October 2007
  137. ^ Irish Independent retrieved 120812 Archived 18 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Independent.ie (6 February 2009). Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  138. ^ Interviewed on CNN Archived 23 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Edition.cnn.com (28 February 2012). Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  139. ^ Welcome to the World Marathon Challenge 2012 Archived 18 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Worldmarathonchallenge.com. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  140. ^ Davis, Leanne (24 February 2013). "Cowtown notes: San Antonio runner logs his 1,000th marathon". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
  141. ^ Orton, Kathy (27 October 2004). "Texan's Weekend Job Provides Great Benefits". The Washington Post. pp. D4. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
  142. ^ Blaikie, David (14 September 1998). "The Sy Mah Trophy honours a running legend". Ultramarathon World. Archived from the original on 3 December 1998.
  143. ^ Gesamtstatistik zum 30.06.2008 Archived 21 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. 100mc.de (30 June 2008). Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  144. ^ 100 Marathon Club site (in German) Archived 1 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine. 100mc.de. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  145. ^ 50 States & D.C. Marathon Group site Archived 27 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
  146. ^ "2000. Marathon von Christian Hottas – Mitglied der A-Eskorte | 100 Marathon Club Austria". Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2013.. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  147. ^ Kramer, Michael (5 December 2016). "Christian Hottas lief seinen 2.500sten Marathon". Runner's World Deutschland (in German). Archived from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  148. ^ Dou, Eva (10 February 2011). "Belgian sets world record for marathon running". Reuters. Archived from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  149. ^ "Belgian Stefaan Engels completes record 365th marathon". BBC. 5 February 2011. Archived from the original on 8 February 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
  150. ^ "Seres sobrehumanos". Corredor de fondo. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
  151. ^ "Challenge accomplished: 500 marathons in 500 days". 13 February 2012. Archived from the original on 27 October 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  152. ^ Johnny Kelley
  153. ^ Litsky, Frank (8 October 2004) John A. Kelley, Marathoner, Dies at 97 Archived 28 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine. The New York Times. Retrieved 6 December 2009.
  154. ^ Kita, Meghan (30 March 2012). "Runner With Longest Boston Streak Retires". Runner's World. Archived from the original on 6 November 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  155. ^ Sometimes listed as representing Luxembourg.
  156. ^ "Paris 1900 marathon men Results - Olympic athletics". olympics.com. IOC. Retrieved 21 March 2024.
  157. ^ Arriving without correct documents, a French immigrant to the United States Albert Corey is inconsistently listed as performing in a mixed team in the four mile team race (with four undisputed Americans) and performing for the US in the marathon. Currently, the IOC attributes his medal in the marathon to France and in the team race to a mixed team.
  158. ^ "St. Louis 1904 Athletics Marathon Men Results". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
  159. ^ a b Both Sohn Kee-chung and Nam Sung-yong were from Korea. The IOC attributes both medals to Japan due to Korea being a Japanese colony at the time. All Korean Olympians during the Japanese colonial rule could only participate in the games as a representative of Japan and had to compete with Japanese names instead of their original Korean names. However, some sources still refer to Son Kee-chung as the first Korean to win an Olympic marathon today.
  160. ^ a b "Training programs". Hal Higdon. Archived from the original on 27 October 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
  161. ^ "2005 Total USA Marathon Finishers". Marathonguide.com. Archived from the original on 17 March 2008. Retrieved 24 April 2008.
  162. ^ "2015 Running USA Annual Marathon Report". Running USA. Archived from the original on 5 May 2017. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  163. ^ "Running a sub 3-hour marathon". allaboutrunning.net. Archived from the original on 15 February 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
  164. ^ "Boston Athletic Association". Bostonmarathon.org. Archived from the original on 8 June 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
  165. ^ "Run in 2017". TCS New York City Marathon. 7 September 2016. Archived from the original on 3 May 2019. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  166. ^ Online, sprinters win race: Marathon fills its field in a record 8 hours Archived 22 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Boston.com (19 October 2010). Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  167. ^ McMillan, Greg The Marathon Long Run. mcmillanrunning.com
  168. ^ a b Daniels, J. (2005). Daniels' Running Formula, 2nd Ed. Human Kinetics Publishing. ISBN 0-7360-5492-8.[page needed]
  169. ^ "Marathon Training Tips". Rush University Medical Center. Archived from the original on 2 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  170. ^ Whitsett et al. (1998) The Non-Runner's Marathon Trainer. Master's Press.
  171. ^ Finishing A Marathon Archived 3 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Calendarofmarathons.com. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  172. ^ Burfoot, A. Ed (1999). Runner's World Complete Book of Running : Everything You Need to Know to Run for Fun, Fitness and Competition. Rodale Books. ISBN 1-57954-186-0.[page needed]
  173. ^ Marius Bakken. "Training for a Marathon". Marathon Training Schedule. Archived from the original on 9 February 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2009.
  174. ^ "Marathon Training at Runner's World". Runnersworld.com. 15 February 2008. Archived from the original on 13 August 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
  175. ^ "Boston Athletic Association". Bostonmarathon.org. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
  176. ^ "Hitting the wall for marathon runners". Half-marathon-running.com. Archived from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
  177. ^ a b c Klein, Michael (3 October 2008). "Lesser-known Dangers Associated with Running a Marathon". E-articles.info. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013.
  178. ^ Brater, D. Craig (17 January 2000). "Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on renal function: focus on cyclooxygenase −2–selective inhibition". The American Journal of Medicine. 107 (6): 65–70. doi:10.1016/S0002-9343(99)00369-1. PMID 10628595.
  179. ^ Helou, Nour; Tafflet, Muriel; Berthelot, Geoffroy (23 May 2012). "Impact of Environmental Parameters on Marathon Running Performance". PLOS One. 7 (5): e37407. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...737407E. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037407. PMC 3359364. PMID 22649525. [Data in] Supplementary Table 3–Optimal temperatures for maximal running speeds of each level of performance, with speed losses associated with each temperature increase.
  180. ^ S, J (4 October 2017). "Can the marathon's two-hour barrier be broken?". The Economist. Retrieved 2 July 2020. While it is unclear how much—or even if—rain or humidity alone affect marathon times, a little heat can make a big difference. One study published in 2012 found that the optimum temperature was a chilly 4 °C (39 °F) for the top percentile of entrants, and that a rise of 10 °C was associated with a 1.4% drop in speed, with bigger declines for lesser athletes. Another paper produced in 2007 offered no optimum point, but found that an increase in WetBulb Globe Temperature—an overall measure of heat stress—from 8 °C to 17 °C was linked to a 1.6% fall in performance for elite competitors.
  181. ^ Gasparetto, Thadeu; Nesseler, Cornel (July 2020). "Diverse Effects of Thermal Conditions on Performance of Marathon Runners". Frontiers in Psychology. 11: 1438. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01438. PMC 7350124. PMID 32719639. We analyzed endurance performances of the top 1000 runners for every year during the last 12 New York City Marathons. Thermal conditions were estimated with wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI). Under identical thermal exposure, the fastest runners experienced a larger decline in performance than the slower ones.
  182. ^ Jaworski CA (June 2005). "Medical concerns of marathons". Current Sports Medicine Reports. 4 (3): 137–43. doi:10.1097/01.csmr.0000306196.51994.5f. PMID 15907265. S2CID 220577417.
  183. ^ a b Pete Pfitzinger – Lab Reports – Recovering From a Marathon, Part One Archived 10 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Pfitzinger.com. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  184. ^ Mailler EA, Adams BB (August 2004). "The wear and tear of 26.2: dermatological injuries reported on marathon day". British Journal of Sports Medicine. 38 (4): 498–501. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2004.011874. PMC 1724877. PMID 15273194.
  185. ^ Mackinnon, Laurel T. (July 2000). "Chronic exercise training effects on immune function". Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 32 (Supplement): S369–S376. doi:10.1097/00005768-200007001-00001. ISSN 0195-9131. PMID 10910293.
  186. ^ Acevedo, Edmund O.; Dzewaltowski, David A.; Kubitz, Karla A.; Kraemer, Robert R. (October 1999). "Effects of a proposed challenge on effort sense and cardiorespiratory responses during exercise". Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 31 (10): 1460–5. doi:10.1097/00005768-199910000-00016. ISSN 0195-9131. PMID 10527320.
  187. ^ Stouffer Drenth, Tere (2003). Marathon Training for Dummies. United States: Wiley Publishing Inc. p. 182. ISBN 0-7645-2510-7.
  188. ^ Drenth, Tere Stouffer (7 March 2003). "Marathon Training For Dummies - Tere Stouffer Drenth - Google Books". Wiley. ISBN 9780764525100.
  189. ^ Keener, Candace. (27 February 2008) HowStuffWorks "The Health Risks of the Marathon" Archived 18 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Entertainment.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  190. ^ Waite O, Smith A, Madge L, Spring H, Noret N (January 2016). "Sudden cardiac death in marathons: a systematic review" (PDF). The Physician and Sportsmedicine. 44 (1): 79–84. doi:10.1080/00913847.2016.1135036. PMID 26765272. S2CID 36458482. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 September 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  191. ^ Neilan TG, et al. (28 November 2006). "Myocardial injury and ventricular dysfunction related to training levels among non-elite participants in the Boston Marathon". Circulation. 114 (22): 2325–2533. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.647461. PMID 17101848.
  192. ^ Pappas, Stephanie (25 October 2010). "Temporary Heart Damage May Explain Marathon Deaths". Live Science. Archived from the original on 17 April 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  193. ^ Gaudreault V, et al. (October 2013). "Transient Myocardial Tissue and Function Changes During a Marathon in Less Fit Marathon Runners". Canadian Journal of Cardiology. 29 (10): 1269–1276. doi:10.1016/j.cjca.2013.04.022. PMID 23910227.
  194. ^ Merck Manual: Hyponatremia Archived 11 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Merckmanuals.com. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  195. ^ Kolata, Gina (20 October 2005). "Marathoners Warned About Too Much Water". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 August 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
  196. ^ "Fluid Cited in Marathoner's Death". Associated Press News. 13 August 2002. Archived from the original on 19 April 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
  197. ^ Noakes, MD, DSc, Tim (1 May 2012). Waterlogged. Human Kinetics. p. 4. ISBN 978-1450424974. Archived from the original on 21 May 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2015.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  198. ^ "ROAD RACING; Boston Marathon Runner Dies". The New York Times. 19 April 2002. Archived from the original on 23 April 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
  199. ^ a b "Doctors: Marathoner Died From Too Much Water". WCVB News. Archived from the original on 19 April 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
  200. ^ Nearman, Steve (23 October 2003). "Too much of a good thing". The Washington Times. Archived from the original on 19 April 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
  201. ^ Almond CS, Shin AY, Fortescue EB, et al. (April 2005). "Hyponatremia among runners in the Boston Marathon". N. Engl. J. Med. 352 (15): 1550–6. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa043901. PMID 15829535. S2CID 42909509.
  202. ^ Engler, Natalie (2003). "Marathon Dilemma: How Much Water is Too Much?". AMAASportsMed.org. American Running Association. Reuters. Archived from the original on 10 November 2015.
  203. ^ Almond CS, Shin AY, Fortescue EB, et al. (April 2005). "Hyponatremia among runners in the Boston Marathon". The New England Journal of Medicine. 352 (15): 1550–6. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa043901. PMID 15829535. S2CID 42909509.
  204. ^ a b Writing committee: Lewis G. Maharam, MD.FACSM (chair), Tamara Hew DPM, Arthur Siegel MD, Marv Adner, MD, Bruce Adams, MD and Pedro Pujol, MD, FACSM (6 May 2006). "IMMDA's REVISED FLUID RECOMMENDATIONS FOR RUNNERS & WALKERS". Association of International Marathons and Distance Races. Archived from the original on 27 April 2012.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  205. ^ a b Bethea, Damian; Powell, Shuma (July 2005). "Dehydration Review, Report Number HSL/2005/29" (PDF). Health & Safety Laboratory Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 July 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
  206. ^ Armstrong, LE; Casa, DJ; Millard-Stafford, M; Moran, DS; Pyne, SW; Roberts, WO (March 2007). "American College of Sports Medicine position stand: Exertional heat illness during training and competition". Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 39 (3): 556–572. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31802fa199. PMID 17473783. S2CID 27001417.
  207. ^ "NASA's Opportunity Mars Rover Finishes Marathon, Clocks in at Just Over 11 Years - NASA". Retrieved 24 November 2023.
  208. ^ Fleur, Nicholas St (25 March 2015). "NASA's Opportunity Rover Completes a Martian Marathon". The Atlantic. Retrieved 24 November 2023.


  • Hans-Joachim Gehrke, "From Athenian identity to European ethnicity: The cultural biography of the myth of Marathon," in Ton Derks, Nico Roymans (ed.), Ethnic Constructs in Antiquity: The Role of Power and Tradition (Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Press, 2009) (Amsterdam Archaeological Studies, 13), 85–100.
  • Hans W. Giessen: Mythos Marathon. Von Herodot über Bréal bis zur Gegenwart. (= Landauer Schriften zur Kommunikations- und Kulturwissenschaft. Band 17). Verlag Empirische Pädagogik, Landau 2010
  • Tom Derderian, Boston Marathon: History of the World's Premier Running Event, Human Kinetics, 1994, 1996

External links[edit]