Anu-Hkongso language

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Anu
Hkongso
Native to Burma
Region Paletwa Township
Ethnicity Anu, Khongso
Native speakers
4,000 (2008)[1]
Dialects
  • Anu
  • Khongso
Language codes
ISO 639-3 anl
Glottolog anuu1241[3]

Anu-Hkongso is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken between the Kaladan and Michaung rivers in Paletwa Township, Chin State, Burma. It is apparently related to Mru, forming the Mruic language branch, whose position with Sino-Tibetan is unclear. It consists of two dialects, Anu (Añú) and Hkongso (Khongso, Khaungtso).

Varieties[edit]

Hkongso and Anu are closely related languages. The Kasang claim to be Hkongso, and live in a small area just to the south of the main Hkongso area, in the villages of Lamoitong and Tuirong. The Anu live in scattered areas to the east of the main Hkongso area.[4]

The Anu people consider themselves to consist of 4 subgroups, namely Hkum, Hkong (Hkongso), Som, and Kla. However, the Hkongso maintain that they are an ethnic group equal to the Anu, but are not a subgroup of the Anu.[4]

The Kasang (also known as Khenlak, Ta-aw, Hkongsa-Asang, Hkongso-Asang, Asang, and Sangta) consider themselves as ethnic Hkongso, but their language is intelligible with Khumi rather than Anu.[4]

The Mru language is also closely related to Anu and Hkongso. The Mru had migrated to the Chittagong Hills from the Arakan Hills.[4]

Distribution[edit]

Hkongso is spoken in the following villages of Paletwa Township.[4]

  • Bahungtong
  • Halawa
  • Kanan
  • Kanlawa
  • Lakinwa
  • Likkung
  • Pahang
  • Paletwa
  • Pawa
  • Phongphai
  • Ringrong
  • Sami
  • Singkangkung
  • Tengwa
  • Tuikinwa
  • Vadengkung
  • Youngwa

Hkongso subgroups (clans) are Kamu, Ngan, Gwa, Hteih, Hteikloeh, Ngai, Rahnam, Kapu, Kasah, Namte, Krawktu, and Namluek.[4]

Leimi, Asang, and Likkheng are other languages spoken in the Paletwa Township area.[4]

Grammar[edit]

Unlike the Kuki-Chin languages, Hkongso (kʰɔŋ˥˩sʰo˦˨) has no verb stem alternation and has SVO word order (Wright 2009).[4] Also, unlike Mru and the Kuki-Chin languages, Hkongso has Neg-V word order instead of the V-Neg order found in surrounding languages.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Anu at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Mruic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Anu". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Jonathan Michael Wright. 2009. Hkongso Grammar Sketch. MA thesis, Graduate Institute of Applied Linguistics.

Further reading[edit]

  • Jonathan Michael Wright. 2009. Hkongso Grammar Sketch. MA thesis, Graduate Institute of Applied Linguistics.