|Native to||Yunnan, China|
|1.2 million (2003)|
bca – Central Bai, Jianchuan dialect
bfs – Southern Bai, Dali dialect
bfc – Northern Bai, Bijiang dialect (Panyi Bai)
lay – Lama Bai
The Bai language (Bai: Baip‧ngvp‧zix; simplified Chinese: 白语; traditional Chinese: 白語; pinyin: Báiyǔ) is a language spoken in China, primarily in Yunnan province, by the Bai people, one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. The language has over a million speakers and is divided into three main dialects. It is a tonal language with eight tones and a rather rich set of vowels. As is common among Southeast Asian languages, the vowels of Bai have a phonemic opposition between tense vowels and lax vowels (creaky voice vs. normal voice). There exists a small amount of traditional literature written with Chinese characters, Bowen (僰文), as well as a number of recent publications printed with a recently standardized system of romanisation using the Latin alphabet.
Within the core Bai area, three dialects are recognized, which may actually be distinct languages: Jianchuan (Central), Dali (Southern), and Bijiang (Northern). Jianchuan and Dali are close, and speakers are reported to be able to understand one another after living together for a month. Bijiang is more divergent, and may itself be two languages, Panyi and Lama.
The position of this language (or language group) within the Sino-Tibetan family is undetermined. Traditionally, Bai has been considered to be a Tibeto-Burman language, but starting with R.A.D. Forrest in 1948, the rival argument has been made that it is instead an offshoot of Proto-Sinitic, coordinate with Old Chinese. Within the last generation, this argument has been taken up by Sergei Starostin, G. van Driem, and S. Zhengzhang. The state of the debate on the genetic position of Bai is surveyed by Wang (2005), who points out that the proper investigation of the issue is hampered by the fact that Proto-Bai, the ancestor of the three modern dialects, has yet to be reconstructed. Indeed, the dialects themselves have not yet all been thoroughly described.
The question is complicated by the fact that Bai vocabulary has been influenced over millennia by both neighboring Tibeto-Burman languages and several varieties of Chinese. The Sinologist Jerry Norman has stated: "While it would probably be going too far to consider Bái a Sinitic [Chinese] dialect, its close links to Sinitic cannot easily be dismissed."
The Laemae (lɛ˨˩mɛ˨˩, Leimai, Leimo), a clan numbering about 50,000 people who are submerged within the Lisu, are reported to speak a "Bai group language" (Bradley 2007:363). Bradley (2007) estimates that there are about 15,000 speakers of Laemae in Fugong County, Yunnan. Lisu and Northern Bai are also spoken in the region.
The recently discovered Caijia language (蔡家) may also be related to Bai. The languages of the Longjia (龙家) and Luren (卢人) peoples may be closely related to Caijia. All three are located in western Guizhou province, China.
Bai has a basic syntactic order of subject–verb–object (SVO).
- Central Bai, Jianchuan dialect reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
Southern Bai, Dali dialect reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
Northern Bai, Bijiang dialect (Panyi Bai) reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
Lama Bai reference at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
- Norman 2003:73
- Guizhou Province Gazetteer: Ethnic Gazetteer [贵州省志. 民族志] (2002). Guiyang: Guizhou Ethnic Publishing House [貴州民族出版社].
- Bradley, David. 2007. "East and Southeast Asia." In Moseley, Christopher (ed). Encyclopedia of the World's Endangered Languages. New York: Routledge.
- Lee Yeon-ju & Sagart, L. 1998. The strata of Bai. Paper presented at the 31st ICSTLL, University of Lund, Sweden, Sep. 30 – Oct. 4, 1998.
- Matisoff, J. A. 2001. On the genetic position of Bai within Tibeto-Burman. Paper presented at the 34th International Conference on Sino-Tibetan languages and linguistics, Yunnan minzu xueyuan.
- Starostin, Sergej. 1995. “The historical position of Bai”. Moskovskij Lingvisticheskij Zhurnal 1:174-190. Moscow.
- Norman, Jerry. 2003. The Chinese dialects: phonology. In Graham Thurgood and Randy J. LaPolla, eds., The Sino-Tibetan Languages. Routledge. Routledge language family series. Chapter 5, 72ff.
- Wang, Feng. 2005. On the genetic position of the Bai language. Cahiers de Linguistique - Asie Orientale. 34(1):101–127. Paris.
- Wang, Feng. 2006. Comparison of languages in contact: the distillation method and the case of Bai. Language and Linguistics Monograph Series B: Frontiers in Linguistics III. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica, 2006.
- Wiersma, Grace. 1990. Investigation of the Bai (Minjia) language along historical lines. PhD dissertation, University of California at Berkeley.
- Allen, Bryan; Zhang Xia 2004. Bai Dialect Survey. Yunnan Nationalities Publishing House. ISBN 7-5367-2967-7.