Konyak language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Konyak
Native to Nagaland, India
Ethnicity Konyak
Native speakers
250,000 (2001 census)[1]
Sino-Tibetan
Language codes
ISO 639-3 nbe
Glottolog kony1248[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Konyak is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by the Konyak people of Nagaland, northeastern India.

Dialects[edit]

Ethnologue lists the following dialects of Konyak.

  • Angphang
  • Hopao
  • Changnyu
  • Chen
  • Chingkao
  • Chinglang
  • Choha
  • Gelekidoria
  • Jakphang
  • Longching
  • Longkhai
  • Longmein
  • Longwa
  • Mon
  • Mulung
  • Ngangching
  • Sang
  • Shanlang
  • Shunyuo
  • Shengha
  • Sima
  • Sowa
  • Shamnyuyanga
  • Tableng (Angwangku, Kongon, Mohung, Wakching)
  • Tabu
  • Tamkhungnyuo
  • Tang
  • Tobunyuo
  • Tolamleinyua
  • Totok

Tableng is the standard dialect spoken in Wanching and Wakching.

Phonology[edit]

There are three lexically contrastive contour tones in Konyak – rising (marked in writing by an acute accent – á), falling (marked by a grave accent – à) and level (unmarked).[3]

Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back
Close i ɨ u
Mid e ə o
Open a

The vowels /a/, /o/ and /u/ are lengthened before approximants. /ə/ doesn't occur finally.

Consonants[edit]

Bilabial Dental/
Alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive p
c k
ʔ
Nasal m ɲ ŋ
Fricative s h
Lateral l
Approximant w j

The stops /p/ and /k/ contrast with the aspirated /pʰ/ and /kʰ/. /p/ and /c/ become voiced intervocalically across morpheme boundaries. The dental /t/ is realised as an alveolar if preceded by a vowel with a rising tone. The approximants /w/ and /j/ are pronounced laxer and shorter after vowels; /w/ becomes tenser initially before high vowels. If morpheme-initial or intervocalic, /j/ is pronounced with audible friction.[4] /pʰ/, /kʰ/, /c/, /ɲ/, /s/, /h/ and /l/ do not occur morpheme-finally, while /ʔ/ does not appear morpheme-initially. Except for morpheme-initial /kp/ and /kʰl/, consonant clusters occur only medially.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Konyak at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Konyak Naga". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Nagaraja 2010, p. 8
  4. ^ Nagaraja 2010, pp. 21–2
  5. ^ Nagaraja 2010, p. 23

Bibliography[edit]

  • Nagaraja, K.S. (2010), Konyak Grammar, Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages, ISBN 81-7342-195-1 

Further reading[edit]

  • Ine Jongne Jame (1957), Primer for Adults in Konyak Language, Guwahati 
  • Kumar, Brij Bihari (1972), Hindi-Konyak Dictionary, Kohima: Nagaland Bhasha Parishad 
  • Kumar, Brij Bihari (1972), Konyak Vyakaran ki Ruprekha, Kohima: Nagaland Bhasha Parishad 
  • Nagaraja, K.S. (1996), Kinship terms in Konyak Naga (PDF) 
  • Nagaraja, K.S., Konyak–Hindi–English Dictionary, Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages 
  • Nagaraja, K.S., "Relativization in Konyak", Indian Linguistics, 45: 41–8