Immigration to Sweden

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Immigrants and emigrants, Sweden 1850–2007

Immigration to Sweden is the process by which people migrate to Sweden to reside in the country. Many, but not all, become Swedish citizens. The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility, crime, and voting behaviour. As the Swedish state does not base any statistics on ethnicity, there are no exact numbers on the total number of people of immigrant background in Sweden.[1]

As of 2010, 1.33 million people or 14.3% of the inhabitants in Sweden were foreign-born. Of these, 859,000 (64.6%) were born outside the European Union and 477,000 (35.4%) were born in another EU member state.[2] Sweden has been transformed from a nation of net emigration ending after World War I to a nation of net immigration from World War II onward. In 2013, immigration reached its highest level since records began with 115,845 people migrating to Sweden while the total population grew by 88,971.[3]

81,300 applied for asylum in 2014, which was an increase of 50% compared to 2013, and the most since 1992. 47% of them come from Syria, followed by 21% from the horn of Africa (mostly Eritrea and Somalia). 77% (63,000) requests were approved but it differs greatly between different groups. Nearly two weeks into October 2015, a record figure of 86,223 asylum applications was reached. In 2016, 28,939 people applied for asylum.[4]

Immigrants in Sweden are mostly concentrated in the urban areas of Svealand and Götaland and the largest foreign born populations in Sweden come from Finland, Iraq, Poland, Iran, former Yugoslavia and Syria.

History[edit]

Further information: History of Sweden
Population of Sweden, 1961 to 2003. The population increased from 7.5 to 8.3 million during the 1960s to 1970s. After a phase of stagnation during the early 1980s, the population grew further from 8.3 to 8.8 million during 1987 to 1997, followed by another phase of stagnation (followed by another growth phase from 8.8 to 9.3 million over 2004 to 2010).
World War II

Immigration increased markedly with World War II. Historically, the most numerous of foreign born nationalities are ethnic Germans from Germany and other Scandinavians from Denmark and Norway.[citation needed] In short order, 70,000 war children were evacuated from Finland, of which 15,000 remained in Sweden. Also, many of Denmark's nearly 7,000 Jews who were evacuated to Sweden decided to remain there.[citation needed]

A sizable community from the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) arrived during the Second World War.[5]

1945 to 1967

During the 1950s and 1960s, the recruitment of migrant workers was an important factor of immigration. The Nordic countries signed a trade agreement in 1952, establishing a common labour market and free movement across borders. This migration within the Nordic countries, especially from Finland to Scandinavia, was essential to create the tax-base required for the expansion of the strong public sector now characteristic of Scandinavia. This continued until 1967, when the labour market became saturated, and Sweden introduced new immigration controls.

On a smaller scale, Sweden took in political refugees from Hungary and the former Czechoslovakia after their countries were invaded by the Soviet Union in 1956 and 1968 respectively. Some tens of thousands of American draft dodgers from the Vietnam War in the 1960s and 1970s also found refuge in Sweden.

Contemporary immigration[edit]

Since the early 1970s, immigration to Sweden has been mostly due to refugee migration, especially from former Yugoslavia (due to the Yugoslav Wars in the 1990s) but also from countries in the Middle East and Latin America.[6]

In 2009, immigration reached its highest level since records began with 102,280 people migrating to Sweden while the total population grew by 84,335.[1] In 2010, 32,000 people applied for asylum to Sweden, a 25% increase from 2009, one of the highest amount in Swedish since 1992 and the Balkan wars.[7] However the number of people that were granted asylum stayed the same as previous years. In 2009, Sweden had the fourth largest number of asylum applications in the EU and the largest number per capita after Cyprus and Malta.[8]

During 2010 the most common reason for immigrating to Sweden was:

  1. Labour migrants (21%)
  2. Family reunification (20%)
  3. Immigrating under the EU/EES rules of free movement (18%)
  4. Students (14%)
  5. Refugees (12%)[9]

In 2010, 32,000 people applied for asylum to Sweden, a 25% increase from 2009, however the number of people who received asylum did not increase because the large increase was much due to the allowing of Serbian nationals to travel without a visa to Sweden.[7] In 2009, Sweden had the fourth largest number of asylum applications in the EU and the largest number per capita after Cyprus and Malta.[8] Sweden has the highest asylum immigration per million inhabitants in Europe.

The number of asylum seekers coming to Sweden increased drastically beginning in 2014. 81,300 applied for asylum in 2014, which was an increase of 50% compared to 2013. It was the most since 1992, when 84,018 persons applied for asylum during the war in Yugoslavia. 47% of the asylum seekers today come from Syria as a result of the civil war there, 21% from the horn of Africa (mostly Eritrea and Somalia), 7% from Balkan and 4% from Afghanistan and Pakistan. 77% (63,000) requests were approved but it differs greatly between different groups, such as Syrians and Eritreans where nearly everyone gets their application approved.[10] In February 2015, it was expected that 90,000 apply for asylum in 2015 and 80,000 in 2016. The Swedish Migration Board currently has shortage of 15,000 accommodations so they have to rent from private actors.[11] In the end of April 2015, the figure for the year 2015 was revised down to 68,000-88,000 with 80,000 as the main scenario. Long processing times and that the situation in Iraq has not developed in the way the Swedish Migration Board feared are the reason for the revised figures.[12] Nearly two weeks into October 2015, 86,223 had applied for asylum so far during the year. That was a record, surpassing the 1992 figure of 84,018 during the war in Yugoslavia. Emergency accommodation such as drill halls or offices is needed.[13][14]

A series of violent riots starting with the 2008 Malmö mosque riots and including the 2009 Malmö anti-Israel riots, 2010 Rinkeby riots, 2013 Stockholm riots, 2016 Sweden riots and 2017 Rinkeby riots, during which immigrant youth torched cars and buildings and threw rocks at police, led many Swedes to question Sweden's ability to integrate migrants.[15]

By November 2015, Swedish willingness to accept large numbers of migrants "was petering out."[16]

Demographics[edit]

Current population of immigrants and their descendants[edit]

There are no exact numbers on the ethnic background of migrants and their descendants in Sweden as the Swedish state does not base any statistics on ethnicity. This is however not to be confused with the migrants' national backgrounds which are being recorded.

As of 2011, a Statistics Sweden study showed that around 27% or 2,500,000 inhabitants of Sweden had full or partial foreign background and around 73% or 7,000,000 had no foreign background.[citation needed] Of these inhabitants; 1,427,296 persons living in Sweden were born abroad. In addition; 430,253 persons were born in Sweden to two parents born abroad and another 666,723 persons had one parent born abroad (with the other parent born in Sweden).

Immigration[edit]

Immigrants (red) and emigrants (blue), Sweden 1850–2007

In 1998, there were 1,746,921 inhabitants of foreign background and their descendants(foreign born and children of international migrants) composing around 20% of the Swedish population. Around 1,216,659 or 70% came from Scandinavia and the rest of Europe and 530,262 or 30% came from the rest of the world.[17]

In 2011, with the total population being 9,562,556; roughly 15% of the population was born abroad, 5% of the population was born in Sweden to two parents born abroad, and another 7% was born in Sweden to one parent born abroad. Resulting in 27% of the Swedish population being of at least partly foreign descent.[18]

Population by ancestry, Sweden 2002-2011

Child bride immigration[edit]

In April 2016, Reuters reported that at least 70 girls under 18 were living married in asylum centres in Stockholm and Malmö. Reuters added: "In Sweden, the lowest age for sex is 15 and marriage 18."[19]

Country of origin for persons born abroad[edit]

30 largest immigrant populations by country of origin 2016[20]
Country Men Women Population Change
Finland Finland 60,806 92,814 153,620 Decrease
Syria Syria 87,485 61,933 149,418 Increase
Iraq Iraq 72,538 62,591 135,129 Increase
Poland Poland 40,700 48,004 88,704 Increase
Iran Iran 36,765 33,872 70,637 Increase
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia former Yugoslavia 33,440 33,099 66,539 Decrease
Somalia Somalia 31,746 32,107 63,853 Increase
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 28,832 29,349 58,181 Increase
Germany Germany 23,708 26,481 50,189 Increase
Turkey Turkey 25,858 21,202 47,060 Increase
Norway Norway 18,817 23,249 42,066 Decrease
Denmark Denmark 21,831 19,381 41,212 Decrease
Thailand Thailand 8,671 31,206 39,877 Increase
Eritrea Eritrea 19,765 15,377 35,142 Increase
Afghanistan Afghanistan 21,093 13,661 34,754 Increase
China China (excluding Hong Kong) 11,820 17,820 29,640 Increase
Chile Chile 14,128 13,871 27,999 Decrease
Romania Romania 13,846 14,128 27,974 Increase
Lebanon Lebanon 14,877 12,029 26,906 Increase
United Kingdom United Kingdom 17,423 9,019 26,442 Increase
India India 13,289 12,430 25,719 Increase
Russia Russian Federation 6,896 13,291 20,187 Increase
United States United States of America 10,487 9,527 20,014 Increase
Ethiopia Ethiopia 9,122 8,822 17,944 Increase
Vietnam Vietnam 8,149 9,578 17,727 Increase
Greece Greece 9,826 7,234 17,060 Increase
Hungary Hungary 8,200 8,476 16,676 Increase
Philippines Philippines 2,925 10,034 12,959 Increase
Pakistan Pakistan 7,531 4,919 12,450 Increase
Lithuania Lithuania 6,433 5,874 12,307 Increase
Colombia Colombia 6,077 6,001 12,078 Increase
Total immigrant population 890,095 894,402 1,784,497 Increase
Immigrant populations by Statistics Sweden 2016[20]
Region Population
Western Asia 392,539
Northern Europe 301,926
Southern Europe 215,089
Eastern Europe 183,318
Eastern Africa 133,181
Southern Asia 88,780
Western Europe 83,943
Southeastern Asia 78,133
South America 69,645
Eastern Asia 48,847
Northern Africa 33,044
Northern America 23,771
Western Africa 18,502
Central America 8,978
Central Asia 7,493
Middle Africa 6,982
Oceania 5,575
Caribbean 4,709
Southern Africa 3,049

Ethnicity[edit]

East and Southeast Asians in Sweden[edit]

Main article: Asian Swedes

115,331 people in Sweden (about 1% of the population) are born in Asia, of those 43,000 are born in East Asia and 72,000 in Southeast Asia. The largest groups are Thai (36,000), Chinese (28,000) and Vietnamese (16,000). East and Southeast Asians have moved to Sweden for very different reasons. Many Thai and Filipinos (11,500) arrived in Sweden via marriage while Vietnamese and Burmese (1,500) came as refugees. The group also consist of 10,000 South Koreans, of which the overwhelming majority came through international adoptions in the 1970s and 1980s. The Asian population is spread all over the country with some groups over-represented in Stockholm.

South Asians in Sweden[edit]

Main article: Asian Swedes

Unlike its Scandinavian neighbours, Sweden does not have a large South Asian population. In 2013, there were 46,231 South Asian born people living in Sweden, which represents about 0.5% of the entire population.[21]

South Americans in Sweden[edit]

66 912 people in Sweden are born in South America. The largest groups are Chileans (28 000), Colombians (11 500) and Peruvians (7 200).[21] During Pinochet’s regime in Chile Sweden granted asylum to several thousand refugee who left Chile during these years. Also Argentinians and Uruguayans who fled their dictatorship were granted asylum but to a lesser extent than Chileans. Since the democratisation of South America the immigration to Sweden changed from refugees to family reunification and more lately to migration for employment and education purposes. The fastest growing group is currently Brazilians followed by Colombians.

Albanians in Sweden[edit]

Main article: Albanians in Sweden

There are more than 50,000 ethnic Albanians in Sweden. They come from all Albanian-dominated parts of the Balkans (see Great Albania). Many Albanians came from Kosovo in the early 1990s because of the wars in the Balkans.

Assyrians/Syriacs in Sweden[edit]

Assyrians in Sweden numbered around 120,000 people as of 2009, or 1.3% of the total population of Sweden. Their size doubled in the period of 2002 to 2009.[21] Sweden has a particularly large Assyrians/Syriacs community that grew substantially during the Iraq war. The Swedish city of Södertälje has alone taken in more Iraqi refugees than the United States and Canada combined.[22]

Södertälje has the largest group of Assyrians/Syriacs of any city in Europe, with more than 30,000 Assyrian/Syriacs living in Södertälje (amounting to 50% of the population), and around 50,000 Assyrians/Syriacs living in Stockholm County. Södertalje is often nicknamed "little Baghdad" or "Mesopotälje" owing to the number of Iraqi-based inhabitants in the city.[23]

Arabs in Sweden[edit]

Main article: Arabs in Sweden

There are around 211,000 Arabs in Sweden,[24] which makes them one of the largest minorities in Sweden if counted as one minority group. However, Arabs come from 18 different nations and represent several different religious groups. Arabs are spread all over Sweden with high concentrations in Malmö, Norrköping, Örebro, Uppsala, Stockholm and Gothenburg. The largest groups originate from Iraq, Syria and Lebanon. Arabs are one of the fastest-growing groups in Sweden because of ongoing conflicts in Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Libya. Even though the majority of Arabs arrived in Sweden as asylum seekers and via family reunification, large groups also have arrived lately as labour migrants.

Berbers in Sweden[edit]

Main article: Berbers in Sweden

There are about 50,000[citation needed] Berber migrants in Sweden, most of them from Morocco and Algeria.

Bosnians in Sweden[edit]

Main article: Bosnians in Sweden
Swedish footballer Zlatan Ibrahimović was born to a Bosnian father and Croatian mother

As of 31 December 2009 there are 56,127[25] people born in Bosnia and Herzegovina living in Sweden. This figure does not include Yugoslavs of Bosnian and Herzegovinian origin who immigrated before 1992. Most of these immigrants came to Sweden during the Bosnian War in the 1990s.

Finns in Sweden[edit]

Main article: Finns in Sweden

Sweden Finns (ruotsinsuomalaiset in Finnish, sverigefinnar in Swedish) are a Finnish speaking minority in Sweden. The Finnish-speaking Swedes are not to be confused with the Swedish speaking Finland-Swedes in Finland (and Sweden). In year 2008 there were over 675 000 people in Sweden who were either born in Finland or have at least one parent or grandparent who was born in Finland.[26]

Iranians in Sweden[edit]

Main article: Iranians in Sweden
Professional hockey player Mika Zibanejad, born to a Persian father and a Finnish mother, plays for the Swedish national team and in the NHL. On January 5, 2012, Zibanejad scored the gold medal-winning golden goal for Sweden in the 2012 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships against Russia in the tournament final; the game finished 1–0.

There are over 90,000 Iranians in Sweden.[27] Regions where Swedish-Iranians primarily inhabit include cities such as Stockholm and Gothenburg. There are approximately 63,828 people born in Iran living in Sweden today, as well as 28,600 people born in Sweden with at least one parent born in Iran. They are one of Sweden’s largest minorities, accounting for nearly one percent of the population.

The first generation of 5,000 Iranian refugees fled to Sweden in 1980-81, most of them were middle-aged, middle-class socialists who were opposing the revolution or fleeing conscription during the Iran-Iraq war. Between 1980 and 1988 almost 20,000 Iranian citizens found asylum in Sweden.

About 60% percent of them go on to higher education – far more than the Swedish average (45 percent) or the average for other minorities (37 percent).[28] Iranian culture – with its emphasis on education – may be part of the reason for their success.

Indians in Sweden[edit]

Main article: Indians in Sweden

Indian-born constitutes the largest group among South Asians in Sweden with approximately 20,000[citation needed] residents. About half of them came to Sweden through international adoptions and have limited connection to their country of birth. During the last decade, the number of Indians who moved to Sweden because of employment has seen an increase and the last few years Indians have been among the fastest-growing immigrant groups.

Kurds in Sweden[edit]

Main article: Kurds in Sweden

There are around 60,000 Kurds living in Sweden. Most of them live in the capital Stockholm, Malmö or in Uppsala. A majority of Kurdish political refugees choose Sweden as their host country and therefore they have a cultural presence in Sweden.[29]

Romani in Sweden[edit]

Romani in Sweden were formerly known as zigenare (gypsies) for Roma and tattare for Romani Travellers. More recently the romer has been adopted as a collective designation referring to both groups, with resande (Travellers) also referring to the latter only. Currently, there are approximately 50,000 Romani living in Sweden, many of them being Finnish Kale who immigrated in the 1960s. The latter, particularly women, often wear traditional dress in public.[30]

Romani in Sweden have periodically suffered at the hands of the state. For example, the state has subjected children to being forcibly taken into foster care, or even forcibly sterilised Romani women. Prejudice against Romanies is widespread, with most stereotypes portraying Romani as welfare cheats, shoplifters, and con artists. In the 1992, Bert Karlsson, one of the leaders of Ny Demokrati, declared that "Gypsies are responsible for 90% of crime against senior citizens" in Sweden.[31] Previously he had tried to ban the entry of Romani to his Skara Sommarland theme park, because he considered them responsible for theft. Some shopkeepers, employers and landlords continue to discriminate Romani.[32]

The situation is, however, improving for the Roma. There are several Romani organisations that promote Romani rights and culture in Sweden. Since 2000, Romani is an officially recognised minority language in Sweden. The Swedish government also has a special standing Delegation for Romani Issues. There is now even a Romani folk high school in Gothenburg.[33]

Serbs in Sweden[edit]

Main article: Serbs in Sweden

There are around 80,000 Serbs living in Sweden. The Swedish Serbs constituted a low percentage of the Swedish population prior to the 1960s. Some came after World War II, mostly seeking political asylum. The greatest proportion of Serbs came together with Greeks, Italians and Turks under the visa agreements in times of severe labour shortages or when particular skills were deficient within Sweden.[34] During the 1960s and 1970s, agreements were signed with the governments of Yugoslavia to help Sweden overcome its severe labour shortage.[35] Bosnian Serbs and Croatian Serbs migrated in another wave during and after the Yugoslav wars. Another wave of Kosovo Serbs came during the Kosovo war in 1999.

Sri Lankans in Sweden[edit]

Main article: Sri Lankans in Sweden

There are over 7,000 Sri Lankans who are residing in Sweden. Among them are children who have been adopted by families of Swedish origin. Recent migrations are mostly caused by migrations for technology related occupations and higher studies. The Sri Lankan embassy in Sweden regularly organises events that showcase the culture with a focus on improving tourism and business relations.

Somalis in Sweden[edit]

Main article: Somalis in Sweden

According to Statistics Sweden, there were 31,734 immigrants from Somalia in 2009.[36] In 2012, the number had increased to 43,966.[37] Most arrived as asylum seekers and through family reunification services in the 1990s and the 2000s. Since the mid-2000s, there has been an increasing secondary migration of Somali immigrants and EU citizens from Sweden and other Scandinavian countries toward the United Kingdom. This exodus has been attributed to a desire to reunite with family members, to find work and to obtain international education in an environment that is perceived as friendlier.[38]

Turks in Sweden[edit]

Main article: Turks in Sweden

There are around 20,000 ethnic Turks living in Sweden. Most of them came as labour immigrants in the 1960s and 1970s. Most of them live in Stockholm and Malmö.[citation needed]

Effects of immigration[edit]

Demographic[edit]

Further information: Ageing of Europe and Demographic threat

Immigration has a significant effect on the demographics of Sweden. Since World War II, Sweden has like other developed nations turned into a country with a low fertility rate. Due to the high birthrates in early post-war years and the steep decline in the late 20th century, Sweden has one of the oldest populations in the world. In 2009, 102,280 immigrants entered Sweden while the total population grew by 84,335.[1]

The high immigration rate, low fertility and high death rate is gradually transforming the previously homogeneous nation of Sweden into a multicultural country. The Sweden Democrats has criticised the country's current immigration policies, claiming they can pose a major demographic threat to Sweden in the future. It is expected that the Muslim minority in Sweden will grow from 5% to 10% by 2030.[39]

Crime[edit]

Further information: Crime in Sweden and Immigration and crime

In 2017, the Swedish Institute said that there was "no evidence to suggest that new waves of immigration has lead to increased crime".[40] Crime rate is Sweden has remained steady since 2005.[41]

A 2014 survey of several studies found that people with foreign background are, on average, two times more likely to commit crimes than those born in Sweden. This figure has remained stable since the 1970s, despite the changes in numbers of immigrants and their country of origin.[42] A 2005 study by the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention found that people of foreign background were 2.5 times more likely to be suspected of crimes than people with a Swedish background. A 2013 study done by Stockholm University showed that this difference was due to the socioeconomic differences (e.g. family income, growing up in a poor neighborhood) between people born in Sweden and those born abroad.[43][44] Furthermore, native-born Swedes with high levels of unemployment are also over-represented in crime statistics.[40]

Some studies reporting a link on immigration and crime have been criticized for not taking into account the population's age, employment and education level, all of which affect level of crime. In general, research that takes these factors into account does not support the idea that there is a link between immigration and crime.[45]

A study published in 1997 attempted to explain the higher than average crime rates among immigrants to Sweden. It found that between 20 and 25 percent of asylum seekers to Sweden had experienced physical torture, and many suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder. Other refugees had witnessed a close relative being killed.[46]

Migrants have been associated with a series of highly publicized crimes, including the 2016 Sweden asylum center stabbing, the 2015 Ikea stabbing attack.,[47] and the 2017 Stockholm attack.

A study on crime and immigration from the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention found that people from North Africa were 23 times more likely to commit rape than Swedes, while people from Iraq were 20 times more likely, people from Romania and Bulgaria were 18 times more likely, people from Sub-Saharan Africa were 16.5 times as likely, and people from Iran, Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia were 10 times more likely.[48]

The share of foreigners admitted to the Swedish Prison and Probation Service increased from 26% in 2003 to 33% in 2013 according to its statistics.[49]

Immigrants discrimination by law enforcement, according to a 2006 government report which may be reflected in the differences between convictions and those simply suspected of crimes.[50] A 2008 Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention report claimed that there was "evidence of discrimination towards individuals of foreign descent in the Swedish judicial system."[51][52]

Language[edit]

Politics[edit]

Further information: Politics of Sweden

Legal issues[edit]

Further information: Swedish nationality law

Media coverage[edit]

The conservative American TV channels Fox News and Christian Broadcasting Network have aired news reports portraying immigration to the Swedish city of Malmö.[53][54]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Tabeller över Sveriges befolkning 2009 – Statistiska centralbyrån". Scb.se. 2009-01-24. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  2. ^ 6.5% of the EU population are foreigners and 9.4% are born abroad, Eurostat, Katya VASILEVA, 34/2011.
  3. ^ "Preliminary Population Statistics, by month, 2014". Scb.se. 2014-03-06. Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  4. ^ http://www.migrationsverket.se/Om-Migrationsverket/Statistik.html
  5. ^ The Swedish Integration Board (2006). Pocket Facts: Statistics on Integration. Integrationsverket, 2006. ISBN 91-89609-30-1. Available online in pdf format. Retrieved 14 February 2007.
  6. ^ Sweden: Restrictive Immigration Policy and Multiculturalism, Migration Policy Institute, 2006.
  7. ^ a b Anja Eriksson/TT (2011-01-03). "Serber ökade flyktingströmmen". DN.SE. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  8. ^ a b "Malta has highest per capita rate of asylum applications". timesofmalta.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  9. ^ Beviljade uppehållstillstånd och registrerade uppehållsrätter 2010. migrationsverket.se
  10. ^ "Varannan asylsökande från Syrien". Sydsvenskan (in Swedish). 1 January 2015. 
  11. ^ "Så många väntas söka asyl de närmaste åren". Expressen (in Swedish). 3 February 2015. 
  12. ^ "Färre söker asyl i Sverige". Aftonbladet (in Swedish). 28 April 2015. 
  13. ^ "Sweden surpasses refugee record set in 1992". Sveriges Radio. 12 October 2015. 
  14. ^ "Flyktingrekord sattes i helgen". Aftonbladet (in Swedish). 12 October 2015. 
  15. ^ Higgins, Andrew (26 May 2013). "In Sweden, Riots Put an Identity in Question". New York Times. Retrieved 23 March 2017. 
  16. ^ Traub, James (10 February 2016). "The Death of the Most Generous Nation on Earth". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
  17. ^ Charles Westin, p. 23 The effectiveness of settlement and integration policies towards immigrants and their descendants in Sweden, Migration Branch International Labour Office (using Statistics Sweden data), Geneva, Switzerland, 1999
  18. ^ "Number of persons with foreign or Swedish background (detailed division) by region, age in ten year groups and sex. Year 2002-2011". Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 2013-01-05. 
  19. ^ Doyle, Alister (21 April 2016). "Child brides sometimes tolerated in Nordic asylum centers despite bans". Reuters (Oslo). Retrieved 22 April 2016. 
  20. ^ a b "Utrikes födda i riket efter födelseland, ålder och kön. År 2000 - 2016" (in Swedish). Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 21 February 2017. 
  21. ^ a b c [1]. Statistiska Centralbyrån. Retrieved on 2014-08-20. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "scb" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "scb" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  22. ^ "US Congress praises Södertälje mayor". The Local. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  23. ^ "'Little Baghdad' thrives in Sweden - World news - Europe - NBCNews.com". MSNBC. 2008-06-19. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  24. ^ http://joshuaproject.net/countries/SW
  25. ^ Folkmängd. Tabeller över Sveriges befolkning 2009. scb.se
  26. ^ http://192.121.194.78/Diverse/AppData/Isidor/files/185/6340.xls
  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  28. ^ http://www.svd.se/klassresa-ar-mojlig-trots-hinder_6842603
  29. ^ Sverige världsledande på kurdisk litteratur. Författaren, No 4 1994, p. 25
  30. ^ Gyllenbäck, Mirelle (25 July 2007). "Därför klär jag mig inte som min mamma". Aftonbladet (in Swedish). Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  31. ^ Bjurwald, Lisa (1 July 2008). "Vår skuld until romerna". Dagens Nyheter (in Swedish). Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  32. ^ "Report faults Sweden for discrimination". The Local. 7 November 2008. Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  33. ^ "Victoria invigde romsk folkhögskola". Göteborgs-Posten (in Swedish). 21 September 2007. Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  34. ^ (Swedish) Serbia Government Offices of Sweden.
  35. ^ (Swedish) "Historik" (History), Migrationsverket.
  36. ^ "Tabeller över Sveriges befolkning 2009" [Tables on the population in Sweden 2009] (PDF) (in Swedish). Örebro: Statistiska centralbyrån. June 2010. pp. 20–27. ISSN 1654-4358. 
  37. ^ Migrationsverket
  38. ^ Kleist, Nauja (2004). "Nomads, sailors and refugees: A century of Somali migration" (pdf). Sussex Migration Working Paper. Sussex Centre for Migration Research, University of Sussex. 23: 11. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  39. ^ "A waxing crescent". The Economist. 27 January 2011. 
  40. ^ a b Miriam Valverde. "What the statistics say about Sweden, immigration and crime". 
  41. ^ "No, Sweden isn't hiding an immigrant crime problem. This is the real story.". 
  42. ^ Amber Beckley, Johan Kardell and Jerzy Sarnecki. The Routledge Handbook on Crime and International Migration. Routledge. pp. 46–47. 
  43. ^ "Facts about migration and crime in Sweden". Government of Sweden. 
  44. ^ People with a foreign background behind 25% of Swedish crime. Thelocal.se (2005-12-14). Retrieved on 2012-10-10.
  45. ^ Amber Beckley, Johan Kardell and Jerzy Sarnecki. The Routledge Handbook on Crime and International Migration. Routledge. p. 42. 
  46. ^ Michael Tonry (1997). "Ethnicity, Crime and Immigration: Comparative and Cross-National Perspectives". Crime and Justice. The University of Chicago Press: 24. 
  47. ^ Miller, Michael (3 February 2016). "'Horrible and tragic': Swedish asylum worker killed at refugee center". Washington Post. Retrieved 26 January 2016. 
  48. ^ https://sd.se/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Våldtäkt.pdf
  49. ^ "Fler utländska fångar i svenska fängelser". Sveriges Radio. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2016. 
  50. ^ Regeringskansliet, Regeringen och (2006-03-16). "Är rättvisan rättvis? Tio perspektiv på diskriminering av etniska och religiösa minoriteter inom rättssystemet". Regeringskansliet (in Swedish). Retrieved 2016-01-26. 
  51. ^ Crime in Sweden, Wikipedia 
  52. ^ "Diskriminering i rättsprocessen - Brå". www.bra.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2016-01-26. 
  53. ^ [2] Archived 1 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  54. ^ "Welcome to Sweden – Manipulation & Reality". YouTube. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 

Sources[edit]