Immigration to Sweden

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Immigrants and emigrants, Sweden 1850–2007

Immigration to Sweden is the process by which people migrate to Sweden to reside in the country. Many, but not all, become Swedish citizens. The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility, crime, and voting behaviour. As the Swedish state does not base any statistics on ethnicity, there are no exact numbers on the total number of people of immigrant background in Sweden.[1]

As of 2010, 1.33 million people or 14.3% of the inhabitants in Sweden were foreign-born. Of these, 859,000 (64.6%) were born outside the European Union and 477,000 (35.4%) were born in another EU member state.[2] Sweden has been transformed from a nation of net emigration ending after World War I to a nation of net immigration from World War II onward. In 2013, immigration reached its highest level since records began with 115,845 people migrating to Sweden while the total population grew by 88,971.[3]

81,300 applied for asylum in 2014, which was an increase of 50% compared to 2013, and the most since 1992. 47% of them come from Syria, followed by 21% from the horn of Africa (mostly Eritrea and Somalia). 77% (63,000) requests were approved but it differs greatly between different groups. The main scenario is that 80,000 will apply for asylum in 2015.

Immigrants in Sweden are mostly concentrated in the urban areas of Svealand and Götaland and the four largest foreign born populations in Sweden come from Finland, Iraq, Poland, Iran, former Yugoslavia and Syria.

History[edit]

Further information: History of Sweden
Population of Sweden, 1961 to 2003. The population increased from 7.5 to 8.3 million during the 1960s to 1970s. After a phase of stagnation during the early 1980s, the population grew further from 8.3 to 8.8 million during 1987 to 1997, followed by another phase of stagnation (followed by another growth phase from 8.8 to 9.3 million over 2004 to 2010).
World War II

Immigration increased markedly with World War II. Historically, the most numerous of foreign born nationalities are ethnic Germans from Germany and other Scandinavians from Denmark and Norway.[citation needed] In short order, 70,000 war children were evacuated from Finland, of which 15,000 remained in Sweden. Also, many of Denmark's nearly 7,000 Jews who were evacuated to Sweden decided to remain there.[citation needed]

A sizable community from the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) arrived during the Second World War.[4]

1945 to 1967

During the 1950s and 1960s, the recruitment of migrant workers was an important factor of immigration. The Nordic countries signed a trade agreement in 1952, establishing a common labour market and free movement across borders. This migration within the Nordic countries, especially from Finland to Scandinavia, was essential to create the tax-base required for the expansion of the strong public sector now characteristic of Scandinavia. This continued until 1967, when the labour market became saturated, and Sweden introduced new immigration controls.

On a smaller scale, Sweden took in political refugees from Hungary and the former Czechoslovakia after their countries were invaded by the Soviet Union in 1956 and 1968 respectively. Some tens of thousands of American draft dodgers from the Vietnam War in the 1960s and 1970s also found refuge in Sweden.

Contemporary immigration[edit]

Since the early 1970s, immigration to Sweden has been mostly due to refugee migration and family reunification from countries in the Middle East and Latin America.[5]

In 2009, immigration reached its highest level since records began with 102,280 people migrating to Sweden while the total population grew by 84,335.[1] In 2010, 32,000 people applied for asylum to Sweden, a 25% increase from 2009, one of the highest amount in Swedish since 1992 and the Balkan wars.[6] However the number of people that were granted asylum stayed the same as previous years. In 2009, Sweden had the fourth largest number of asylum applications in the EU and the largest number per capita after Cyprus and Malta.[7]

During 2010 the most common reason for immigrating to Sweden was:

  1. Labour migrants (21%)
  2. Family reunification (20%)
  3. Immigrating under the EU/EES rules of free movement (18%)
  4. Students (14%)
  5. Refugees (12%)[8]

In 2010, 32,000 people applied for asylum to Sweden, a 25% increase from 2009, however the number of people who received asylum did not increase because the large increase was much due to the allowing of Serbian nationals to travel without a visa to Sweden.[6] In 2009, Sweden had the fourth largest number of asylum applications in the EU and the largest number per capita after Cyprus and Malta.[7] Sweden has the highest asylum immigration per million inhabitants in Europe.

The amount of asylum seekers coming to Sweden in recent years has increase drastically. 81,300 applied for asylum in 2014, which was an increase of 50% compared to 2013. It was the most since 1992, when 84,018 applied for asylum during the war in Yugoslavia. 47% of the asylum seekers today come from Syria as a result of the civil war there, 21% from the horn of Africa (mostly Eritrea and Somalia), 7% from Balkan and 4% from Afghanistan and Pakistan. 77% (63,000) requests were approved but it differs greatly between different groups, such as Syrians and Eritreans where nearly everyone gets their application approved.[9] In February 2015, it was expected that 90,000 apply for asylum in 2015 and 80,000 in 2016. The Swedish Migration Board currently has shortage of 15,000 accommodations so they have to rent from private actors.[10] In the end of April 2015, the figure for the year 2015 was revised down to 68,000-88,000 with 80,000 as the main scenario. Long processing times and that the situation in Iraq has not developed in the way the Swedish Migration Board feared are the reason for the revised figures.[11]

Demographics[edit]

Current population of immigrants and their descendants[edit]

There are no exact numbers on the ethnic background of migrants and their descendants in Sweden as the Swedish state does not base any statistics on ethnicity. This is however not to be confused with the migrants' national backgrounds which are being recorded.

As of 2011, a Statistics Sweden study showed that around 27% or 2,500,000 inhabitants of Sweden had full or partial foreign background and around 73% or 7,000,000 had no foreign background.[12] Of these inhabitants; 1,427,296 persons living in Sweden were born abroad. In addition; 430,253 persons were born in Sweden to two parents born abroad and another 666,723 persons had one parent born abroad (with the other parent born in Sweden).

Immigration[edit]

Immigrants (red) and emigrants (blue), Sweden 1850–2007

In 1998, there were 1,746,921 inhabitants of foreign background and their descendants(foreign born and children of international migrants) composing around 20% of the Swedish population. Around 1,216,659 or 70% came from Scandinavia and the rest of Europe and 530,262 or 30% came from the rest of the world.[13]

In 2011, with the total population being 9,562,556; roughly 15% of the population was born abroad, 5% of the population was born in Sweden to two parents born abroad, and another 7% was born in Sweden to one parent born abroad. Resulting in 27% of the Swedish population being of at least partly foreign descent.[14]

Population by ancestry, Sweden 2002-2011

Country of origin for persons born abroad[edit]

25 largest immigrant populations by country of origin 2014[15]
Country Men Women Population
Finland Finland 63,168 95,320 Decrease158,488
Iraq Iraq 69,923 60,245 Increase130,168
Poland Poland 36,260 45,437 Increase81,697
Iran Iran 35,694 32,742 Increase68,436
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Former Yugoslavia 34,210 33,682 Decrease67,892
Syria Syria 38,800 28,871 Increase67,671
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 28,291 28,998 Increase57,289
Somalia Somalia 27,934 28,972 Increase56,906
Germany Germany 23,195 26,164 Increase49,359
Turkey Turkey 25,440 20,706 Increase46,146
Denmark Denmark 22,538 19,836 Decrease42,374
Norway Norway 18,758 23,543 Decrease42,301
Thailand Thailand 8,283 29,846 Increase38,129
China China (excluding Hong Kong) 11,487 17,212 Increase28,699
Afghanistan Afghanistan 17,063 11,380 Increase28,443
Chile Chile 14,230 13,986 Decrease28,216
Lebanon Lebanon 14,299 11,400 Increase25,699
Romania Romania 11,988 12,678 Increase24,666
United Kingdom United Kingdom 16,105 8,294 Increase24,399
India India 11,206 10,723 Increase21,929
Eritrea Eritrea 11,504 10,323 Increase21,827
United States United States of America 10,311 9,258 Increase19,569
Russia Russian Federation 6,455 12,573 Increase19,028
Vietnam Vietnam 7,634 8,995 Increase16,229
Hungary Hungary 7,997 8,196 Increase16,193
Total immigrant population 787,473 816,078 Increase1,603,551

Ethnicity[edit]

East and Southeast Asians in Sweden[edit]

115,331 people in Sweden are born in East Asia (43,000) and Southeast Asia (72,000) which is about 1% of the entire population. The largest groups are Thai (36,000), Chinese (28,000) and Vietnamese (16,000). East and Southeast Asians have moved to Sweden for very different reasons. Most Thai and Filipinos (11,500) arrived in Sweden via family reunification while Vietnamese and Burmese (1,500) came as refugees. The group also consist of 10,000 South Koreans, of which the overwhelming majority came through international adoptions in the 1970s and 1980s. The Asian population is spread all over the country with some groups over-represented in Stockholm.

South Asians in Sweden[edit]

Unlike its Scandinavian neighbours, Sweden does not have a large South Asian population. In 2013, there were 46,231 South Asian born people living in Sweden, which represents about 0,5% of the entire population.[16] Indian-born constitutes the largest group with approximately 20,000 persons. About half of them came to Sweden through international adoptions and have limited connection to their country of birth. During the last decade, the number of Indians who moved to Sweden because of employment increased and the last few years Indians are among the fastest-growing immigrant groups.

South Americans in Sweden[edit]

66 912 persons in Sweden are born in South America. The largest groups are Chileans (28 000), Colombians (11 500) and Peruvians (7 200).[16] During Pinochet’s regime in Chile Sweden granted asylum to several thousand refugee who left Chile during these years. Also Argentineans and Uruguayans whom fled their dictatorship were granted asylum but to a lesser extent than Chileans. Since the democratisation of South America the immigration to Sweden changed from refugees to family reunification and more lately to migration for employment and education purposes. The fastest growing group is currently Brazilians followed by Colombians.

Albanians in Sweden[edit]

Main article: Albanians in Sweden

There are more than 50,000 ethnic Albanians in Sweden. They come from all Albanian-dominated parts of the Balkans (see Great Albania). Many Albanians came from Kosovo in the early 1990s because of the wars in the Balkans.

Assyrians/Syriacs in Sweden[edit]

Assyrians in Sweden numbered around 120,000 people as of 2009, or 1.3% of the total population of Sweden. Their size doubled in the period of 2002 to 2009.[16] Sweden has a particularly large Assyrians/Syriacs community that grew substantially during the Iraq war. The Swedish city of Södertälje has alone taken in more Iraqi refugees than the United States and Canada combined.[17]

Södertälje has the largest group of Assyrians/Syriacs of any city in Europe, with more than 30,000 Assyrian/Syriacs living in Södertälje (amounting to 50% of the population), and around 50,000 Assyrians/Syriacs living in Stockholm County. Södertalje is often nicknamed "little Baghdad" or "Mesopotälje" owing to the number of Iraqi-based inhabitants in the city.[18]

Berbers in Sweden[edit]

There are about 50,000 Berber migrants in Sweden, most of them Moroccans and Algerians.

Swedish footballer Zlatan Ibrahimović was born to a Bosnian father and Croatian mother

Arabs in Sweden[edit]

Main article: Arabs in Sweden

There are around 159,400 Arabs in Sweden,[19] which makes them one of the largest minorities in Sweden if counted as one minority group. In reality, Arabs come from 18 different nations and represent several different religious groups. Arabs are spread all over Sweden with high concentrations in Malmö, Norrköping, Örebro, Uppsala, Stockholm and Gothenburg. The largest groups originate from Iraq, Syria and Lebanon. Arabs are one of the fastest-growing groups in Sweden because of Sweden’s liberal immigration laws and the ongoing conflicts in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt and Libya. Even though the majority of Arabs arrived in Sweden as asylum seekers and via family reunification, large groups also have arrived lately as labour migrants.

Bosnians in Sweden[edit]

As of 31 December 2009 there are 56,127[20] people born in Bosnia and Herzegovina living in Sweden. This figure does not include Yugoslavs of Bosnian and Herzegovinian origin who immigrated before 1992. Most of these immigrants came to Sweden during the Bosnian War in the 1990s.

Finns in Sweden[edit]

Main article: Finns in Sweden

Sweden Finns (ruotsinsuomalaiset in Finnish, sverigefinnar in Swedish) are a Finnish speaking minority in Sweden. The Finnish-speaking Swedes are not to be confused with the Swedish speaking Finland-Swedes in Finland (and Sweden). In year 2008 there were over 675 000 people in Sweden who were either born in Finland or have at least one parent or grandparent who was born in Finland.[21]

Iranians in Sweden[edit]

Professional hockey player Mika Zibanejad, born to a Persian father and a Finnish mother, plays for the Swedish national team and in the NHL. On January 5, 2012, Zibanejad scored the gold medal-winning golden goal for Sweden in the 2012 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships against Russia in the tournament final; the game finished 1–0.
Main article: Swedish Iranians

There are over 90,000 Iranians in Sweden. [22] Regions where Swedish-Iranians primarily inhabit include cities such as Stockholm and Gothenburg. There are approximately 63,828 people born in Iran living in Sweden today, as well as 28,600 people born in Sweden with at least one parent born in Iran. They are one of Sweden’s largest minorities, accounting for nearly one percent of the population.

The first generation of 5,000 Iranian refugees fled to Sweden in 1980-81, most of them were middle-aged, middle-class socialists who were opposing the theocratic regime or fleeing forced conscription during the Iran-Iraq war. Between 1980 and 1988 almost 20,000 Iranian citizens found asylum in Sweden. Many of them ended up living on welfare, despite their middle class backgrounds. But today second generation Iranian Swedes are over-represented in higher education and in high paying professions like dentistry and engineering. [23]

About 60% percent of them go on to higher education – far more than the Swedish average (45 percent) or the average for other minorities (37 percent). [24] Middle class Iranian culture – with its emphasis on education – may be part of the reason for their success.

Kurds in Sweden[edit]

Main article: Kurds in Sweden

There are around 60,000 Kurds living in Sweden. Most of them live in the capital Stockholm, Malmö or in Uppsala. A majority of Kurdish political refugees choose Sweden as their host country and therefore they have a cultural presence in Sweden.[25]

Romani in Sweden[edit]

Romani in Sweden were formerly known as zigenare (gypsies) for Roma and tattare for Romani Travellers. More recently the romer has been adopted as a collective designation referring to both groups, with resande (Travellers) also referring to the latter only. Currently, there are approximately 50,000 Romani living in Sweden, many of them being Finnish Kale who immigrated in the 1960s. The latter, particularly women, often wear traditional dress in public.[26]

Romani in Sweden have periodically suffered at the hands of the state. For example, the state has subjected children to being forcibly taken into foster care, or even forcibly sterilised Romani women. Prejudice against Romanies is widespread, with most stereotypes portraying Romani as welfare cheats, shoplifters, and con artists. In the 1992, Bert Karlsson, one of the leaders of Ny Demokrati, declared that "Gypsies are responsible for 90% of crime against senior citizens" in Sweden.[27] Previously he had tried to ban the entry of Romani to his Skara Sommarland theme park, because he considered them responsible for theft. Some shopkeepers, employers and landlords continue to discriminate Romani.[28]

The situation is, however, improving for the Roma. There are several Romani organisations that promote Romani rights and culture in Sweden. Since 2000, Romani is an officially recognised minority language in Sweden. The Swedish government also has a special standing Delegation for Romani Issues. There is now even a Romani folk high school in Gothenburg.[29]

Serbs in Sweden[edit]

Main article: Serbs in Sweden

There are around 80,000 Serbs living in Sweden. The Swedish Serbs constituted a low percentage of the Swedish population prior to the 1960s. Some came after World War II, mostly seeking political asylum. The greatest proportion of Serbs came together with Greeks, Italians and Turks under the visa agreements in times of severe labour shortages or when particular skills were deficient within Sweden.[30] During the 1960s and 1970s, agreements were signed with the governments of Yugoslavia to help Sweden overcome its severe labour shortage.[31] Bosnian Serbs and Croatian Serbs migrated in another wave during and after the Yugoslav wars. Another wave of Kosovo Serbs came during the Kosovo war in 1999.

Somalis in Sweden[edit]

Main article: Somalis in Sweden

According to Statistics Sweden, there were 31,734 immigrants from Somalia in 2009.[32] In 2012, the number had increased to 43,966.[33] Most arrived as asylum seekers and through family reunification services in the 1990s and the 2000s. Since the mid-2000s, there has been an increasing secondary migration of Somali immigrants and EU citizens from Sweden and other Scandinavian countries toward the United Kingdom. This exodus has been attributed to a desire to reunite with family members, to find work and to obtain international education in an environment that is perceived as friendlier.[34]

Turks in Sweden[edit]

Main article: Turks in Sweden

There are around 20,000 ethnic Turks living in Sweden. Most of them came as labour immigrants in the 1960s and 1970s. Most of them live in Stockholm and Malmö.[citation needed]

Religion[edit]

Further information: Religion in Sweden

Christianity[edit]

Further information: Christianity in Sweden
Protestantism[edit]
Further information: Protestantism in Sweden
Catholicism[edit]
Further information: Roman Catholicism in Sweden
Eastern Orthodoxy[edit]
Further information: Eastern Orthodoxy in Sweden
Oriental Orthodoxy[edit]

Islam[edit]

Further information: Islam in Sweden

Judaism[edit]

Further information: Judaism in Sweden

Hinduism[edit]

Further information: Hinduism in Sweden

Buddhism[edit]

Further information: Buddhism in Sweden

Effects of immigration[edit]

Demographic[edit]

Further information: Ageing of Europe and Demographic threat

Immigration has a significant effect on the demographics of Sweden. Since World War II, Sweden has like other developed nations turned into a country with a low fertility rate. Due to the high birthrates in early post-war years and the steep decline in the late 20th century, Sweden has one of the oldest populations in the world. In 2009, 102,280 immigrants entered Sweden while the total population grew by 84,335.[1]

The high immigration rate, low fertility and high death rate is gradually transforming the previously homogeneous nation of Sweden into a multicultural country. The Sweden Democrats has criticised the country's current immigration policies, claiming they can pose a major demographic threat to Sweden in the future. It is expected that the Muslim minority in Sweden will grow from 5% to 10% by 2030.[35]

Economic[edit]

Further information: Economy of Sweden

Social[edit]

Ethnic conflicts[edit]

Antisemitism[edit]
Further information: Antisemitism in Sweden

A government study in 2006 estimated that 5% of the total adult population and 39% of adult Muslims "harbour systematic antisemitic views".[36][37] In March 2010, Fredrik Sieradzk of the Jewish community of Malmö told Die Presse, an Austrian Internet publication, that Jews are being "harassed and physically attacked" by "people from the Middle East," although he added that only a small number of Malmö's 40,000 Muslims "exhibit hatred of Jews."[38]

Sieradzk also stated that approximately 30 Jewish families have emigrated from Malmö to Israel in the past year, specifically to escape from harassment estimating that the already small Jewish population is shrinking by 5% a year. “Malmö is a place to move away from, right now many Jews in Malmö are really concerned about the situation and don’t believe they have a future here” he said, citing anti-Semitism as the primary reason.[39] The Swedish newspaper Skånska Dagbladet reported that attacks on Jews in Malmö totalled 79 in 2009, about twice as many as the previous year, according to police statistics.[40]

Segregation[edit]

Further information: Million Programme, Rosengård, Rinkeby and Angered

Crime[edit]

Further information: Crime in Sweden and Immigration and crime

Immigrants are over-represented in Sweden's crime statistics. In a study by the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention in 1997–2001, 25% of the almost 1,520,000 offences were found to be committed by people born abroad and almost 20% were committed by Swedish born people of foreign background. In the study, immigrants were found to be four times more likely to be investigated for lethal violence and robbery than ethnic Swedes. In addition, immigrants were three times more likely to be investigated for violent assault, and five times more likely to be investigated for sex crimes. Those from North Africa and Western Asia were overrepresented.[41][42]

Language[edit]

Environment[edit]

Education[edit]

Further information: Education in Sweden

Political[edit]

Further information: Politics of Sweden

Health[edit]

Further information: Healthcare in Sweden

Politics[edit]

Further information: Politics of Sweden

Legal issues[edit]

Further information: Swedish nationality law

Media coverage[edit]

The conservative American TV channels Fox News and Christian Broadcasting Network have aired news reports portraying immigration to the Swedish city of Malmö.[43][44]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Tabeller över Sveriges befolkning 2009 – Statistiska centralbyrån". Scb.se. 2009-01-24. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  2. ^ 6.5% of the EU population are foreigners and 9.4% are born abroad, Eurostat, Katya VASILEVA, 34/2011.
  3. ^ "Preliminary Population Statistics, by month, 2014". Scb.se. 2014-03-06. Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  4. ^ The Swedish Integration Board (2006). Pocket Facts: Statistics on Integration. Integrationsverket, 2006. ISBN 91-89609-30-1. Available online in pdf format. Retrieved 14 February 2007.
  5. ^ Sweden: Restrictive Immigration Policy and Multiculturalism, Migration Policy Institute, 2006.
  6. ^ a b Anja Eriksson/TT (2011-01-03). "Serber ökade flyktingströmmen". DN.SE. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  7. ^ a b "Malta has highest per capita rate of asylum applications". timesofmalta.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  8. ^ Beviljade uppehållstillstånd och registrerade uppehållsrätter 2010. migrationsverket.se
  9. ^ "Varannan asylsökande från Syrien". Sydsvenskan (in Swedish). 1 January 2015. 
  10. ^ "Så många väntas söka asyl de närmaste åren". Expressen (in Swedish). 3 February 2015. 
  11. ^ "Färre söker asyl i Sverige". Aftonbladet (in Swedish). 28 April 2015. 
  12. ^ http://www.ssd.scb.se/databaser/makro/start.asp
  13. ^ Charles Westin, p. 23 The effectiveness of settlement and integration policies towards immigrants and their descendants in Sweden, Migration Branch International Labour Office (using Statistics Sweden data), Geneva, Switzerland, 1999
  14. ^ "Number of persons with foreign or Swedish background (detailed division) by region, age in ten year groups and sex. Year 2002-2011". Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 2013-01-05. 
  15. ^ "Utrikes födda i riket efter födelseland, ålder och kön. År 2000 - 2014". Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 15 March 2015. 
  16. ^ a b c [1]. Statistiska Centralbyrån. Retrieved on 2014-08-20.
  17. ^ "US Congress praises Södertälje mayor". The Local. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  18. ^ "‘Little Baghdad’ thrives in Sweden - World news - Europe - NBCNews.com". MSNBC. 2008-06-19. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  19. ^ http://joshuaproject.net/countries/SW
  20. ^ Folkmängd. Tabeller över Sveriges befolkning 2009. scb.se
  21. ^ http://192.121.194.78/Diverse/AppData/Isidor/files/185/6340.xls
  22. ^ http://www.scb.se/Statistik/BE/BE0101/2011A01B/be0101_Fodelseland_och_ursprungsland.xls
  23. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swedish_Iranians
  24. ^ http://www.svd.se/klassresa-ar-mojlig-trots-hinder_6842603
  25. ^ Sverige världsledande på kurdisk litteratur. Författaren, No 4 1994, p. 25
  26. ^ Gyllenbäck, Mirelle (25 July 2007). "Därför klär jag mig inte som min mamma". Aftonbladet (in Swedish). Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  27. ^ Bjurwald, Lisa (1 July 2008). "Vår skuld until romerna". Dagens Nyheter (in Swedish). Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  28. ^ "Report faults Sweden for discrimination". The Local. 7 November 2008. Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  29. ^ "Victoria invigde romsk folkhögskola". Göteborgs-Posten (in Swedish). 21 September 2007. Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  30. ^ (Swedish) Serbia Government Offices of Sweden.
  31. ^ (Swedish) "Historik" (History), Migrationsverket.
  32. ^ "Tabeller över Sveriges befolkning 2009" [Tables on the population in Sweden 2009] (PDF) (in Swedish). Örebro: Statistiska centralbyrån. June 2010. pp. 20–27. ISSN 1654-4358. 
  33. ^ Migrationsverket
  34. ^ Kleist, Nauja (2004). "Nomads, sailors and refugees: A century of Somali migration" (pdf). Sussex Migration Working Paper (Sussex Centre for Migration Research, University of Sussex) 23: 11. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  35. ^ "A waxing crescent". The Economist. 27 January 2011. 
  36. ^ Henrik Bachner and Jonas Ring. Antisemitic images and attitudes in Sweden. levandehistoria.se
  37. ^ Liphshiz, Cnaan (2007-11-09). "Anti-Semitism, in Sweden? Depends who you're asking – Israel News | Haaretz Daily Newspaper". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  38. ^ "Skandinaviens Juden fühlen sich nicht mehr sicher «". Diepresse.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  39. ^ "For Jews, Swedish City Is a ‘Place To Move Away From’ –". Forward.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  40. ^ Report: Anti-Semitic attacks rising in Scandinavia, Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA), March 22, 2010.
  41. ^ People with a foreign background behind 25% of Swedish crime. Thelocal.se (2005-12-14). Retrieved on 2012-10-10.
  42. ^ People with a foreign background behind 25% of Swedish crime Bra.se (2005-12-?). Retrieved on 2012-11-13
  43. ^ [2][dead link]
  44. ^ "Welcome to Sweden – Manipulation & Reality". YouTube. Retrieved 2012-08-13.