Foreign relations of Northern Cyprus
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Northern Cyprus is recognised only by Turkey, a country which facilitates many of its contacts with the international community. After declaring independence from the Republic of Cyprus, Northern Cyprus' relations with the rest of the world were further complicated by a series of United Nations resolutions which declared its independence legally invalid. A 2004 UN Referendum on settling the Cyprus dispute was accepted by the Turkish Cypriots but rejected by the Greek Cypriots. After that, the European Union declared its intentions to assist in reducing the economic isolation of Northern Cyprus and began giving aid to the territory.
- 1 Diplomatic representations
- 2 Foreign Representations
- 3 Foreign Minister
- 4 Azerbaijan
- 5 Republic of Cyprus
- 6 Equatorial Guinea
- 7 Greece
- 8 Guinea
- 9 Kosovo
- 10 Kyrgyzstan
- 11 Libya
- 12 Pakistan
- 13 Russia
- 14 Turkey
- 15 United Kingdom
- 16 United States
- 17 International memberships and representations
- 18 International recognition and relations
- 19 See also
- 20 References
- 21 External links
At the present time, only Turkey maintains a formal embassy in the TRNC, while the TRNC has an embassy and consulates in Turkey. In various other countries, the TRNC has unofficial representative offices. Turkey represents the TRNC's interests in countries without such offices. In North Nicosia (the Turkish Cypriot administered northern half), both the British High Commissioner to Cyprus and the United States Ambassador to Cyprus have their formal residences, though since these residences had been in use since before 1963, it is not indicative of formal recognition of the TRNC by the United Kingdom or United States. In the same situation are the representative offices maintained by Australia, France, Germany, South Korea and the European Union.
Azerbaijan and Gambia expressed their willingness to eventually formally recognize the TRNC. They so far have not followed through, but their informal contacts have increased. Also, diplomats from other countries have recently officially visited the TRNC Embassy in Ankara to hold meetings with the TRNC Ambassador. The latest nation to state their intention to (positively) change its policy towards TRNC is Paraguay.
Honorary Representatives are also appointed by the TRNC in various other cities to represent the TRNC and to assist the primary TRNC Representative Offices.
United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany and Australia have representation offices in Northern Nicosia. As well, Northern Cyprus has a number of representations in other countries with various status.
The current Foreign Minister is Ms. Emine Çolak.
The Nakhichivan Autonomous Republic (an exclave of Azerbaijan) had issued a resolution in the mid-1990s recognizing the TRNC’s independence, but Azerbaijan itself has yet refrained to officially support this decision due to the Nagorno-Karabakh issue, and recognizes the Republic of Cyprus. Azerbaijan is sympathetic to the TRNC, but the Republic of Cyprus would recognize Nagorno-Karabakh if Azerbaijan officially recognized the TRNC.
Republic of Cyprus
There are seven border crossings between Northern Cyprus and the Republic of Cyprus. Since May 2004 some tourists have taken to flying to the Republic of Cyprus directly then crossing the green line to holiday in Northern Cyprus.[needs update] Two more border crossings (Lefka/Aplic and Derynia) were decided to be opened by Turkish and Greek Cypriot authorities.
The internationally recognized government of the Republic of Cyprus refuses to give any official status to the government of the TRNC, and actively dissuades any other country from doing so. This policy is in line with the United Nations Security Council resolutions and the policy of the entire international community which refuses to recognise the TRNC. The government of the Republic of Cyprus regards the TRNC in such terms as "illegitimate entity", "Turkish military occupied territory" and "a puppet state of Turkey". Phraseology such as "pseudo" or "so-called" are used by the Cyprus Government to describe government officials and institutions in the TRNC.
The TRNC President is referred to simply as the "Turkish Cypriot Leader" by the Cyprus Government, the EU and the United Nations. It is however interesting to note that under the 1960 Constitution of Cyprus, the Leader of the Turkish Cypriots is regarded as the Vice-President of the Republic of Cyprus with wide veto powers, but this status has not been acknowledged by the government of the Republic of Cyprus since December 1963. Due to this stance, the TRNC refuses any official recognition of the government of the Republic of Cyprus, calling it the "Greek Cypriot Administration of Southern Cyprus", and referring to its President as the "Greek Cypriot Leader". Turkey backs this position.
After the Republic of Cyprus became a member of the European Union, the southern part of the island became part of the Customs Union of EU. The Northern part of the island is excluded from the Customs Union. In spite of that, the Green Line regulations are intended to ease trade relations between North Cyprus and EU.
Oil exploration in East Mediterranean became a problem between the administrations of the north and the south side since 2000. The EU member Greece supports the south whereas EU-candidate Turkey supports the north.
On 18 February 2008, the President of the TRNC congratulated the people of Kosovo on their new-found independence, in direct opposition to the Republic of Cyprus, which rejects Kosovo's declaration of independence, but not Turkey, which was the fifth country to recognise Kosovo. However, presidential spokesman Hasan Ercakica stated that the TRNC was not preparing to officially recognize Kosovo. In contrast, the Republic of Cyprus has rejected Kosovo's declaration of independence and, given the ICJ ruling that Kosovo's declaration of independence was not illegal, stated that Kosovo and Northern Cyprus were not analogous situations. Some analysts have argued that the independence of Kosovo could provide support for the recognition of Northern Cyprus.
In 2008 Kyrgyzstan eartquake, Northern Cyprus helped Kyrgyzstan and granted tents, blankets, tons of food, construction materials (cement, covering slate, timber and bricks), power generators, wood stoves, and warm clothes. In 2016, Turkish Cypriot – Kyrgyz Business Cooperation Forum was held in Kyrgyzstan.
On 30 October 2011, Libya and Northern Cyprus signed the Cooperation on Health Services Protocol. The protocol included to reserve 250 beds at the Near East University hospital in North Nicosia for the treatment of injured Libyans.
In February 2008, Putin, the president of Russia, equated the Northern Cyprus situation with that resulting from a unilateral Kosovo declaration of independence, which he opposes, in order to point of European countries double standards in their desire to recognise Kosovo.
On 2 September 2008, the Russian Ambassador to Turkey announced that if Turkey recognized the Georgian breakaway regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, Russia would recognize TRNC as an independent country. Later, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov rejected this variant.
The TRNC fully supports Turkey's bid to join the European Union. As part of this bid, Turkey recently signed a protocol extending its customs union to the new EU members, including the Republic of Cyprus, which Turkey does not recognise. Turkey made sure this was not tantamount to recognition with the inclusion of a declaration, stipulating their continued policy of non-recognition of what they describe as the "Greek Cypriot administration of Southern Cyprus" until a settlement is reached. This declaration is not accepted by the EU which did not accept this statement as forming part of the acquis and expects Turkey to fully abide to its obligations against the Republic of Cyprus. The TRNC views any move by the EU to force Turkish recognition of the Republic of Cyprus as an effort to cut them off from their base of support. Turkey has pledged not to abandon the TRNC.
On 3 February 2017, UK's High Court ruled that "There was no duty in UK law upon the Government to refrain from recognising Northern Cyprus. The United Nations itself works with Northern Cyprus law enforcement agencies and facilitates co-operation between the two parts of the island." Turkish Cypriot governmental officials declared that Northern Cyprus must be ready to Brexit since EU acquis will not be binding on UK thereby UK and Northern Cyprus can trade just as pre-1994 ECtHR ruling.
United States abstained in a vote in 1984 in the UN Security Council condemning "secessionist activities" on Cyprus. Northern Cyprus Representative Office is located at 1667 K Street, Northwest in Washington, D.C. The Representative Office in New York City is the de facto mission of the TRNC to the United Nations Organization (as well as a de facto Consulate-General).
International memberships and representations
In 2004, Northern Cyprus became an observer member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation under the title "Turkish Cypriot State". In 2017, Northern Cyprus was represented with its official name "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" for the first time at an OIC conference in Saudi Arabia.
In 2004, the Turkish Cypriot community was awarded "observer status" in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE), as part of the Cypriot delegation. Since then, the two Turkish Cypriot representatives of PACE are elected in the Assembly of Northern Cyprus.
On 16 October 2012, Northern Cyprus became an observer member of the Economic Cooperation Organization under the title "Turkish Cypriot State". In 2017, Northern Cyprus was represented with its official name "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" for the first time at an ECO conference in Pakistan.
International recognition and relations
In 2005, Yahya Jammeh, then President of Gambia, said that his country was ready to recognize the independence of Northern Cyprus. The Cypriot government protested and Gambia did not recognize the TRNC.
- List of diplomatic missions in Northern Cyprus
- List of diplomatic missions of Northern Cyprus
- Turkish Cypriot diaspora
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- Kibris Postasi 21 Sep 2011 President Dervis Eroglu met with the president of Equatorial Guinea
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- Kibris Postasi 28.02.2014 Is the psychological wall down?
- Hellenic Resources Network 28.02.2014
- Hurriyet 2008 Dore, the minister of Economy of Guinea, is in Northern Cyprus to meet with Turgay Avci, the minister of Foreign Affairs.
- Turk Ajansi Kibris The minister of Economy of Guinea is in Northern Cyprus.
- "Kosovo recognized by Northern Cyprus: "No people can be forced to live under the rule of another"". Tiraspol Times. 18 February 2008. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
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- International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Disaster Relief Emergency Fund (DREF) Operation Update
- MFA, TRNC Cyprus Turkish – Kyrgyz Business Cooperation Forum
- "Libyan Health Minister and NEU Rector signed Protocol for the Injured People in Libya". Near East University, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- turizmhaberleri 03 November 2011 Health Services Agreement was signed between Northern Cyprus and Libya
- NTV 31 October 2011 Libya de facto recognized Northern Cyprus
- Kibris Postasi 28.02.2017 President Mustafa Akinci participated to the dinner of presidents in Islamabad
- webposter. "edc.tsu.ru - Daily Review of Russian Press Reports on Kosovo". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Ambassador:Russia shall recognise the TRNC right after Turkey recognizes South Ossetia". Famagusta Gazette. 2 September 2008.
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- Official Gazette 12 July 2012
- Official Gazette EEZ Border (Page 4)
- Telegraph 03.02.2017
- Oliver P. Richmond, Mediating in Cyprus: The Cypriot Communities and the United Nations, Routledge, 2013 ISBN 9781136319440
- TRNC Public Information Office TRNC represented with its official name for the first time at OIC conference.
- Kibris Postasi, 9 Feb 2017 Minister Saner: "Our country was designated as "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" in a OIC conference for the first time.
- James Ker-Lindsay (UN SG's Former Special Representative for Cyprus) The Foreign Policy of Counter Secession: Preventing the Recognition of Contested States, p.149
- Today's Zaman[permanent dead link] 2005-2007: CTP Özdil Nami; UBP Huseyin Ozgurgun
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- Radio Pakistan 01.03.2017 ECO leaders urge for regional economic cooperation
- Presidency of Northern Cyprus Statement by President Mustafa Akıncı at the 13th Summit of the Economic Cooperation Organisation
- Abdulkadir Varoglu/Mehmet Cakar/Nejat Basim: An unusual bi-national military cooperation: The Case of Turkish-Gambian relations, in: Joseph Soeters/Philippe Manigart (eds.): Military Cooperation in Multinational Peace Operations: Managing cultural diversity and crisis response, London/New York 2008, pp. 117-128 (here: p. 124).
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- President's Office, Turkish Republic Of Northern Cyprus
- Turkish Republic Of Northern Cyprus Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti Dışişleri Bakanlığı
- Turkish Republic Of Northern Cyprus Public Information Office
- "REGNUM" analysis on the international recognition situation of the TRNC