Foreign relations of Albania

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politics and government of
Albania

The Foreign relations of Albania are its relations with other governments and peoples. Foreign relations are conducted through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tirana. The current minister is Ditmir Bushati. Albania is a sovereign country in Southern Europe, and the Mediterranean that declared its independence on November 28, 1912. Its foreign policy, has maintained a policy of complementarism by trying to have friendly relations with all countries. Since the collapse of Communism in 1990, Albania has extended its responsibilities and position in European and international affairs, supporting and establishing friendly relations with other nations around the world.

The main factors defining Albanian foreign policy consist of geopolitical location, population, economic crisis, and ties with Albanian diaspora throughout the world. Albania entertains diplomatic relations with 115 countries in the world. It also maintains strong diplomatic relations with the Balkan countries, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, South Korea, United Kingdom and the United States.

The main objectives of the Albanian foreign policy are, the Accession of Albania to the European Union, the International recognition of Kosovo, the recognition of Expulsion of Cham Albanians,[1] helping and protecting of the rights the Albanians in Montenegro, Macedonia, Greece, southern Serbia, Italy and the Albanian diaspora.

Overview[edit]

The government of Albania was concerned with the developments in neighboring Kosovo, particularly in the post-Dayton agreement period. During the Kosovo War in 1999 as well as the ethnic cleansing of Albanians by Serbs alongside the subsequent refugee influx into the country, Albania's status as an ally of the United States was confirmed.[2] Albania emerged as being generally supportive of the United States.[2] The support for the United States has remained high at 95% in Muslim majority (56% of the population) Albania in contrast to the rest of the Islamic world.[2]

During the post-cold war, geo-political complexities and conflicts in the Balkans, made Albania seek a protector power with Turkey, which is a NATO member.[3] During the 1990s, state relations between Albania and Turkey were marked by high level visits, military agreements and the deployment of Turkish soldiers.[4][3][5] An Albanian-Turkish military cooperation agreement was signed on 29 July 1992.[4][3] The military agreement entailed education and training of personnel, bilateral cooperation in weapons production, joint military exercises, the exchange of military delegations and joint commissions on expanding further military ties into the future.[3] The agreement also encompassed rebuilding Albania's Pasha Liman Base in the Bay of Vlorë on the Ionian sea by Turkey, in return for granting Turkey's access and use.[6][5] Turkey has trained the Albanian Armed Forces, in particular officers and commando units.[4][6][5] During civil war in 1997, Turkey alongside other countries, participated in Operation Alba by providing a brigade of 800 Turkish troops to restore order and its involvement served mainly as a stabilising force.[4][7]

Turkey considers its friendship with Albania as important due to the context of state relations with Greece and through policy have exploited difficulties arising in Albanian-Greek relations.[8][9] Having a powerful ally in Turkey has suited Albania at times regarding difficult interstate relations with Greece.[10] Albania's emergence in the Balkans as a key NATO partner contributed to good and stronger Albanian-Turkish relations, in particular relating to military matters.[11] The military alliance during the 1990s between Turkey and Albania was also aimed against Serbia in case a war over Kosovo had a wider regional spread.[12] Greece has expressed concerns regarding Turkish relations with Albania and interpreted them as an anti-Greek measure to isolate Greece within the wider context of Albania being a potential outlet for expanding Muslim influence and Turkey allying with Muslim populations in the Balkans.[3][13][14] Turkey on the other hand claimed Greece increased tensions within the region and conveyed concerns relating to Albanian and Greek polemics with Ankara expressing a partial bias on Albania's side angering the Greeks.[15] Greece, aware of Albanian-Turkish military agreements denounced Turkey's interference in Greek affairs.[15] Though not officially considered in Turkey as a rival within Albania, during the unrest of 1997 Greece was able to become an influential actor in Albania and the early period of the Kosovo crisis (1998-1999) when Albanian officials looked to Greece for assistance.[16] The resumption of closer Albanian-Turkish relations ensured during the Kosovo crisis that made both countries act along the same policy lines toward Slobodan Milošević and the issue of Greater Serbia.[17]

Turkey supported Albania's membership to become part of NATO.[4] Military cooperation between Albania and Turkey is viewed by NATO as a stabilising factor within the volatile region of the Balkans.[18] Albania has come to depend heavily on Turkish assistance and a high amount of military security.[3] Turkey remains for Albania an important military ally alongside the USA.[19] Through its military personal Turkey continues to train Albanian armed forces and also to provide assistance in logistics and modernisation efforts of the Albanian military.[20][21] Radar systems for the surveillance of Albanian airspace in addition to telecommunication equipment have been supplied by Turkey to Albania.[22] Albania receives Turkish assistance for police training.[17] Turkey has continuously supported Albania from the 1990s on EU related matters as both countries view EU membership as an eventual final goal and common objective.[23] State relations of Albania with Turkey are friendly and close, due to maintenance of close links with the Albanian diaspora in Turkey and strong Turkish sociopolitical, cultural, economic and military ties with Albania.[24][25][26][27][28][29][4] Turkey has been supportive of Albanian geopolitical interests within the Balkans.[28][4][30] In Gallup polls conducted in recent times Turkey is viewed as a friendly country by 73% of people in Albania.[31] Albania has established political and economic ties with Arab countries, in particular with Arab Persian Gulf states who have heavily invested in religious, transport and other infrastructure alongside other facets of the economy in addition to the somewhat limited societal links they share.[32] Albania is also working to develop socio-political and economic ties with Israel.[33]

After the fall of the Albanian communist regime in 1991, relations between Greece and Albania became increasingly strained because of widespread allegations of mistreatment by Albanian authorities of the Greek ethnic minority in southern Albania and of the Albanian communities in northern Greece. A wave of Albanian illegal economic migrants to Greece exacerbated tensions. The crisis in Greek–Albanian relations reached its peak in late August 1994, when an Albanian court sentenced five members (a sixth member was added later) of the ethnic Greek political party Omonia to prison terms on charges of undermining the Albanian state. Greece responded by freezing all EU aid to Albania, and sealing its border with Albania. In December 1994, however, Greece began to permit limited EU aid to Albania, while Albania released two of the Omonia defendants and reduced the sentences of the remaining four.[citation needed]

There are still other impending issues in the relations between the two countries, regarding many Albanian workers in Greece who have not received legal papers despite promises by the Greek government. In 1996, the two countries signed a Treaty of Peace and Friendship and discussed the issues of the status of Albanian refugees in Greece and education in the mother tongue for the ethnic Greek minority in southern Albania. In the 1990s, Greece preferred and assisted Fatos Nano as Albanian leader due to him being Orthodox over Sali Berisha a Muslim, as Nano was seen as being friendlier to Greek interests.[34] The government of Fatos Nano was viewed by Turkey as having a pro-Greek orientation and expressed some dissatisfaction though during that time still maintained close military relations with Albania in rebuilding its armed forces and a military base.[19]

Today, as result of very frequent high-level contacts between the governments and the parliaments, relations between the two countries are regarded as cordial. Greece is a staunch supporter of the Euro-Atlantic integration of the Republic of Albania. Since Albania's NATO entry in May 2009, the Albanian-Greek relations have been developing on all fronts, and especially after the election victory of Edi Rama in 2013,[35] with the Albanian Chief of Foreign Policy, Ralf Gjoni, describing the diplomatic relations between two countries as "excellent". Greece today is Albania's most important European Union ally and NATO partner.[36] At the Albanian government’s request, about 250 Greek military personnel are stationed in Albania to assist with the training and restructuring of the Albanian Armed Forces, as part of the NATO programme. Big projects currently in running between the two countries include the touristic development of the Ionian coastline shared between the two countries, and the Trans Adriatic Pipeline (TAP), which helped boosting the relations of the two countries even further.

Disputes

The Albanian government supports the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians outside of its borders but has downplayed them to further its primary foreign policy goal of regional cooperation; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks full recognition of the declared independence from Serbia; Albanians in the Republic of Macedonia claim discrimination in education, access to public-sector jobs, and representation in government.[citation needed] A handful of Albanian troops have participated in the US-led invasions and occupations of Iraq and Afghanistan.[37] Albanian policy is very favorable to that of the United States and European Union.

The $30 million Albanian-American Enterprise Fund (AAEF), launched in 1994, is actively making debt and equity investments in local businesses.[citation needed] AAEF is designed to harness private sector efforts to assist in the economic transformation. U.S. assistance priorities include promotion of agricultural development and a market economy, advancement of democratic institutions (including police training), and improvements in quality of life.

Relations[edit]

Countries[edit]

Maps showing the countries with diplomatic relations in and of Albania.

Albania currently has diplomatic relations with 115:[38] Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Estonia, Equatorial Guinea, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Georgia, Ghana, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kosovo, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Libya, Lebanon, Mexico, Madagascar, the Republic of Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Montenegro, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Malaysia, Mongolia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Nigeria, Nepal, North Korea, Oman, Poland, Portugal, the People's Republic of China, Pakistan, the State of Palestine, Philippines, Romania, Russia, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Syria, South Korea, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, South Africa, Turkey, Thailand, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United Arab Emirates, Uganda, the United States, Uruguay, Panama, Peru, Yemen, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

Albania also maintains very good relations with the European Union. The nation is since 2009 also a full member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO).

Organizations[edit]

Albania is member in these international organizations:[39]

NATO, BSEC, Council of Europe, Central European Initiative, CCC, EAPC, EBRD, Energy Community, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IPU, IOM, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MINGA, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO and WTO.

Diplomatic relations[edit]

Africa[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria
  • Algeria is represented in Albania through its embassy in Athens, Greece.
 Egypt See Albania–Egypt relations

The father of the modern Egypt Muhammad Ali of Egypt was Albanian commander in the Ottoman army. Albanian Muhammad Ali dynasty reigned in Egypt from 1805 to 1952.

 Libya See Albania–Libya relations
  • Libya has an embassy in Tirana.

Albania was one of the first countries to recognize the National Transitional Council on 18 July 2011 as legitimate representative of the Libyan people.[42][43][44]

 Malawi 1985

Both countries established diplomatic relations in June 1985.[45]

 South Africa 1992

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1992.[46]

 Tunisia

Both countries have a number of bilateral agreements.[47][48]

Americas[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Brazil See Albania–Brazil relations
 Canada See Albania–Canada relations
 Guyana 1 May 1985[49]

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 May 1985.[49]

 Mexico 1974
  • Albania is accredited to Mexico from its embassy in Washington, D.C., USA.[50]
  • Mexico is accredited to Albania from its embassy in Rome, Italy [51] and has an honorary consulate in Tirana.[52][53]
 Panama 1978

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 August 1978.[54]

 United States 1922[55] See Albania–United States relations

Albanian American are Americans of full or partial Albanian ancestry. According to data from a 2008 survey by the United States government, there are 201,118 Americans of full or partial Albanian descent.[56]

Asia[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia 18 February 1993
  • Albania is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Athens, (Greece).
  • Armenia is represented in Albania through its embassy in Athens, (Greece).
 Azerbaijan 23 September 1992 See Albania–Azerbaijan relations
 China 23 November 1949 See Albania–People's Republic of China relations

People's Socialist Republic of Albania under Enver Hoxha, moved an annual resolution in the General Assembly to transfer China's seat at the United Nations from the Republic of China to the People's Republic of China. On 25 October 1971, Resolution 2758, sponsored by Albania, was passed by the General Assembly, withdrawing recognition of the ROC as the legitimate government of China, and recognizing the PRC as the sole legitimate government of China. Albania was the first country to recognize the People's Republic China. Albania and People's Republic China established diplomatic relations on 23 November 1949.[58]
Sino-Albanian split
China–Albania Friendship Association

  • Albania has an embassy in Beijing.
  • People's Republic China has an embassy in Tirana.
 Georgia 8 July 1993[59] See Albania–Georgia relations
  • Albania is represented in Georgia through its embassy in Ankara, (Turkey).
  • Georgia is represented in Albania through its embassy in Ankara, (Turkey).
 India 1956[60] See Albania–India relations

Mother Teresa, one of India's national symbol, was of Albanian nun.

 Iran
  • Iran has an embassy in Tirana.
  • Albania plans to reopen its embassy in Tehran during 2017.[61]
 Israel 20 August 1991[62] See Albania–Israel relations

Albania recognized the State of Israel on 16 April 1949 by a telegram of Prime Minister of Albania Enver Hoxha.

 Japan April 1922
re-established in March 1981
See Albania–Japan relations

Albania and Japan resumed established diplomatic relations in March 1981.[65]

  • Albania has an embassy in Tokyo.
  • Japan will open an embassy in Tirana in January 2017.[66]
 Kuwait
 Malaysia
 Maldives 26 June 2008

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 26 June 2008.[67]

 Mongolia 24 May 1949[68]
  • Albania is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Moscow, (Russia).
   Nepal 23 May 1972

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 May 1972.[69]

 Pakistan In December 2006, Albanian Deputy Foreign Minister Mr. Anton Gurakqui visited Pakistan to hold bilateral consultation with Pakistani political leadership. Pakistan also offers training facilities to young Albanian bureaucrats in the field of banking, finance, management and diplomacy.[70]
 Palestine 1990 See Albania–Palestine relations

Albania had previously recognized the State of Palestine as a state since 1988.

Albania and the State of Palestine established diplomatic relations in 1990.

  • Palestine has an embassy in Tirana.
 Qatar
  • Albania has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Tirana.
 Saudi Arabia
  • Albania has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Tirana.
 North Korea 29 November 1948[71] See Foreign relations of North Korea
 South Korea 22 August 1991[72] See Albania–South Korea relations

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Albania and the Republic of Korea began on 22 August 1991.

Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade Ban Ki-moon and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Albania Besnik Mustafaj signed the Convention between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Albania for the Avoidance of Double Taxation with Respect to Taxes on Income and for the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion on May 17, 2006.[73]

The number of the South Koreans living in Albania in 2012 was about 80.[72]

 United Arab Emirates
 Uzbekistan 1993

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 November 1993.[74]

 Vietnam 11 February 1950

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 February 1950.[75][76]

Europe[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Andorra 1996 See Albania-Andorra relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 February 1996.[77]

 Austria 1912 See Albania–Austria relations

Austria-Hungary supported Albanian Declaration of Independence in 1912.

  • Albania has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Austria has an embassy in Tirana.
 Azerbaijan See Albania–Azerbaijan relations
 Belarus See Albania–Belarus relations
 Belgium See Albania–Belgium relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Belgium has an embassy in Tirana.
 Bulgaria 1922 See Albania–Bulgaria relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Sofia and a consulate in Plovdiv.[78]
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Tirana and a consulate in Vlorë.[78]
  • The territory of modern Albania was part of the Bulgarian Empire during certain periods in the Middle Ages and some parts in what is now eastern Albania were populated and ruled by the Bulgarians for centuries.
  • Albanians in Bulgaria according to the 2001 census they only numbered 278,[79] their number in the Bulgarian lands was much larger in the past.
  • Bulgarians in Albania in present-day Albania live mostly in the areas of Mala Prespa, Golo Brdo and Gora. According to the Bulgarian State Agency for Bulgarians Abroad, 40,000 to 50,000 persons of Bulgarian origin are living in Albania,[80] but other sources have estimated Albania's Bulgarians to number as many as 100,000.[81] Ethnic identity can be fluid among the Albania's Slavophonic population, who might identify as Albanian, Bulgarian or ethnic Macedonian, depending on the circumstances.[81]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 28 December 1992 See Albania-Bosnia and Herzegovina relations
  • Albania recognised Bosnia and Herzegovina on 21 April 1992.[82]
  • Albania has an embassy in Sarajevo.
 Croatia 25 August 1992 See Albania–Croatia relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Croatia has an embassy in Tirana.
  • Albania had recognized Croatia on 21 January 1992.
  • Albania and Croatia established diplomatic relations on 25 August 1992.[83]
  • In April 2009, both countries became full members of NATO at an event which both Albanian Prime Minister Sali Berisha and Croatian Prime Minister Ivo Sanader attended. Also that year, the two countries decided to build a joint Nuclear Power Plant on the Albanian border with Montenegro. This decision was greeted warily by the government of Montenegro, which is worried about the plant's environmental impact.
  • The two have a history of defense pacts, and overall theirs is a good relationship.
  • Arbanasi is a community in the Zadar region, Croatia, of Albanian origin, who traditionally speak a dialect of Gheg Albanian.
 Cyprus 28 August 1991[84] See Albania–Cyprus relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 August 1991.[84]
  • Albania is represented in Cyprus by its embassy in Athens, Greece[85] and an honorary consulate in Larnaca.[86]
  • Cyprus is represented in Albania by its embassy in Athens, Greece[87][88] and an honorary consulate in Tirane.[89]
  • Both countries have a number of bilateral agreements.[84]
 Czech Republic See Albania–Czech Republic relations

The multi-national Communist armed forces’ sole joint action was the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968. All member countries, with the exception of the People's Republic of Albania and the Socialist Republic of Romania participated in the invasion. Albania formally withdrew form the Warsaw Pact in 1968 over the matter.[90]

  • Albania has an embassy in Prague.
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Tirana.
 Denmark 1 May 1970[91] See Albania–Denmark relations
 Estonia 1 January 1992 See Albania-Estonia relations
 Finland
 France See Albania-France relations
 Georgia 8 July 1993[59] See Albania–Georgia relations
  • Albania is represented in Georgia through its embassy in Ankara, (Turkey).
  • Georgia is represented in Albania through its embassy in Ankara, (Turkey).
  • Albania support Georgia territorial integrity over Abkhazia and South Ossetia. The Albanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a statement condemning Russia's decision to recognise Abkhazia and South Ossetia, calling the move "totally unacceptable" and "contrary to UN Security Council resolutions". The Ministry denied any parallels to its own recognition of Kosovo, claiming Kosovo to be a special case.[94]
 Germany See Albania-Germany relations
 Greece de facto in 1971[95][96]
de juro 21 March 1996
See Albania-Greece relations


Cham Albanians
Expulsion of Cham Albanians
Albanian communities in Greece
In 1940 Greece declared war to the Italian-occupied Albania, during the Greco-Italian War.

Greece and Albania – even though diplomatic relations were restored in 1971[95][96] – normalized relations only in 1987 as till then both countries were officially – in a cease-fire – but nevertheless under the state of war since Albania and Italy had declared war on Greece on 28 October 1940. During rule of dictator Enver Hoxha relations were strained because of the part that Albania played during World War II against Greece and also because of the material help that they provided to Greek communists during the Greek civil war. In addition there was controversy about the expulsion of Cham Albanians.

After the fall of the Albanian socialist regime in 1991, relations between the two countries got better but soon begun to deteriorate with accusations about mistreatment of minorities vice versa. To the latter problem it was added the widespread phenomenon of waves of illegal immigration from Albania towards Greece. High criminality numbers from one hand and alleged police brutality from the other became familiar subjects on the news of both neighbors, increasing eventually tensions. According to official Greek data around 450,000 Albanian immigrants work in Greece and it is believed the number will almost double if illegal immigrants are accounted too. This is a brand new situation, for both countries as Greece for the first time become a destination country for immigrants and Albanians for the first time got out of their country after the total isolation that the communist regime had imposed.

Today, relations between the two countries are very close and are regarded as excellent, and, at the Albanian Government's request, about 250 Greek military personnel are stationed in Albania to assist with the training and restructuring the Albanian Armed Forces. Albania's economy is overdependent to the money immigrants from Greece sent back home, while Greece is the second larger trading partner, with more than US$400 million worth of investments. Moreover, Greek products account for 21% of Albania's imports, with Greece absorbing 12% of its neighboring country's exports.[97] At the same time, low cost labor from Albania propelled the growth of the Greek economy, especially in the construction and agriculture sectors. Albania is home to 300,000 or more Greeks, with about 650,000 Greeks in total being linked to Albania[98] while between 400,000–600,000 Albanians live and work in Greece, the vast majority of them post-1991 economic migrants.

  • Greece is home to just under a million Albanians (some sources say 600,000, whilst other Greek organisations claim 900,000 with illegal migrants and overstayers).
  • The Arvanitika are a Tosk dialect traditionally spoken by the Arvanites, a population group in Greece. Arvanitika is today an endangered language, as its speakers have been shifting to the use of Greek and most younger members of the community no longer speak it.[99]
  • Greece is Albania's most important European Union ally and partner.[100]
  • Relations since the election victory of Edi Rama in 2013 have seen massive improvement and warming of relations between the two nations.[35]
  • The Archbishop of Albania is Greek[101]
  • There are many cultural, political, historical and biological similarities and shared kinship between the Albanian and Greek peoples.[102][103]
  • Greek is the second most spoken language in Albania, with a considerable size having knowledge of it.[104]
  • Albanian is the most common foreign/migrant language in Greece, although most Greeks do not have clear knowledge of it.[105]
  • Many organisations both political and societal exist in Albania and Greece promoting relations between the two nations.[106]
  • Albania is home to the largest number of Greek diaspora political and cultural organisations; there are 5 political parties and over a dozen organisations.[107]
  • As of 2014 both nations have described their relations as 'excellent' and Albania considered Greece one of its 'strongest and most important allies', both NATO nations have close relations nowadays.[108]
 Holy See 7 September 1991[109] See Albania-Holy See relations
  • Albania has a resident embassy to the Holy See in Rome.[110]
  • The Holy See has a resident nunciature (embassy) in Tirana[110]
  • The Apostolic Nunciature in Albania started as an apostolic delegation to Albania by Pope Benedict XV on 12 November 1920, and was elevated to the full rank of a nunciature by Pope John Paul II on 16 January 1991.
  • Relations were reestablished in 1991, after the fall of communism in Albania.
  • Pope John Paul II was the first Pope to visit Albania, which took place immediately after the fall of communism.
  • Pope Francis viste Albania on September the 21st, which the first nation in Europe he visited.[111]
  • Albania is home to 520,000 Roman Catholics, and is the second largest religion in the country, after Islam. (Roman Catholicism in Albania)
 Hungary See Albania-Hungary relations
 Iceland
 Ireland
 Italy 1912 See Albania-Italy relations
 Kosovo 18 February 2008 See Albania–Kosovo relations
 Latvia
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1928 and were restored in 1992.[117]
  • Albania is represented in Albania by its embassy in Warsaw, Poland.[117]
  • Latvia is represented in Albania by its embassy in Rome, Italy and an honorary consulate in Tirana.[118]
  • Both countries have a number of bilateral agreements.[119]
 Lithuania 27 April 1992

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 April 1992.[120]

 Luxembourg
 Macedonia 1991 See Albania–Republic of Macedonia relations

Albanians in the Republic of Macedonia
Albania has recognized the Republic of Macedonia as independent and sovereign country after Skopje proclaimed the independence, but Albania never officially recognized Skopje with its constitutional name, but sees no problem using the constitutional name in bilateral relations. Albanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that Macedonia has "died" with Alexander the Great, not supported neither Athens or Skopje on this issue being assessed as more important the integration of e Skopje in NATO and EU than context of the name.

  • Albania has an embassy in Skopje.
  • Macedonia has an embassy in Tirana.
 Malta See Albania–Malta relations
 Moldova
 Monaco See Albania-Monaco relations
 Montenegro 1 August 2006 See Albania-Montenegro relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Podgorica.
  • Montenegro has an embassy in Tirana.
  • Albania has recognized Montenegro independence on 12 July 2006.
  • Albania and Montenegro established diplomatic relations on 1 August 2006.
  • Albanians in Montenegro
 Netherlands 1970[121] See Albania-Netherlands relations
 Poland See Albania–Poland relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Tirana.
 Portugal See Albania–Portugal relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Lisbon.
 Romania 28 December 1913 See Albania–Romania relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Bucharest.
  • Romania has an embassy in Tirana.
  • Romania was the first country that recognized Albania independence.[122][123]

Albanians of Romania

 Russia 7 April 1924 See Albania–Russia relations
 Serbia See Albania-Serbia relations

Albanians in south Serbia
Albanian Coalition of Preševo Valley
Preševo Valley(Presheva, Bujanovac and Medvegjë)
Liberation Army of Preševo, Medveđa and Bujanovac

  • Albania has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Tirana.
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 1994[109] See Albania–Sovereign Military Order of Malta relations
 Spain See Albania–Spain relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Tirana.
 Slovakia See Albania–Slovakia relations

The multi-national Communist armed forces’ sole joint action was the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968. All member countries, with the exception of the People's Republic of Albania and the Socialist Republic of Romania participated in the invasion. Albania formally withdrew form the Warsaw Pact in 1968 over the matter.[90]

 Slovenia See Albania–Slovenia relations
 Sweden See Albania–Sweden relations

Albanians in Sweden

  Switzerland 1 March 1922[124] See Albania-Switzerland relations

Albanians in Switzerland

  • Albania has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Tirana.
 Turkey 1981 See Albania-Turkey relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Tirana.
 Ukraine 1992 See Albania-Ukraine relations

The diplomatic relations between Albania and Ukraine were established in 1922.

 United Kingdom 1922-1939
reestablished on 29 May 1991
See Albania–United Kingdom relations

Oceania[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia See Albania–Australia relations
  • Albanian Australian are residents of Australia who are of Albanian heritage or descent. According to the 2011 Australian census 2,398 Albanians were born in Australia while 13,142 claimed Albanian ancestry, either alone or with another ancestry.
 Samoa 2008

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 August 2008.[125]

Former countries[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Papal States See Albania–Papal States relations

Albania (League of Lezhë) during the reign of Skanderbeg had good relations with the Papacy.

 Kingdom of Naples See Albania–Kingdom of Naples relations

Albania (League of Lezhë) during the reign of Skanderbeg had good relations with Naples. King Alfonso V helped him in this situation and the two parties signed the Treaty of Gaeta on 26 March 1451, according to which, Skanderbeg would be formally a vassal of Alfonso in exchange for military aid. More explicitly, Skanderbeg recognized King Alfonso's sovereignty over his lands in exchange for the help that King Alfonso would give to him in the war against the Ottomans. King Alfonso pledged to respect the old privileges of Krujë and Albanian territories and to pay Skanderbeg an annual 1,500 ducats, while Skanderbeg pledged to make his fealty to King Alfonso only after the full expulsion of the Ottomans from the country, a condition never reached in Skanderbeg's lifetime. After Alfonso V's death, his son Skanderbeg helped Alfonso V's Ferdinand I of Naples to re-established his authority in the kingdom. After Skanderbeg's death Ferdinand I helped Skanderbeg's wife and son Donika Kastrioti and Gjon Kastrioti II and some Albanians (Arbëreshë people) to away from the Ottoman terror.
Skanderbeg's Italian expedition

 Soviet Union 7 April 1924 See Albania–Soviet Union relations
 Republic of Venice See Albania–Republic of Venice relations

Albanian–Venetian War (1447–1448)
Venetian Albania

 Yugoslavia See Albania–Yugoslavia relations

Multilateral[edit]

Organisation Formal Relations Began Notes
 European Union 1992 See Albania–European Union relations

The nation applied to join the European Union, becoming an official candidate for accession to the European Union in June 2014. Although Albania received candidate status for the European Union membership in 2014 (based on its 2009 application), the European Union has twice rejected full membership.[126] In July 2016, the Parliament of Albania approved constitutional amendments on justice reforms, it has had also hoped to open membership negotiations by December 2016.[127] The Commission recommended the launch of negotiations on 9 November 2016.[128]

  • Albania have a Permanent Representatives to the European Union in Brussels.
  • European Union has an embassy (delegation) in Tirana.
  • Albania applied for European Union membership on 28 April 2009.
 NATO 1992 See Albania–NATO relations

At the 2008 Bucharest summit, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) invited Albania to join the alliance. In April 2014 Albania became a full member of the NATO, which remains popular in the country especially due to its intervention in the Kosovo war. However, Albania was among the first southern European countries to join the Partnership for peace programme.[129] Within the Balkans, Albania is considered to be the most pro-European and pro-Western country in the region and unlike its neighbours, except Kosovo, it has to negligible support for Russia.[130][24]

Since 1992, Albania has been extensively engaged with NATO and has maintained its position as a stability factor and a strong ally of United States and EU in the troubled and divided region of the Balkans. In addition to the political will, the overwhelming majority of 95% of the Albanian population supported NATO membership.[131]

  • Albania have a permanent representatives to NATO in Brussels.
  • Albania's relationship with the NATO began in 1992 when it joined the North Atlantic Cooperation Council.
  • In 1994, Albania entered NATO's Partnership for Peace.
  • Albania received an invitation to join at the 2008 Bucharest Summit and became a full member on 1 April 2009.
 United Nations 14 December 1955 See Albania at the United Nations
  • Albania have a permanent representatives to the UN in New York.
  • Albania became a full member of the UN on 14 December 1955.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

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Analysis

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm (Background Notes).  This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.