Languages of Thailand

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An ethnolinguistic map of Thailand.

Thailand, and its neighbor Laos, are dominated by languages of the Southwestern Tai family. Karen languages are spoken along the border with Burma, Khmer is spoken near Cambodia and Malay in the south near Malaysia. The following table comprises all 62 ethnic groups recognised by the Royal Thai Government in the 2011 Country Report to the UN Committee responsible for the International Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, available from the Department of Rights and Liberties Promotion of the Thai Ministry of Justice.[1]:3

Five language families of Thailand recognised by the Royal Thai Government[1]

Tai Austroasiatic Sino-Tibetan Austronesian Hmong-Mien
24 Groups 22 groups 11 Groups 3 Groups 2 Groups
Kaleung Kasong Guong (Ugong) Malay (Malayu / Nayu / Yawi Hmong (Meo)
Kammuang / Yuan (Northern Thai) Kuy / Kuay Karen (7 subfamilies) Moken / Moklen Mien (Yao)
Tai Dam Khmu - Sgaw Karen Urak Lawoi
Nyaw Thailand Khmer, Northern Khmer - Pwo Karen
Tai Khun Chong - Kaya Karen
Central Thai Sa-oc - Bwe Karen
Thai Korat Sakai (Kensiw / Manique) - Pa-O Karen
Thai Takbai Samre - Padaung Karen
Thai Loei So (Thavuang) - Kayo Karen
Tai Lu So Jingpaw / Kachin
Tai Ya Nyah Kur (Chaobon) Chinese
Tai Yai, Shan Nyeu Yunnanese Chinese
Southern Thai Bru (Kha) Bisu
Phu Thai Plang (Samtao) Burmese
Phuan Palaung (Dala-ang) Lahu (Muzur)
Yong Mon Lisu
Yoy Mal-Pray (Lua / Tin) Akha
Lao Khrang Mlabri (Tongluang) Mpi
Lao Ngaew Lamet (Lua)
Lao Ti Lavua (Lawa / Lua)
Lao Wiang/Lao Klang Wa
Lao Lom Vietnamese
Lao Isan
Saek

The following table shows all the language families of Northeast Thailand, as recognised in the same report.

Language families of Northeast Thailand[1]

Tai Language Family Persons Austroasiatic Language Family Persons
Lao Esan / Thai Lao 13,000,000 Thailand Khmer / Northern Khmer 1,400,000
Central Thai 800,000 Kuy / Kuay (Suay) 400,000
Thai Khorat / Tai Beung / Tai Deung 600,000 So 70,000
Thai-Loei Bru combined
Phu Thai 500,000 Vietnamese 20,000
Ngaw 500,000 Ngeu 10,000
Kaleung 200,000 for Ngah Kur / Chao Bon / Khon Dong 7,000
Yoy Kaleung, Yoy and Phuan So (Thavaung) 1,500
Phuan combined Mon 1,000
Tai-dam (Song) (not specified)
Total: 16,103,000 Total: 1,909,000
Cannot specify ethnicity and amount: 3,288,000
21,300,000

Note that population numbers are for the Northeast region only. Languages may have additional speakers outside the Northeast.

The Thai hill tribes speak numerous small languages, many Chinese retain varieties of Chinese, and there are half a dozen sign languages. The Ethnologue reports 73 living languages are used in Thailand. The Royal Thai Government's 2011 Country Report to the Committee Responsible for the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination,[1] relying mainly on the 2005 Ethnolinguistic Maps of Thailand data,[2] lists 62 languages.

Thai[edit]

The official language of Thailand is Thai, a Siamese language closely related to Lao, Shan in Burma, and numerous smaller languages of southern China and northern Vietnam. It is the principal language of education and government and is spoken throughout the country. The standard is based on the dialect of Bangkok, and it is written in the Thai alphabet, an abugida that evolved from the Khmer script.

Several other Tai languages exist: Southern Thai is spoken in the southern provinces, and Lanna is spoken in the provinces that were formerly part of the independent kingdom of Lanna.

Minority languages[edit]

Thailand is also host to several minority languages. The largest minority language is Lao,[3] a dialect of Isan spoken in the northeastern provinces. The region in where it is traditionally spoken was historically part of the Lao kingdom of Lan Xang.

In the far south, Yawi, a dialect of Malay, is the primary language of the Malay Muslims. Varieties of Chinese are also spoken by the large Thai Chinese population, with the Teochew dialect being best represented.

Tribal languages[edit]

Numerous tribal languages are also spoken, including those belonging to:

Sign language[edit]

Several village sign languages are reported among the hill tribes, though it is not clear whether these are independent languages, as only Ban Khor Sign Language has been described. Two related deaf-community sign languages developed in Chiangmai and Bangkok; the national Thai Sign Language developed from these under the influence of American Sign Language.

English is a mandatory school subject, but the number of fluent speakers remains very low, especially outside the cities.

Most widely spoken language[edit]

The following table shows official first languages in Thailand with equal to or more than 400,000 speakers according to the Royal Thai Government's 2011 Country Report to the Committee Responsible for the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination,[1] mainly using the Ethnolinguistic Maps of Thailand data.[2]

Official first languages of Thailand with equal to or more than 400,000 speakers[1]

Language Speakers Language Family
Central Thai 20.0 million Tai-Kadai
Lao 15.2 million Tai-Kadai
Kham Muang 6.0 million Tai-Kadai
Pak Tai 4.5 million Tai-Kadai
Northern Khmer 1.4 million Austroasiatic
Yawi 1.4 million Austronesian
Ngaw 0.5 million Tai-Kadai
Phu Thai 0.5 million Tai-Kadai
Karen 0.4 million Sino-Tibetan
Kuy 0.4 million Austroasiatic

Languages in Thailand with more than 1 million speakers according to Ethnologue

Language Code Speakers Language Family
Central Thai mbf 60 million Tai-Kadai
Isan tts 23 million Tai-Kadai
Northern Thai nod 6 million Tai-Kadai
Southern Thai sou 4.5 million Tai-Kadai
Northern Khmer kxm 1.4 million Austroasiatic
Yawi mfa 1 million Austronesian

The following table employs 2000 census data. Caution should be exercised with Thai census data on first language. In Thai censuses, the four largest Tai-Kadai languages of Thailand (in order, Central Thai, Isan (majority Lao),[3] Kam Mueang, Pak Tai) are not provided as options for language or ethnic group. People stating such a language as a first language, including Lao, are allocated to 'Thai'.[4] This explains the disparity between the two tables. For instance, self-reporting as Lao has been prohibited, due to the prohibition of the Lao ethnonym in the context of describing Thai citizens, for approximately one hundred years.[5][6] This was due to the promotion of a 'Thai' national identity to cement Siamese claims over the Lao city-states of what is now Northern and Northeast Thailand following the 1893 Franco Siamese War and subsequent threat posed by French Indochina to Lao tributary states of Siam. The birth of a homogenizing Thai ethnocentric national identity sufficient to begin transforming Siam from an absolute monarchy into a modern nation-state was achieved by assimilating the Lao within this Thai 'identity', equivalent to what is now known as the Tai–Kadai_languages, under a 'Greater Thai Empire', and can be traced back to at least 1902.[7] This homogenization began affecting the Thai census from 1904 onwards. The 2011 Country Report data is therefore more comprehensive and better differentiates between the large Tai-Kadai languages of Thailand. As a country submission to a UN convention ratified by Thailand, it is also arguably more authoritative.

Population of Thailand above the age of 5 by language (UN statistics 2000)[8]
Language Language family No. of speakers
Thai Tai-Kadai 52,325,037
Khmer Austroasiatic 1,291,024
Malay Austronesian 1,202,911
Karen Sino-Tibetan 317,968
Chinese Sino-Tibetan 231,350
Miao Hmong-Mien 112,686
Lahu Sino-Tibetan 70,058
Burmese Sino-Tibetan 67,061
Akha Sino-Tibetan 54,241
English Indo-European 48,202
Tai Tai-Kadai 44,004
Japanese Japonic 38,565
Lawa Austroasiatic 31,583
Lisu Sino-Tibetan 25,037
Vietnamese Austroasiatic 24,476
Yao Hmong-Mien 21,238
Khmu Austroasiatic 6,246
Indian Indo-European 5,598
Haw Yunnanese Sino-Tibetan 3,247
Htin Austroasiatic 2,317
Others 33,481
Unknown 325,134
Total: 56,281,538

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • L-Thongkum, Theraphan. 1985. Minority Languages of Thailand. In Science of Language Papers: Languages and Dialects. vol 5. Department of Linguistics, Faculty of Arts, Chulalongkorn University.
  • Suwilai Premsrirat. 2004. "Using GIS For Displaying An Ethnolinguistic Map of Thailand." In Papers from the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society, edited by Somsonge Burusphat. Tempe, Arizona, 599-617. Arizona State University, Program for Southeast Asian Studies.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; Reports submitted by States parties under article 9 of the Convention: Thailand (PDF) (in English with appended Thai government translation). United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2016. 
  2. ^ a b Ethnolinguistic Maps of Thailand (PDF) (in Thai). Office of the National Culture Commission. 2004. Retrieved 8 October 2016. 
  3. ^ a b Draper, John; Kamnuansilpa, Peerasit (2016). "The Thai Lao Question: The Reappearance of Thailand's Ethnic Lao Community and Related Policy Questions". Asian Ethnicity. doi:10.1080/14631369.2016.1258300. Retrieved 23 November 2016. 
  4. ^ Luangthongkum, Theraphan. (2007). The Position of Non-Thai Languages in Thailand. In Lee Hock Guan & L. Suryadinata (Eds.), Language, nation and development in Southeast Asia (pp. 181-194). Singapore: ISEAS Publishing.
  5. ^ Breazeale, Kennon. (1975). The integration of the Lao states. PhD. dissertation, Oxford University.
  6. ^ Grabowsky, Volker. (1996). The Thai census of 1904: Translation and analysis. In Journal of the Siam Society, 84(1): 49-85.
  7. ^ Streckfuss, D. (1993). The mixed colonial legacy in Siam: Origins of Thai racialist thought, 1890-1910. In L. J. Sears (Ed.), Autonomous histories, particular truths: Essays in honor of John R. W. Smail (pp.123-154). Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  8. ^ Population by language, sex and urban/rural residence, UNSD Demographic Statistics, United Nations Statistics Division, UNdata, last update 5 July 2013.