List of allergens

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This is a list of allergies, which includes the allergen, potential reactions, and a brief description of the cause where applicable.

Allergens[edit]

Food[edit]

Name Potential reaction(s) Remarks
Balsam of Peru Redness, swelling, itching, allergic contact dermatitis reactions, stomatitis (inflammation and soreness of the mouth or tongue), cheilitis (inflammation, rash, or painful erosion of the lips, oropharyngeal mucosa, or angles of their mouth), pruritus, hand eczema, generalized or resistant plantar dermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and blisters. Present in many foods, such as coffee, flavored tea, wine, beer, gin, liqueurs, apéritifs (e.g. vermouth, bitters), soft drinks including cola, juice, citrus, citrus fruit peel, marmalade, tomatoes and tomato-containing products, Mexican and Italian foods with red sauces, ketchup, spices (e.g. cloves, Jamaica pepper (allspice), cinnamon, nutmeg, paprika, curry, anise, and ginger), chili sauce, barbecue sauce, chutney, pickles, pickled vegetables, chocolate, vanilla, baked goods and pastries, pudding, ice cream, chewing gum, and candy.
Buckwheat[1] Asthma, rhinitis, pruritus, gastrointestinal disturbances, urticaria, angioedema, shock, anaphylaxis[2] Allergenicity is highest in Japan and Korea.[3]It’s estimated that buckwheat causes 5% of all immediate-type allergic reaction cases (from food) in Japan.[4] Hazard extends to inhalation of milled flour particles (aeroallergen). Irrespective of the nomenclature, it is not a wheaten cereal; the name refers to it’s viability as a pseudocereal. Relating or conflating BW-allergy with wheat-allergy or Triticeae hypersensitivities should be avoided.[5]
Egg Anaphylaxis, swelling, sometimes flatulence and vomiting An allergic individual may not have any reaction to consuming food only prepared with yolk and not glair, or vice versa.
Fish Respiratory reactions, Anaphylaxis, oral allergy syndrome, sometimes vomiting One of three allergies to seafood, not to be conflated with allergies to crustaceans and mollusks.[6] Fish allergy sufferers have a 50% likelihood of being cross reactive with another fish species,[7] but some individuals are only allergic to one species, such as; tilapia,[8] salmon, [6] or cod. A proper diagnosis is considered complicated due to these cross reactivity between fish species and other seafood allergies. [9] Hazard extends to exposure to cooking vapors or handling.[10]
Fruit Mild itching, rash, generalized urticaria, oral allergy syndrome, abdominal pain, vomiting, anaphylaxis Mango, strawberries, banana, [11] avocado, and kiwi are common problems.[12] Severe allergies to tomatoes have also been reported. [13][14] Stone fruits are highly cross-reactive with one another.[15]
Garlic Dermatitis, asymmetrical pattern of fissure, thickening/shedding of the outer skin layers,[16] anaphylaxis
Hot peppers Skin rash, hives, throat tightness, tongue swelling, possible vomiting
Oats Dermatitis, respiratory problems, anaphylaxis
Maize Hives, pallor, confusion, dizziness, stomach pain, swelling, vomiting, indigestion, diarrhea, cough, tightness in throat, wheezing, shortness of breath, anaphylaxis Often a difficult allergy to manage due to the various food products which contain various forms of corn.
Milk[17] Skin rash, hives, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, stomach pain, flatulence, nasal congestion, dermatitis, blisters, anaphylaxis Not to be confused with lactose intolerance.[18]
Peanut[19] Anaphylaxis and swelling, sometimes vomiting Includes some cold-pressed peanut oils. Distinct from tree nut allergy, as peanuts are legumes.
Poultry Meat[20] Hives, swelling of, or under the dermis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, severe oral allergy syndrome, shortness of breath, rarely anaphylactic shock Very rare allergies to chicken, turkey, squab, and sometimes more mildly to other avian meats. Not to be confused with secondary reactions of bird-egg syndrome. The genuine allergy has no causal relationship with egg allergy, nor is there any close association with red meat allergy. Prevalence still unknown as of 2016.[21]
Red Meat[22] Hives, swelling,[23] dermatitis, stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, fainting, shortness of breath,[24] rarely anaphylaxis Allergies to the sugar carbohydrate found in beef, venison, lamb, and pork called alpha-gal. It is brought on by tick bites.[25][26] Allergic reaction to pork is an exception, as it may also be caused by pork-cat syndrome instead of alpha-gal allergy.
Rice Sneezing, runny nose, itching, stomachache, eczema. People with a rice allergy can be affected by eating rice or breathing in rice steam.
Sesame Possible respiratory, skin, and gastrointestinal reactions which can trigger serious systemic anaphylactic responses.[27][28] By law, foods containing sesame must be labeled so in European Union, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.[27] Increasing prevalence has lead to it being deemed the ninth most common food allergen in the United States in 2019. Highest prevalence by age was among 18-29 year olds and an estimated 80% of all sesame-allergic patients had a comorbid food allergy.[29] As of 2020 the US has yet to require labeling of products containing sesame.
Shellfish Respiratory symptoms, Anaphylaxis, oral allergy syndrome, gastrointestinal symptoms, rhinitis, conjunctivitis Shellfish allergies are highly cross reactive, but its prevalence is generally higher than that of fish allergy. As of 2018 six allergens have been identified to prawn alone; along with crab it's the major culprit of seafood anaphylaxis.[6] In reference to it as one of the “Big 8” [30] or “major 14” allergens it is sometimes specified as a “crustacean shellfish” allergy, or more simply, a “crustacean allergy”.[31][32] Sometimes it is conflated with an allergy to molluscan shellfish but complete tolerance to one but not the other isn't uncommon. Most usually, a mono-sensitive individual will experience a crustacean allergy alone with tolerance to mollusks, rather than vice versa.[6]
Soy Anaphylaxis, asthma exacerbation, rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, hives, atopic dermatitis, swelling of, or under the dermis, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting Overall is lower in prevalence than both peanut allergy & cow’s milk allergy. However, due to similar protein structures soya is a common cross-reactive allergen in both peanut-allergic individuals and milk-allergic individuals; especially infants.[33]
Sulfites Hives, rash, redness of skin, headache (particular frontal), burning behind eyes, asthma-like breathing difficulties, anaphylaxis Used as a preserving agent in many different foods, such as raisins, dried peaches, various other dried fruit, canned or frozen fruits and vegetables, wines, vinegars and processed meats.
Tartrazine Skin irritation, hives, rash Synthetic yellow food coloring, also used for bright green coloring
Tree nut[34] Anaphylaxis, swelling, rash, hives, sometimes vomiting Hazard extends to exposure to cooking vapors, or handling. Distinct from peanut allergy, as peanuts are legumes.
Wheat[35] Eczema (atopic dermatitis), Hives, asthma, hay fever, angioedema, abdominal cramps, Celiac disease, diarrhea, temporary (3 or 4 day) mental incompetence, anemia, nausea, and vomiting[36] Not to be confused with Celiac Disease or NCGS (Non Celiac Gluten Sensitivity). While wheat allergies are "true" allergies, Celiac Disease is an autoimmune disease.[37]

Medical[edit]

Name Possible reaction(s) Remarks
Balsam of Peru Redness, swelling, itching, allergic contact dermatitis reactions, stomatitis (inflammation and soreness of the mouth or tongue), cheilitis (inflammation, rash, or painful erosion of the lips, oropharyngeal mucosa, or angles of their mouth), pruritus, hand eczema, generalized or resistant plantar dermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and blisters. Present in many drugs, such as hemorrhoid suppositories and ointment (e.g. Anusol), cough medicine/suppressant and lozenges, diaper rash ointments, oral and lip ointments, tincture of benzoin, wound spray (it has been reported to inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well as the common ulcer-causing bacteria H. pylori in test-tube studies), calamine lotion, surgical dressings, dental cement, eugenol used by dentists, some periodontal impression materials, and in the treatment of dry socket in dentistry.
Tetracycline Many, including: severe headache, dizziness, blurred vision, fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms, severe blistering, peeling, dark colored urine[38][39][40]
Dilantin Many, including: swollen glands, easy bruising or bleeding, fever, sore throat[41][42][43]
Tegretol (carbamazepine) Shortness of breath, wheezing or difficulty breathing, swelling of the face, lips, tongue etc., hives[44][45][46]
Penicillin Diarrhea, hypersensitivity, nausea, rash, neurotoxicity, urticaria
Cephalosporins Maculopapular or morbilliform skin eruption, and less commonly urticaria, eosinophilia, serum-sickness–like reactions, and anaphylaxis.[47]
Sulfonamides Urinary tract disorders, haemopoietic disorders, porphyria and hypersensitivity reactions, Stevens–Johnson syndrome toxic epidermal necrolysis
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (cromolyn sodium, nedocromil sodium, etc.) Many, including: swollen eyes, lips, or tongue, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate[48]
Intravenous contrast dye Anaphylactoid reactions and contrast-induced nephropathy
Local anesthetics Urticaria and rash, dyspnea, wheezing, flushing, cyanosis, tachycardia[49]

Environmental[edit]

Name Possible reaction(s) Remarks
Balsam of Peru Redness, swelling, itching, allergic contact dermatitis reactions, stomatitis (inflammation and soreness of the mouth or tongue), cheilitis (inflammation, rash, or painful erosion of the lips, oropharyngeal mucosa, or angles of their mouth), pruritus, hand eczema, generalized or resistant plantar dermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and blisters. A number of national and international surveys have identified Balsam of Peru as being in the "top five" allergens most commonly causing patch test reactions in people referred to dermatology clinics.[50][51]
Pollen Sneezing, body ache, headache (in rare cases, extremely painful cluster headaches may occur due to allergic sinusitis; these may leave a temporary time period of 1 and a half to 2 days with eye sensitivity), allergic conjunctivitis (includes watery, red, swelled, itchy, and irritating eyes), runny nose, irritation of the nose, nasal congestion, minor fatigue, chest pain and discomfort, coughing, sore throat, facial discomfort (feeling of stuffed face) due to allergic sinusitis, possible asthma attack, wheezing
Cat Sneezing, itchy swollen eyes, rash, congestion, wheezing
Dog Rash, sneezing, congestion, wheezing, vomiting from coughing, Sometimes itchy welts. Caused by dander, saliva or urine of dogs, or by dust, pollen or other allergens that have been carried on the fur.[52] Allergy to dogs is present in as much as 10 percent of the population.[52]
Insect sting Hives, wheezing, possible anaphylaxis Possible from bee or wasp stings, or bites from mosquitoes or flies like Leptoconops torrens.
Mold Sneeze, coughing, itchy, discharge from the nose, respiratory irritation, congested feeling,[53] joint aches, headaches, fatigue[54]
Perfume Itchy eyes, runny nose, sore throat, headaches, muscle/joint pain, asthma attack, wheezing, chest pain, blisters
Cosmetics Contact dermatitis,[55] irritant contact dermatitis, inflammation, redness,[56] conjunctivitis[57] ,sneezing
Semen Burning, pain and swelling, possibly for days, swelling or blisters, vaginal redness,[58] fever, runny nose, extreme fatigue[59][60][61][62][63] In a case study in Switzerland, a woman who was allergic to Balsam of Peru was allergic to her boyfriend's semen following intercourse, after he drank large amounts of Coca-Cola.[64]
Latex Contact dermatitis, hypersensitivity
Water (see note) Epidermal itching Strictly aquagenic pruritus or aquagenic urticaria, but cold urticaria may also be described as a "water allergy," in which water may cause hives and anaphylaxis
House dust mite[65] Asthma Home allergen reduction may be recommended
Nickel (nickel sulfate hexahydrate) Allergic contact dermatitis, dyshidrotic eczema[66][67]
Gold (gold sodium thiosulfate) Allergic contact dermatitis
Chromium Allergic contact dermatitis
Cobalt chloride Allergic contact dermatitis
Formaldehyde Allergic contact dermatitis
Photographic developers Allergic contact dermatitis
Fungicide Allergic contact dermatitis, fever, anaphylaxis

Contact[edit]

Many substances can cause an allergic reaction when in contact with the human integumentary system.

Contact allergens
Allergen Source Cross reacts with Clinical presentation
Dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA) Found within cocamidopropyl betaine in liquid soaps and shampoos Eyelid dermatitis
Latex[nb 1] Avocado
Banana
Chestnut
Kiwi
Passion fruit
Peach
Mango
Pineapple
Fig
Cantaloupe
Apple
Papaya
Ethylene-ripened fruits
Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) Black hair dye
Color developer
Scuba gear
Henna[nb 2]
Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA)
Azo dyes
Sulfonamides
Sulfonylureas
Thiazides
Ester anesthetics
Glyceryl monothioglycolate Permanent hair waving solutions
Toluenesulfonamide formaldehyde (Toluidine) Nail polish Eyelid dermatitis
  1. ^ Risk factors for reaction to latex include spina bifida, family history of allergy to latex, or a personal history of allergies, asthma, or eczema
  2. ^ Paraphenylenediamine may be added to henna but is not found in pure henna.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]