List of allergens

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This is a list of allergies, which includes the allergen, potential reactions, and a brief description of the cause where applicable.

Allergens[edit]

Food[edit]

Name Potential reaction(s) Remarks
Balsam of Peru Redness, swelling, itching, allergic contact dermatitis reactions, stomatitis (inflammation and soreness of the mouth or tongue), cheilitis (inflammation, rash, or painful erosion of the lips, oropharyngeal mucosa, or angles of their mouth), pruritus, hand eczema, generalized or resistant plantar dermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and blisters. Present in many foods, such as coffee, flavored tea, wine, beer, gin, liqueurs, apéritifs (e.g. vermouth, bitters), soft drinks including cola, juice, citrus, citrus fruit peel, marmalade, tomatoes and tomato-containing products, Mexican and Italian foods with red sauces, ketchup, spices (e.g. cloves, Jamaica pepper (allspice), cinnamon, nutmeg, paprika, curry, anise, and ginger), chili sauce, barbecue sauce, chutney, pickles, pickled vegetables, chocolate, vanilla, baked goods and pastries, pudding, ice cream, chewing gum, and candy.
Buckwheat[1] Asthma, rhinitis, pruritus, gastrointestinal disturbances, urticaria, angioedema, shock, anaphylaxis[2] Allergenicity is highest in Japan and Korea.[3] It is estimated that buckwheat causes 5% of all immediate-type allergic reaction cases (from food) in Japan.[4] Hazard extends to inhalation of milled flour particles (aeroallergen). Irrespective of the nomenclature, it is not a wheaten cereal; the name refers to its viability as a pseudocereal. Relating or conflating buckwheat allergy with wheat allergy or Triticeae hypersensitivities should be avoided.[5]
Celery Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, oral allergy syndrome, urticaria, neck or facial swelling, severe asthma symptoms, exercise induced anaphylaxis, potentially fatal anaphylactic shocks[6] Higher risk of provoking life-threatening reactions compared to most other food allergies. Celery seeds and celeriac are more allergenic than celery stalks.[7][8] Some individuals become cross-sensitized to other spices and herbs in the parsley family. Prevalence is high among adults in Central Europe. It is estimated that two-fifths of all Swiss food-allergy patients react to celery tubers and nearly a third of severe food allergy reactions in France may be due to celery.[9]
Egg Anaphylaxis, swelling, sometimes flatulence and vomiting An allergic individual may not have any reaction to consuming food only prepared with egg yolk and not egg white, or vice versa.[10] Due to high protein content, egg white allergy is more common than the reverse.[11] The majority of children with this allergy become tolerant by adulthood.[12]
Fish Respiratory reactions, Anaphylaxis, oral allergy syndrome, sometimes vomiting One of three allergies to seafood, not to be conflated with allergies to crustaceans and mollusks.[13] Fish allergy sufferers have a 50% likelihood of being cross reactive with another fish species,[14] but some individuals are only allergic to one species, such as; tilapia,[15] salmon,[13] or cod. A proper diagnosis is considered complicated due to these cross reactivity between fish species and other seafood allergies.[16] Hazard extends to exposure to cooking vapors or handling.[17]
Fruit Mild itching, rash, generalized urticaria, oral allergy syndrome, abdominal pain, vomiting, anaphylaxis Mango, strawberries, banana,[18] avocado, and kiwi are common problems.[19] Severe allergies to tomatoes have also been reported.[20][21] Stone fruits are highly cross-reactive with one another, as are the rosaceae fruits [22][10] Reaction to hot peppers, a kind of botanical berry, is another specific type of fruit allergy.
Garlic Dermatitis, rhinitis, asthma, urticaria, asymmetrical pattern of fissure, thickening/shedding of the outer skin layers,[23] rarely anaphylaxis Very few garlic allergens have been reported, and garlic allergy has been rarely studied. Some garlic-allergic individuals may cross-react with leek, shallot and onion. Garlic that has been heated/cooked is less allergenic than raw garlic.[24][25]
Oats Dermatitis, respiratory problems, anaphylaxis Risk extends to respiratory inhalation. Oat is not a triticeae cereal but it is possible for individuals with gluten-related disorders to be misdiagnosed as having a hypersensitivity to pure oat because cross-contamination is very common in the western world.
Maize Hives, pallor, confusion, dizziness, stomach pain, swelling, vomiting, indigestion, diarrhea, cough, tightness in throat, wheezing, shortness of breath, anaphylaxis Often a difficult allergy to manage due to the various food products which contain various forms of corn.
Milk[26] Skin rash, hives, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, stomach pain, flatulence, colitis, nasal congestion, dermatitis, blisters, migraine, anaphylaxis Not to be confused with lactose intolerance.[27] Allergy to cow's milk is the most common food allergy in infants and young children[11] but most outgrow the allergy in early childhood. Introducing baked cow's milk to allergic patients is associated with accelerated resolution of milk allergy.[28] Some evidence suggests goat's milk has less allergenic potential than cow's milk[29] and reduced risk of allergy development if infants are weened with goat's milk.[30] Due to adult-onset sensitization it is estimated to be the second most common food allergy in American adults.[31]
Mustard Eczema, Rash, Hives, Facial swelling, Other skin reactions, Oral allergy syndrome, Conjunctivitis, Wheezing, Abdominal pain, Diarrhea, Nausea, Vomiting, Acid Reflux, Dizziness, Asthma, Chest pain, Respiratory problems, Anaphylaxis Mustard allergy onset is usually in infancy or toddlerhood;[32] it is seemingly very rare but true prevalence can not be established due to several tests producing high rates of false positives.[33] Due to a gradual increase in prevalence[34] and the severity of known reactions it became recognized as the 11th priority allergen by Canada in 2009,[35] and a top 14 priority allergen by the European Union in 2014.[36][37] Canola/rapeseed may cause cross-sensitization in some individuals.[38]
Peanut[39] Anaphylaxis and swelling, sometimes vomiting Includes some cold-pressed peanut oils. Distinct from tree nut allergy, as peanuts are legumes. Reactions are often severe or fatal.
Poultry Meat[40] Hives, swelling of, or under the dermis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, severe oral allergy syndrome, shortness of breath, rarely anaphylactic shock Very rare allergies to chicken, turkey, squab, and sometimes more mildly to other avian meats. Not to be confused with secondary reactions of bird-egg syndrome. The genuine allergy has no causal relationship with egg allergy, nor is there any close association with red meat allergy. Prevalence still unknown as of 2016.[41]
Red Meat[42] Hives, swelling,[43] dermatitis, stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, fainting, shortness of breath,[44] rarely anaphylaxis Allergies to the sugar carbohydrate found in beef, venison, lamb, and pork called alpha-gal. It is brought on by tick bites.[45][46] Allergic reaction to pork is an exception, as it may also be caused by pork-cat syndrome instead of alpha-gal allergy.
Rice Sneezing, runny nose, itching, stomachache, eczema. People with a rice allergy can be affected by eating rice or breathing in rice steam.
Sesame Possible respiratory, skin, and gastrointestinal reactions which can trigger serious systemic anaphylactic responses.[47][48] By law, foods containing sesame must be labeled so in European Union, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.[47] Increasing prevalence has led to it being deemed the ninth most common food allergen in the United States in 2019. Highest prevalence by age was among 18-29 year olds and an estimated 80% of all sesame-allergic patients had a comorbid food allergy.[49] In 2018, the US FDA issued a request for information for the consideration of labeling for sesame to help protect people who have sesame allergies.[50] A decision was reached in November 2020 that food manufacturers voluntarily declare that when powdered sesame seeds are used as a previously unspecified spice or flavor, the label be changed to "spice (sesame)" or "flavor (sesame)".[51]
Shellfish Respiratory symptoms, Anaphylaxis, oral allergy syndrome, gastrointestinal symptoms, rhinitis, conjunctivitis Shellfish allergies are highly cross reactive, but its prevalence is much higher than that of fish allergy. Shellfish allergy is the leading cause of food allergy in U.S adults.[31] As of 2018 six allergens have been identified to prawn alone; along with crab, it is the major culprit of seafood anaphylaxis.[13] In reference to it as one of the "Big 8"[52] or "major 14" allergens it is sometimes specified as a "crustacean shellfish" allergy, or more simply, a "crustacean allergy".[53][54] Sometimes it is conflated with an allergy to molluscan shellfish but complete tolerance to one but not the other is not uncommon. Most usually, a mono-sensitive individual will experience a crustacean allergy alone with tolerance to mollusks, rather than vice versa.[13] The symptoms of an allergic reaction to molluscan shellfish should not be confused with the effects of shellfish poisoning which are a medical reactions that manifest after eating contaminated mollusks from certain areas of the world and lasts for several hours or days after onset.[55]
Soy Anaphylaxis, asthma exacerbation, rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, hives, atopic dermatitis, swelling of, or under the dermis, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting Overall is lower in prevalence than both peanut allergy and cow's milk allergy. However, due to similar protein structures soya is a common cross-reactive allergen in both peanut-allergic individuals and milk-allergic individuals; especially infants.[56]
Sulfites Hives, rash, redness of skin, headache (particular frontal), burning behind eyes, asthma-like breathing difficulties, anaphylaxis Sulfites (also spelled "sulphites") are used as a preserving agents in many different foods, such as raisins, dried peaches, various other dried fruit, canned or frozen fruits and vegetables, wines, vinegars and processed meats. Allergy appears to be very rare in the general population but it is still often considered to be one of the top 10 food allergies.[57] It is debated whether reaction to sulfites is a true allergy.[58]
Tartrazine Skin irritation, hives, rash A synthetic food dye used in processed foods like confections, soft drinks, flavoring syrups, condiments and convenience foods in order to create a potent yellow or bright green coloring. Prevalence of allergenicity is unclear but it is the most likely azo dye to cause hypersensitivity and reactions may occur from ingestion or skin contact. It is possible for some individuals to become desensitized. There is no strong evidence suggesting that tartrazine can cause hypersensitivity or intolerance in non-allergic individuals.
Tree nut[59] Anaphylaxis, swelling, rash, hives, sometimes vomiting Hazard extends to exposure to cooking vapors, or handling. Distinct from peanut allergy, as peanuts are legumes.
Wheat[60] Eczema (atopic dermatitis), Hives, asthma, "baker’s asthma", hay fever, oral allergy syndrome, angioedema, abdominal cramps, Celiac disease, diarrhea, temporary (3 or 4 day) mental incompetence, anemia, nausea, vomiting and exercise induced anaphylaxis [61] Risk extends to wheat hybrids like triticale.[57] True wheat allergies are very rare; it is estimated to effect 0.1%-2.2% of individuals depending on region.[62] The allergy does not commonly persist into adolescence. Gluten-free foods are safer for wheat allergic patients but they still may theoretically contain wheat's other allergenic proteins.[63] Wheat allergy symptoms should not to be confused with celiac disease, gluten ataxia or non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). While wheat allergies are "true" allergies, celiac disease and gluten ataxia are an autoimmune diseases.[64] NCGS is more similar to food intolerances but as of 2021 its pathogenesis is still not well understood.

Medical[edit]

Name Possible reaction(s) Remarks
Balsam of Peru Redness, swelling, itching, allergic contact dermatitis reactions, stomatitis (inflammation and soreness of the mouth or tongue), cheilitis (inflammation, rash, or painful erosion of the lips, oropharyngeal mucosa, or angles of their mouth), pruritus, hand eczema, generalized or resistant plantar dermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and blisters. Present in many drugs, such as hemorrhoid suppositories and ointment (e.g. Anusol), cough medicine/suppressant and lozenges, diaper rash ointments, oral and lip ointments, tincture of benzoin, wound spray (it has been reported to inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well as the common ulcer-causing bacteria H. pylori in test-tube studies), calamine lotion, surgical dressings, dental cement, eugenol used by dentists, some periodontal impression materials, and in the treatment of dry socket in dentistry.
Tetracycline Many, including: severe headache, dizziness, blurred vision, fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms, severe blistering, peeling, dark colored urine[65][66][67]
Dilantin Many, including: swollen glands, easy bruising or bleeding, fever, sore throat[68][69][70]
Tegretol (carbamazepine) Shortness of breath, wheezing or difficulty breathing, swelling of the face, lips, tongue etc., hives[71][72][73]
Penicillin Diarrhea, hypersensitivity, nausea, rash, neurotoxicity, urticaria
Cephalosporins Maculopapular or morbilliform skin eruption, and less commonly urticaria, eosinophilia, serum-sickness–like reactions, and anaphylaxis.[74]
Sulfonamides Urinary tract disorders, haemopoietic disorders, porphyria and hypersensitivity reactions, Stevens–Johnson syndrome toxic epidermal necrolysis
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (cromolyn sodium, nedocromil sodium, etc.) Many, including: swollen eyes, lips, or tongue, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate[75]
Intravenous contrast dye Anaphylactoid reactions and contrast-induced nephropathy
Local anesthetics Urticaria and rash, dyspnea, wheezing, flushing, cyanosis, tachycardia[76]

Environmental[edit]

Name Possible reaction(s) Remarks
Balsam of Peru Redness, swelling, itching, allergic contact dermatitis reactions, stomatitis (inflammation and soreness of the mouth or tongue), cheilitis (inflammation, rash, or painful erosion of the lips, oropharyngeal mucosa, or angles of their mouth), pruritus, hand eczema, generalized or resistant plantar dermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and blisters. A number of national and international surveys have identified Balsam of Peru as being in the "top five" allergens most commonly causing patch test reactions in people referred to dermatology clinics.[77][78]
Pollen Sneezing, body ache, headache (in rare cases, extremely painful cluster headaches may occur due to allergic sinusitis; these may leave a temporary time period of 1 and a half to 2 days with eye sensitivity), allergic conjunctivitis (includes watery, red, swelled, itchy, and irritating eyes), runny nose, irritation of the nose, nasal congestion, minor fatigue, chest pain and discomfort, coughing, sore throat, facial discomfort (feeling of stuffed face) due to allergic sinusitis, possible asthma attack, wheezing
Cat Sneezing, itchy swollen eyes, rash, congestion, wheezing
Dog Rash, sneezing, congestion, wheezing, vomiting from coughing, Sometimes itchy welts. Caused by dander, saliva or urine of dogs, or by dust, pollen or other allergens that have been carried on the fur.[79] Allergy to dogs is present in as much as 10 percent of the population.[79]
Insect sting Hives, wheezing, possible anaphylaxis Possible from bee or wasp stings, or bites from mosquitoes or flies like Leptoconops torrens.
Mold Sneeze, coughing, itchy, discharge from the nose, respiratory irritation, congested feeling,[80] joint aches, headaches, fatigue[81]
Perfume Itchy eyes, runny nose, sore throat, headaches, muscle/joint pain, asthma attack, wheezing, chest pain, blisters
Cosmetics Contact dermatitis,[82] irritant contact dermatitis, inflammation, redness,[83] conjunctivitis,[84] sneezing
Semen Burning, pain and swelling, possibly for days, swelling or blisters, vaginal redness,[85] fever, runny nose, extreme fatigue[86][87][88][89][90] In a case study in Switzerland, a woman who was allergic to Balsam of Peru was allergic to her boyfriend's semen following intercourse, after he drank large amounts of Coca-Cola.[91]
Latex Contact dermatitis, hypersensitivity
Water (see note) Epidermal itching Strictly aquagenic pruritus or aquagenic urticaria, but cold water may also cause cold urticaria
Cold stimuli Hives, itching Known as cold urticaria
House dust mite[92] Asthma Home allergen reduction may be recommended
Nickel (nickel sulfate hexahydrate) Allergic contact dermatitis, dyshidrotic eczema[93][94]
Gold (gold sodium thiosulfate) Allergic contact dermatitis
Chromium Allergic contact dermatitis
Cobalt chloride Allergic contact dermatitis
Formaldehyde Allergic contact dermatitis
Photographic developers Allergic contact dermatitis
Fungicide Allergic contact dermatitis, fever, anaphylaxis

Contact[edit]

Many substances can cause an allergic reaction when in contact with the human integumentary system.

Contact allergens
Allergen Source Cross reacts with Clinical presentation
Dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA) Found within cocamidopropyl betaine in liquid soaps and shampoos Eyelid dermatitis
Latex[nb 1] Avocado
Banana
Chestnut
Kiwi
Passion fruit
Peach
Mango
Pineapple
Fig
Cantaloupe
Apple
Papaya
Ethylene-ripened fruits
Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) Black hair dye
Color developer
Scuba gear
Henna[nb 2]
Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA)
Azo dyes
Sulfonamides
Sulfonylureas
Thiazides
Ester anesthetics
Glyceryl monothioglycolate Permanent hair waving solutions
Toluenesulfonamide formaldehyde (Toluidine) Nail polish Eyelid dermatitis
  1. ^ Risk factors for reaction to latex include spina bifida, family history of allergy to latex, or a personal history of allergies, asthma, or eczema
  2. ^ Paraphenylenediamine may be added to henna but is not found in pure henna.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]