List of longest-living organisms
This is a list of the longest-living organisms; that is, the individuals (in some instances, clones) of a species. This may be, for a given species:
- Oldest known individuals that are currently living
- Record holders, such as the most long-lived human, Jeanne Calment, or the most long-lived domestic cat, Creme Puff.
Ordinarily, this does not consider the age of the species itself, comparing species by the range of age-span of their individuals, or the time between first appearance (speciation) and extinction of the species.
If the mortality rate of a species does not increase after maturity, the species does not age and is said to be biologically immortal. Many examples exist of plants and animals for which the mortality rate actually decreases with age, for all or part of the lifecycle.
If the mortality rate remains constant, the rate determines the mean lifespan. The lifespan can be long or short, though the species technically "does not age".
Other species have been observed to regress to a larval state and regrow into adults multiple times.
- The hydrozoan species Turritopsis dohrnii (formerly Turritopsis nutricula) is capable of cycling from a mature adult stage to an immature polyp stage and back again. This means no natural limit to its lifespan is known. However, no single specimen has been observed for any extended period, and estimating the age of a specimen is impossible.
- At least one hydrozoan (Laodicea undulata) and one scyphozoan (Aurelia sp.1) can also revert from medusa stage into polyp stage.
- The larvae of skin beetles undergo a degree of "reversed development" when starved, and later grow back to the previously attained level of maturity. The cycle can be repeated many times.
Revived into activity after stasis
- Various claims have been made about reviving bacterial spores to active metabolism after millions of years. Claims have been made of spores from amber being revived after 40 million years, and spores from salt deposits in New Mexico being revived after 240 million years, the longest living organisms in history. In a related find, a scientist was able to coax 34,000-year-old salt-captured bacteria to reproduce. His results were duplicated at a separate independent laboratory facility.
- A seed from the previously extinct Judean date palm was revived and managed to sprout after nearly 2,000 years.
- Silene stenophylla was grown from fruit found in an ancient squirrel's cache. The germinated plants bore viable seeds. The fruit was dated to be 31,800 years old ± 300 years.
- In 1994, a seed from a sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), dated at roughly 1,300 years old ± 270 years, was successfully germinated.
- During the 1990s, Raul Cano, a microbiologist at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, revived yeast trapped in amber for 25 million years. Cano went on to found a brewery and crafted an "amber ale" with a 45-million-year-old variant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
- Around 1992, working among others with entomologist George Poinar, Cano sequenced the DNA of a fossil weevil trapped in amber; Poinar was the author of a 1982 paper on conservation of specimens in amber which influenced Michael Crichton to write his award-winning Jurassic Park.
Clonal plant and fungal colonies
As with all long-lived plant and fungal species, no individual part of a clonal colony is alive (in the sense of active metabolism) for more than a very small fraction of the life of the entire colony. Some clonal colonies may be fully connected via their root systems, while most are not actually interconnected, but are genetically identical clones which populated an area through vegetative reproduction. Ages for clonal colonies, often based on current growth rates, are estimates.
- Pando is a Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen) tree or clonal colony that has been estimated at 80,000 years old. Unlike many other clonal "colonies", the above-ground trunks remain connected to each other by a single massive subterranean root system.
- The Jurupa Oak colony is estimated to be at least 13,000 years old, with other estimates ranging from 5,000 to 30,000 years old.
- A huge colony of the sea grass Posidonia oceanica in the Mediterranean Sea is estimated to be between 12,000 and 200,000 years old. The maximum age is theoretical, as the region it occupies was above water at some point between 10,000 and 80,000 years ago.
- Lomatia tasmanica in Tasmania: the sole surviving clonal colony of this species is estimated to be at least 43,600 years old.
- Eucalyptus recurva: clones in Australia are claimed to be 13,000 years old.
- King Clone is a creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) in the Mojave Desert estimated at 11,700 years old. Another creosote bush has been said to be 12,150 years old, but this is as yet unconfirmed.
- A Huon pine colony on Mount Read, Tasmania, is estimated at 10,000 years old, with individual specimens living over 3,000 years.
- Old Tjikko, a Norway spruce in Sweden, is a tree on top of roots that have been carbon dated to 9,550 years old. The tree is part of a clonal colony that was established at the end of the last ice age. Discovered by Professor Leif Kullman, at Umeå University, the tree is located in the county of Dalarna in Sweden. Old Tjikko is small, only 5 m (16 ft) in height.
- A box huckleberry bush in Pennsylvania is thought to be around 13,000 years old.
- "Humongous Fungus", an individual of the fungal species Armillaria solidipes in the Malheur National Forest, is thought to be between 2,000 and 8,500 years old. It is thought to be the world's largest organism by area, at 2,384 acres (965 hectares).
Some endoliths have extremely long lives. In August 2013, researchers reported evidence of endoliths in the ocean floor, perhaps millions of years old, with a generation time of 10 millennia. These are slowly metabolizing, not in a dormant state.
Individual plant specimens
- A Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) is measured by ring count to be 5067 years old. This is the oldest known tree in North America, and the oldest known living individual nonclonal tree in the world.
- The Cypress of Abarkuh is estimated to be between 4000 to 5000 years and is likely the second-oldest living being in Asia (or the oldest according to Russian scientist Alexander Rouf).
- Llangernyw Yew may be the oldest individual tree in Europe and second- or third-oldest individual tree in the world. Believed to be aged between 4,000 years and 5,000 years old, this ancient yew (Taxus baccata) is in the churchyard of the village of Llangernyw in North Wales.
- Fortingall Yew, an ancient yew (Taxus baccata) in the churchyard of the village of Fortingall in Perthshire, Scotland, is one of the oldest known individual trees in Europe. Various estimates have put its age between 2,000 and 5,000 years, although now believed to be at the lower end of this range.
- Fitzroya cupressoides is the species with the second-oldest verified age, a specimen in Chile being measured by ring count as 3,622 years old.
- The President, located in Sequoia National Park, California, is the oldest known living giant sequoia at approximately 3,200 years of age.
- A sacred fig (Ficus religiosa), the Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, is 2,300 years old (planted in 288 BC). It is the oldest known living to date human-planted tree in the world.
- A specimen of Lagarostrobos franklinii in Tasmania is thought to be about 2,000 years old.
- Numerous olive trees are purported to be 2,000 years old or older. An olive tree in Ano Vouves, Crete, claiming such longevity, has been confirmed on the basis of tree ring analysis.
- Jōmon Sugi, the cryptomeria naturally grown in Yakushima Island, Kagoshima, Japan, is 2,170 to 7,200 years old.
- Great sugi of Kayano, the cryptomeria deemed planted by humans in Kaga, Ishikawa, Japan, had an estimated age of 2,300 years in 1928.
- Welwitschia is a monotypic genus of gymnosperm plant, composed solely of the distinct Welwitschia mirabilis. The plant is considered a living fossil. Radiocarbon dating has confirmed many individuals have lived longer than 1,000 years, and some are suspected to be older than 2,000 years.
- Yareta is a tiny flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to South America, occurring in the Puna grasslands of the Andes in Peru, Bolivia, the north of Chile, and the west of Argentina between 3,200 and 4,500 m altitude. Some yaretas could be up to 3,000 years old.
- Jeanne Calment lived to the age of 122 years, 164 days, becoming the oldest recorded human who ever lived. She died on August 4, 1997.
- The longest-living person who is still living and known is Nabi Tajima. (born 4 August 1900).
These are single examples; for a broader view, see Life expectancy (includes humans).
Other terrestrial and pagophilic animals
- Adwaita, an Aldabra giant tortoise, died at an estimated age of 255 in March 2006 in Alipore Zoo, Kolkata, India. If verified, it will have been the oldest terrestrial animal in the world.
- Tu'i Malila, a radiated tortoise, died at an age of 188 years in May 1965, at the time the oldest verified vertebrate.
- Jonathan, a Seychelles giant tortoise living on the island of Saint Helena, is reported to be about 186 years old, and may, therefore, be the oldest currently living terrestrial animal if the claim is true.
- Harriet, a Galápagos tortoise, died at the age of 175 years in June 2006.
- Timothy, a spur-thighed tortoise, born in Turkey died at an age of 165 years in 3 April 2004 in the UK.
- Nonja, a Sumatran orangutan, died at the age of 55 years in December 2007. She was claimed to be the oldest-living orangutan of her species.
- The tuatara, a lizard-like reptile native to New Zealand, can live well above 100 years. Henry, a tuatara at the Southland Museum in New Zealand, mated for the first time at the estimated age of 111 years in 2009 with an 80-year-old female and fathered 11 baby tuatara.
- Muja, an American alligator from Belgrade Zoo, is considered to be the oldest alligator in the world. Muja is more than 80 years old.
- A female blue-and-yellow macaw named Charlie was reportedly hatched in 1899, which would make her 117 years old, as of 2016. Her age has not been independently confirmed and the claim may not be reliable. She is claimed to have formerly belonged to Winston Churchill, but Churchill's daughter denies the claim.
- Lin Wang, an Asian elephant, was the oldest elephant in the Taipei Zoo. He was born in January 18, 1917, and died in February 26, 2003, at 86 years, surpassing the previous record of 84. Normally, elephants live up to 50 years, while their maximum lifespan is generally estimated at 70.
- A greater flamingo named Greater died at Adelaide Zoo in January 2014 at the age of at least 83.
- Thaao, an Andean condor, died at the age of 80.
- Cookie, (hatched June 30, 1933) an Australian-born Major Mitchell's cockatoo resident at Brookfield Zoo, Illinois, was the oldest member of his species in captivity, and died in August 2016 at a verified age of 83.
- A female Laysan albatross named Wisdom successfully laid an egg at Midway Atoll in December 2016, at the age of 66. As of 2017, she is the oldest known wild bird in the world.
- The oldest living horse on record was named Ol' Billy. Bill was allegedly born in the year 1760 in London, England. Bill died in 1822 at the age of 62 years. Henry Harrison, an occupant of London during the time, had also allegedly known Ol' Billy for 59 years until Bill's death.
- Creme Puff, a cat owned by Jake Perry of Austin, Texas, was born August 3, 1967, and died three days after her 38th birthday on August 6, 2005.
- The oldest bear on record was Andreas, a European brown bear, living in the ARCTUROS bear sanctuary in northern Greece. He was at least 50 years old at the time of his death.
- Debby, the polar bear, an inhabitant of the Assiniboine Park Zoo in Winnipeg, Canada, was the oldest polar bear and third-oldest bear species on record when she died in 2008, at the age of 42 years.
- A wild-born black rhino named Elly was the oldest in North America at an estimated 45 years of age, and resided in California's San Francisco Zoo from April 1974 until passing in May 2017.
- Yoda was named as the oldest mouse in 2004 at age 4.
- The oldest bat recorded, a Brandt's bat, is at least 41 years old.
- Glass sponges found in the East China Sea and Southern Ocean have been found over 10,000 years old.
- Specimens of the black coral genus Leiopathes, such as Leiopathes glaberrima, are among the oldest continuously living organisms on the planet: around 4,265 years old.
- The giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta is one of the longest-lived animals, with the largest specimens in the Caribbean estimated to be in excess of 2,300 years old.
- The black coral Antipatharia in the Gulf of Mexico may live more than 2,000 years.
- The Antarctic sponge Cinachyra antarctica has an extremely slow growth rate in the low temperatures of the Southern Ocean. One specimen has been estimated to be 1,550 years old.
- A specimen, "Ming" of the Icelandic cyprine Arctica islandica (also known as an ocean quahog), a mollusk, was found to have lived 507 years. Another specimen had a recorded lifespan of 374 years.
- Many sub-families of the Oreosomatidae, including the Allocyttus, Neocyttus, and Pseudocyttus (collectively referred to as the Oreos) have been reported to live up to 170 years, based on otolith-increment estimates and radiometric dating 
- Greenland shark had been estimated to live to about 200 years, but a study published in 2016 found that a 5.02 m (16.5 ft) specimen was 392 ± 120 years old, resulting in a minimum age of 272 and a maximum of 512. That makes the Greenland shark the longest-lived vertebrate.
- Some koi fish have reportedly lived more than 200 years, the oldest being Hanako, which died at an age of 226 years on July 7, 1977.
- Rougheye rockfish – 205 years old.
- Orange roughy, also known as deep sea perch, can live up to 149 years.
- Some confirmed sources estimate bowhead whales to have lived at least to 211 years of age, making them the oldest mammals.
- The maximum life-span of the freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) may be 210–250 years.
- Specimens of the Red Sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, have been found to be over 200 years old.
- The deepsea hydrocarbon seep tubeworm Lamellibrachia luymesi (Annelida, Polychaeta) lives for more than 170 years.
- Tardigrades, capable of cryptobiosis, have been shown to survive nearly 120 years in a dry state.
- Geoduck, a species of saltwater clam native to the Puget Sound, have been known to live more than 160 years.
- George the lobster was estimated to be about 140 years old by PETA in January 2009.
- In 2012, a sturgeon was caught in a Wisconsin river that was estimated to be 125 years old.
- A killer whale of the "Southern Resident Community" identified as J2 or Granny was estimated by some researchers to have been approximately 105 years old at her death in 2017; however, other dating methods estimated her age as 65–80.
- A Swedish man claimed that a European eel named Ale was 155 years old when it died in 2014. If correct, it would have been the world's oldest, having been hatched in 1859.
- Ainsworth, C; Lepage, M (2007). "Evolution's greatest mistakes". New Scientist. 195 (2616): 36–39. doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(07)62033-8.
- Martínez, Daniel E. (1998). "Mortality patterns suggest lack of senescence in Hydra". Experimental Gerontology. Elsevier Science Inc. 33 (3): 217–225. doi:10.1016/S0531-5565(97)00113-7. PMID 9615920.
- Gilbert, Scott F. (2010). "The Immortal Life Cycle of Turritopsis". Developmental Biology (9th ed.). Sinauer Associates. ISBN 978-0-878-93384-6. Archived from the original on 2013-06-10.
- De Vito; et al. (2006). "Evidence of reverse development in Leptomedusae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa): the case of Laodicea undulata (Forbes and Goodsir 1851)". Marine Biology. 149 (2): 339–346. doi:10.1007/s00227-005-0182-3. Retrieved 2015-12-31.
- He; et al. (2015-12-21). "Life Cycle Reversal in Aurelia sp.1 (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)". PLoS ONE. 10 (12): e0145314. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0145314. PMC . PMID 26690755. Retrieved 2015-12-31.
- Beck, SD; Bharadwaj, RK (1972). "Reversed development and cellular aging in an insect". Science. 178 (4066): 1210–1211. Bibcode:1972Sci...178.1210B. doi:10.1126/science.178.4066.1210. PMID 4637808.
- Cano, RJ; Borucki, MK (19 May 1995). "Revival and identification of bacterial spores in 25- to 40-million-year-old Dominican amber". Science. 268 (5213): 1060–1064. Bibcode:1995Sci...268.1060C. doi:10.1126/science.7538699. PMID 7538699.
- "Oldest Living Thing". Extremescience.com. Retrieved 2010-03-17.
- "The Permian Bacterium that Isn't". Oxford Journals. 2001-02-15. Retrieved 2010-11-16.
- "34,000 Year Old Organisms Found Buried Alive!". Yahoo News. January 13, 2011. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
- Erlanger, Steven (June 12, 2005). "After 2,000 years, a seed from ancient Judea sprouts". The New York Times.
- Yashina, S.; Gubin, S.; Maksimovich, S.; Yashina, A.; Gakhova, E.; Gilichinsky, D. (2012). "Regeneration of whole fertile plants from 30,000-y-old fruit tissue buried in Siberian permafrost". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (10): 4008–13. doi:10.1073/pnas.1118386109. PMC . PMID 22355102.
- Shen-Miller; Mudgett, M. B.; William Schopf, J.; Clarke, S.; Berger, R. (1995). "Exceptional seed longevity and robust growth: Ancient sacred lotus from China". American Journal of Botany. 82 (11): 1367–1380. doi:10.2307/2445863. JSTOR 2445863.
- Shen-Miller; et al. (2002). "Long-living lotus: germination and soil gamma-irradiation of centuries-old fruits, and cultivation, growth, and phenotypic abnormalities of offspring". American Journal of Botany. Retrieved 2010-02-03.
Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) has been cultivated as a crop in Asia for thousands of years. A [roughly 1300-year-old] lotus fruit, recovered from an originally cultivated but now dry lakebed in northeastern China, is the oldest germinated and directly 14C-dated fruit known. In 1996, we traveled to the dry lake at Xipaozi Village, China, the source of the old viable fruits.
- Nick Wilson (January 18, 2011). "Poly professor brews beer with 45-million-year-old yeast". Retrieved November 16, 2015.
- Erin Biba (July 20, 2009). "Amber Ale: Brewing Beer From 45-Million-Year-Old Yeast". Retrieved November 16, 2015.
- Cano, R.; Poinar, H.; Pieniazek, N.; Acra, A.; Poinar, G. (1993). "Amplification and sequencing of DNA from a 120–135-million-year-old weevil". Nature. Nature. 363. doi:10.1038/363536a0. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
- Poinar, G.; Hess, R. (1982). "Ultrastructure of 40-Million-Year-Old Insect Tissue". Science. Science. 215: 1241–1242. doi:10.1126/science.215.4537.1241. PMID 17757541. Retrieved November 16, 2015.
- Nathan Gilles. "The Amber Sarcophagus". Retrieved November 16, 2015.
- Gymnosperm Database (2 January 2007). "How Old Is That Tree?". Retrieved 2006-07-25.
- "Quaking Aspen". Bryce Canyon. National Park Service.
- Michael Reilly (December 23, 2009). "Ancient tree (almost) older than dirt". Discovery News. Retrieved Jan 15, 2015.
- Ibiza Spotlight (28 May 2006). "Ibiza's Monster Marine Plant". Archived from the original on 2006-08-27. Retrieved 2007-05-09.
- Pearlman, Jonathan (2012-02-07). "'Oldest living thing on earth' discovered". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Duarte, Carlos M.; Diaz-Almela, Elena; Marbà, Núria; Sintes, Tomas; Serrão, Ester A. (February 1, 2012). Bruun, Hans Henrik, ed. "Implications of Extreme Life Span in Clonal Organisms: Millenary Clones in Meadows of the Threatened Seagrass Posidonia oceanica". PLoS ONE. Public Library of Science. 7 (2): e30454. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...730454A. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030454. PMC . PMID 22312426.
- Discovery Channel (21 October 1996). "Tasmanian bush could be oldest living organism". Archived from the original on July 23, 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-25.
- "Oldest Living Organism: Ancient Bacteria". Extreme Science. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
- "Plant Hall of Fame". Fact Monster. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
- "Native Conifers of Tasmania". Paks and Wildlife Service, Tasmania. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- "Press release from Umeå University". Info.umu.se. Retrieved 2010-03-17.
- "Swedish spruce may be world's oldest living tree". Reuters. April 11, 2008.
- "Oldest Living Tree Found in Sweden". News.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 2010-03-17.
- "World's oldest living tree discovered in Sweden". Swedish Research Council. 16 April 2008.
- McMillen, Nathan D. (Fall 2010). "Pennsylvania's Oldest Citizen". Archived from the original on November 22, 2017.
- "Humongous Fungus A New Kind Of Individual". Science Daily. March 25, 2003.
- "Strange but True: The Largest Organism on Earth Is a Fungus". Scientific American. October 4, 2007.
- Bob Yirka Aug 29, 2013
- Quammen, David (December 2012). "Forest Giant". National Geographic. Archived from the original on June 27, 2017. Retrieved 2017-11-21.
- Shanika SRIYANANDA (2011-07-03). "Caring for the Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi ". Archived from the original on 2013-04-13. Retrieved 2012-01-24.
- "The Coming of the Bodhi Tree to Lanka".
- "Botanical Record Breakers: Amazing Trivia About Plants". Waynesword.palomar.edu. Archived from the original on 2010-12-19. Retrieved 2010-03-17.
- Rackham, Oliver; Moody, J (1996). The Making of the Cretan Landscape.
- Riley, FR (2002). "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties, Processing methods, and Storage life of Minoan olive oil". Oxford Journal of Archaeology. 21 (1): 63–75. doi:10.1111/1468-0092.00149.
- Ralph, Carol Pearson (March 1978). "Observations on Azorella compacta (Umbelliferae), a Tropical Andean Cushion Plant". Biotropica. 10 (1): 62–67. doi:10.2307/2388107. JSTOR 2388107. (subscription required)
- The Guinness Book of Records, 1999 edition, p. 102, ISBN 0-85112-070-9.
- "GRG World Supercentenarian Rankings List". Validated Living. .
- BBC News – South Asia (2006-03-23). "'Clive of India's' tortoise dies". BBC News. BBC Online. Retrieved 2014-01-23.
- "Week In Science: 6/23 – 6/29". Seed.
- "Meet Jonathan, St Helena's 182-year-old giant tortoise". BBC News. 13 March 2014.
- "Harriet the Tortoise dies at 175". BBC News. 23 June 2006.
- "Timmy the tortoise dies aged 160". BBC News. April 7, 2004. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
- "'World's oldest' orang-utan dies". bbc.co.uk. BBC News. 2002-12-31. Retrieved 2012-03-18.
- Bai, Nina (January 26, 2009). "111-Year-Old Reptile Becomes a Dad After Tumor Surgery". Discover. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
- "Elderly alligator recovers after life-saving surgery". February 24, 2012. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
- Blic:Najstariji aligator na svetu živi u Beogradu
- "Winston's obscene parrot lives on". BBC News. January 19, 2004. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
- "Greater, the 83-year-old Adelaide Zoo flamingo, dies". The Australian. 31 January 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Burgeson, John (January 26, 2010). "Beardsley Zoo's Andean condor, world's oldest, dead at 80". The Connecticut Post. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
- "Cookie the Cockatoo at Brookfield Zoo dies". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
- Fears, Darryl. "Wisdom the albatross, the oldest known wild bird, just laid an egg at age 66". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 3 Feb 2017.
- Meier, Allison (4 March 2013). "Morbid Monday: The Split Head of Old Billy, the World's Oldest Horse". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
- Guinness World Records 2010. Bantam; Reprint edition. 2010. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-553-59337-2.
The oldest cat ever was Creme Puff, who was born on August 3, 1967 and lived until August 6, 2005—38 years and 3 days in total.
- Tributes pour in after oldest polar bear dies in Winnipeg from CBC.ca; published November 18, 2008; retrieved September 27, 2014
- "Oldest black rhinoceros in North America turns 45", by Janie Har, Associated Press
- "World's oldest mouse reaches milestone birthday". www.ur.umich.edu. Retrieved 2016-11-02.
- Locke, Robert (2006). "Longest-lived mammals offer clues to better aging in humans". BATS Magazine. Austin, TX: Bat Conservation International. Retrieved April 10, 2017.
- "Glass sponge as a living climate archive". PhysOrg. April 5, 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
- "AnAge entry for Scolymastra joubini". Human Ageing Genomic Resources. AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
- Robert Lloyd (March 16, 2012). "Television review: 'Frozen Planet' on Discovery Channel". Los Angeles Times.
- Graczyk, Michael (2009-03-25). "Scientists ID living coral as 4,265 years old". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2009-04-01.
- McMurray, SE; Blum, JE; Pawlik, JR (2008). "Redwood of the reef : growth and age of the giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta in the Florida Keys". Marine Biology. 155 (2): 159–171. doi:10.1007/s00227-008-1014-z.
- "2,000 Year-old Deep-sea Black Corals call Gulf of Mexico Home". U.S. Geological Survey. March 30, 2011. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
- "AnAge entry for Cinachyra antarctica". Genomics.senescence.info. Retrieved 2010-03-17.
- Butler, Paul; AD Wanamaker; JD Scourse; CA Richardson; DJ Reynolds (2012). "Variability of marine climate on the North Icelandic Shelf in a 1357-year proxy archive based on growth increments in the bivalve Arctica islandica". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 373: 141–151. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2012.01.016.
- Schöne; Fiebig, J; Pfeiffer, M; Gleb, R; Hickson, J; Johnson, A; Dreyer, W; Oschmann, W (2005). "Climate records from a bivalved Methuselah". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 228 (1–2): 130–148. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2005.03.049.
- "Allocyttus verrucosus". The Moirai – Aging Research. 2016-09-11. Retrieved 2016-11-20.
- "Pseudocyttus maculatus". The Moirai – Aging Research. 2016-10-05. Retrieved 2016-11-20.
- "Neocyttus rhomboidalis". The Moirai – Aging Research. 2016-10-03. Retrieved 2016-11-20.
- Pennisi, Elizabeth (11 August 2016). "Greenland shark may live 400 years, smashing longevity record". Science. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
- Nielsen, Julius; Hedeholm, Rasmus B.; Heinemeier, Jan; Bushnell, Peter G.; Christiansen, Jørgen S.; Olsen, Jesper; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Brill, Richard W.; Simon, Malene (2016-08-12). "Eye lens radiocarbon reveals centuries of longevity in the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus)". Science. 353 (6300): 702–704. doi:10.1126/science.aaf1703. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 27516602.
- Varandani, Suman (14 December 2017). "512-Year-Old Shark, Believed To Be Oldest Living Verbrate, Found In North Atlantic". International Business Times. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
- Koshihara, Komei (1966). "The Story of Hanako". NHK. Archived from the original on August 8, 2007.
- Barton, Laura (2007-04-12). "Laura Barton on the lifespan of pets". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
- Cailliet, G.M., Andrews, A.H., Burton, E.J., Watters, D.L., Kline, D.E., Ferry-Graham, L.A. (2001). Age determination and validation studies of marine fishes: do deep-dwellers live longer?. Exp. Gerontol. 36 (4–6): 739–764. doi:10.1016/S0531-5565(00)00239-4. PMID 11295512.
- Fenton, G.E; Short, S.A.; Ritz, D.A. (June 1991). "Age determination of orange roughy, Hoplostethus atlanticus (Pisces: Trachichthyidae) using 210 Pb: 226 Ra disequilibria". Marine Biology. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer. 109 (2): 197–202. doi:10.1007/BF01319387. ISSN 0025-3162. Retrieved 2010-06-18.
- Alaska Science Forum (15 February 2001). "Bowhead Whales May Be the World's Oldest Mammals". Retrieved 2006-07-25.
- Ziuganov, V., San Miguel, E., Neves, R.J., Longa, A., Fernandez, C., Amaro, R., Beletsky, V., Popkovitch, E., Kaliuzhin, S., Johnson, T. (2000). "Life span variation of the freshwater pearlshell: a model species for testing longevity mechanisms in animals". Ambio. ХХIX (2): 102–105. doi:10.1579/0044-7447-29.2.102.
- Зюганов В.В. (2004). "Арктические долгоживущие и южные короткоживущие моллюски жемчужницы как модель для изучения основ долголетия". Успехи геронтол. 14: 21–31.
- Helama S.; Valovirta I. (2008). "The oldest recorded animal in Finland: ontogenetic age and growth in Margaritifera margaritifera (L. 1758) based on internal shell increments" (PDF). Memoranda Soc. Fauna Flora Fennica. 84: 20–30.
- Ebert, TA; Southon, JR (2003). "Red sea urchins can live over 100 years: confirmation with A-bomb 14carbon — Strongylocentrotus franciscanus". Fishery Bulletin. 101 (4): 915–922.
- Sharmishtha, D.; Miles, L. L.; Barnabei, M.S.; Fisher, C. R. (2006). "The hydrocarbon seep tubeworm Lamellibrachia luymesi primarily eliminates sulfate and hydrogen ions across its roots to conserve energy and ensure sulfide supply". Journal of Experimental Biology. 209: 3795–3805.
- Guidetti, R. & Jönsson, K.I. (2002). "Long-term anhydrobiotic survival in semi-terrestrial micrometazoans". Journal of Zoology. 257 (2): 181–187. doi:10.1017/S095283690200078X.
- "Geoduck". BC Seafood Online. Archived from the original on September 17, 2011.
- MacDonald, Colin (August 21, 2004). "Cashing in on geoducks – once chowder fodder, the giant clam can fetch up to $24 a pop". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Archived from the original on 2004-10-11. (subscription required)
- "George the giant lobster liberated from restaurant". CNN. January 10, 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
- "Wisconsin DNR catches and tags record 125-year-old sturgeon that's bigger than linebacker". Star Tribune. April 12, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
- TEGNA. "Oldest Southern Resident killer whale considered dead". KING. Retrieved 2017-01-03.
- Podt, Annemieke. "Orca Granny: was she really 105?". Retrieved September 11, 2017.
- David Harding (9 August 2014). "World's oldest eel dies aged 155, Sweden mourns". The New York Daily News. Retrieved 1 April 2015.