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Member state of the European Union

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Member state of the European Union
Map (clickable)FinlandSwedenEstoniaLatviaLithuaniaPolandSlovakiaHungaryRomaniaBulgariaGreeceCyprusCzech RepublicAustriaSloveniaItalyMaltaPortugalSpainFranceGermanyLuxembourgBelgiumNetherlandsDenmarkRepublic of Ireland
Map (clickable)
CategoryMember state
LocationEuropean Union
Number27 (as of 2024)
Possible types
  • Republics (21)
  • Monarchies (6)
PopulationsSmallest: Malta, 542,051
Largest: Germany, 84,358,845[1]
AreasSmallest: Malta, 316 km2 (122 sq mi)
Largest: France, 638,475 km2 (246,517 sq mi)[2]

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 27 member states that are party to the EU's founding treaties, and thereby subject to the privileges and obligations of membership. They have agreed by the treaties to share their own sovereignty through the institutions of the European Union in certain aspects of government. State governments must agree unanimously in the Council for the union to adopt some policies; for others, collective decisions are made by qualified majority voting. These obligations and sharing of sovereignty within the EU (sometimes referred to as supranational) make it unique among international organisations, as it has established its own legal order which by the provisions of the founding treaties is both legally binding and supreme on all the member states (after a landmark ruling of the ECJ in 1964). A founding principle of the union is subsidiarity, meaning that decisions are taken collectively if and only if they cannot realistically be taken individually.

Each member country appoints to the European Commission a European commissioner. The commissioners do not represent their member state, but instead work collectively in the interests of all the member states within the EU.

In the 1950s, six core states founded the EU's predecessor European Communities (Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany). The remaining states have acceded in subsequent enlargements. To accede, a state must fulfil the economic and political requirements known as the Copenhagen criteria, which require a candidate to have a democratic government and free-market economy together with the corresponding freedoms and institutions, and respect for the rule of law. Enlargement of the Union is also contingent upon the consent of all existing members and the candidate's adoption of the existing body of EU law, known as the acquis communautaire.

The United Kingdom, which had acceded to the EU's predecessor in 1973, ceased to be an EU member state on 31 January 2020, in a political process known as Brexit. No other member state has withdrawn from the EU and none has been suspended, although some dependent territories or semi-autonomous areas have left.


  1. ^ De facto (though not de jure) excludes the disputed territory of Turkish Cyprus and the U.N. buffer zone. See: Cyprus dispute.
  2. ^ The Turkish language is not an official language of the European Union.
  3. ^ Officially recognised minority languages:
  4. ^ Excludes the autonomous regions of Greenland, which left the then-EEC in 1985, and the Faroe Islands.
  5. ^ Includes Åland, an autonomous region of Finland.
  6. ^ Includes the overseas regions of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, Réunion, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Pierre and Miquelon and the overseas collectivity of Saint Martin. Excludes the overseas collectivities of French Polynesia and Wallis and Futuna; the special collectivity of New Caledonia; Clipperton Island; and the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.
  7. ^ On 3 October 1990, the territory of the former German Democratic Republic acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany to form present-day Germany, automatically becoming part of the EU.
  8. ^ While Luxembourgish is the national language, it is not an official language of the European Union.
  9. ^ Excludes the three special municipalities of the Netherlands (Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba). Also excludes the three other constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten).
  10. ^ Includes the autonomous regions of the Azores and Madeira.
  11. ^ Mirandese is an officially recognized minority language within Portugal, awarded an official right-of-use. It is not an official language of the European Union.
  12. ^ Includes the autonomous community of the Canary Islands; the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla; and the territories comprising the plazas de soberanía.
  13. ^ Basque, Catalan, Occitan and Galician are co-official languages with Spanish in their respective territories, allowing their use in EU institutions under limited circumstances.[12]

Former member states

List of European Union member states
Country ISO Accession Withdrawal Population[3] Area (km2) Largest city GDP
(US$ M)
per cap.
Currency Gini[6] HDI[7] Official
United Kingdom GB 1 January 1973 31 January 2020 67,791,400 242,495 London 3,158,938 56,471 sterling 36.6 0.929 English

Outermost regions


There are a number of overseas member state territories which are legally part of the EU, but have certain exemptions based on their remoteness; see Overseas Countries and Territories Association. These "outermost regions" have partial application of EU law and in some cases are outside of Schengen or the EU VAT area—however they are legally within the EU.[13] They all use the euro as their currency.

Territory Member State Location Area
Population Per capita GDP
EU VAT area Schengen Area
Azores Portugal Atlantic Ocean 2,333 237,900 66.7 Yes Yes
Canary Islands Spain Atlantic Ocean 7,447 1,715,700 93.7 No Yes
French Guiana France South America 84,000 161,100 50.5 No No
Guadeloupe France Caribbean 1,710 425,700 50.5 No No
Madeira Portugal Atlantic Ocean 795 244,800 94.9 Yes Yes
Saint-Martin France Caribbean 52 25,000 61.9 No No
Martinique France Caribbean 1,080 383,300 75.6 No No
Mayotte[14] France Indian Ocean 374 212,645 No No
Réunion France Indian Ocean 2,512 837,868 61.6 No No



Abbreviations have been used as a shorthand way of grouping countries by their date of accession.

  • EU15 includes the fifteen countries in the European Union from 1 January 1995 to 1 May 2004. The EU15 comprised Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and United Kingdom.[15] Eurostat still uses this expression.
  • EU19 includes the countries in the EU15 as well as the Central European member countries of the OECD: Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovak Republic.[16]
  • EU11 is used to refer to the Central, Southeastern Europe and Baltic European member states that joined in 2004, 2007 and 2013: in 2004 the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia; in 2007 Bulgaria, Romania; and in 2013 Croatia.[17][18]
  • EU27 means all the member states. It was originally used in this sense from 2007 until Croatia's accession in 2013, and during the Brexit negotiations from 2017 until the United Kingdom's withdrawal on 31 January 2020 it came to mean all members except the UK.
  • EU28 meant all the member states from the accession of Croatia in 2013 to the withdrawal of the United Kingdom in 2020.

Additionally, other abbreviations have been used to refer to countries which had limited access to the EU labour market.[19]

  • A8 is eight of the ten countries that joined the EU in 2004, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia.
  • A2 is the countries that joined the EU in 2007, Bulgaria and Romania.

Changes in membership



Member states of the European Union (dark blue) (1993–present). Pre-1993, the EU was known as the European Communities (sky blue). Animated in order of accession and secession.

According to the Copenhagen criteria, membership of the European Union is open to any European country that is a stable, free-market liberal democracy that respects the rule of law and human rights. Furthermore, it has to be willing to accept all the obligations of membership, such as adopting all previously agreed law (the 170,000 pages of acquis communautaire) and switching to the euro.[20] For a state to join the European Union, the prior approval of all current member states is required. In addition to enlargement by adding new countries, the EU can also expand by having territories of member states, which are outside the EU, integrate more closely (for example in respect to the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles) or by a territory of a member state which had previously seceded and then rejoined (see withdrawal below).



There is no provision to expel a member state, but TEU Article 7 provides for the suspension of certain rights. Introduced in the Treaty of Amsterdam, Article 7 outlines that if a member persistently breaches the EU's founding principles (liberty, democracy, human rights and so forth, outlined in TEU Article 2) then the European Council can vote to suspend any rights of membership, such as voting and representation. Identifying the breach requires unanimity (excluding the state concerned), but sanctions require only a qualified majority.[21]

The state in question would still be bound by the obligations treaties and the Council acting by majority may alter or lift such sanctions. The Treaty of Nice included a preventive mechanism whereby the council, acting by majority, may identify a potential breach and make recommendations to the state to rectify it before action is taken against it as outlined above.[21] However, the treaties do not provide any mechanism to expel a member state outright.[22]



Prior to the Lisbon Treaty there was no provision or procedure within any of the Treaties of the European Union for a member state to withdraw from the European Union or its predecessor organisations. The Lisbon Treaty changed this and included the first provision and procedure of a member state to leave the bloc. The procedure for a state to leave is outlined in TEU Article 50 which also makes clear that "Any Member State may decide to withdraw from the Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements". Although it calls for a negotiated withdrawal between the seceding state and the rest of the EU, if no agreement is reached two years after the seceding state notifying of its intention to leave, it would cease to be subject to the treaties anyway (thus ensuring a right to unilateral withdrawal).[22] There is no formal limit to how much time a member state can take between adopting a policy of withdrawal, and actually triggering Article 50.[citation needed]

In a referendum in June 2016, the United Kingdom voted to withdraw from the EU. The UK government triggered Article 50 on 29 March 2017.[23] After an extended period of negotiation and internal political debate the UK eventually withdrew from the EU on 31 January 2020.[24][25]

Prior to 2016, no member state had voted to withdraw. However, French Algeria, Greenland and Saint-Barthélemy did cease being part of the EU (or its predecessor) in 1962, 1985, and 2012, respectively, due to status changes. The situation of Greenland being outside the EU while still subject to an EU member state had been discussed as a template for the pro-EU regions of the UK remaining within the EU or its single market.[26]

Beyond the formal withdrawal of a member state, there are a number of independence movements such as Catalonia or Flanders which could result in a similar situation to Greenland. Were a territory of a member state to secede but wish to remain in the EU, some scholars claim it would need to reapply to join as if it were a new country applying from scratch.[27] However, other studies claim internal enlargement is legally viable if, in case of a member state dissolution or secession, the resulting states are all considered successor states.[28] There is also a European Citizens' Initiative that aims at guaranteeing the continuity of rights and obligations of the European citizens belonging to a new state arising from the democratic secession of a European Union member state.[29]


A 2011 'family photo' of the European Council, which comprises the heads of state or government of the member states, along with President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission

Each state has representation in the institutions of the European Union. Full membership gives the government of a member state a seat in the Council of the European Union and European Council. When decisions are not being taken by consensus, qualified majority voting (which requires majorities both of the number of states and of the population they represent, but a sufficient blocking minority can veto the proposal). The Presidency of the Council of the European Union rotates among each of the member states, allowing each state six months to help direct the agenda of the EU.[30][31]

Similarly, each state is assigned seats in Parliament according to their population (smaller countries receiving more seats per inhabitant than the larger ones). The members of the European Parliament have been elected by universal suffrage since 1979 (before that, they were seconded from national parliaments).[32][33]

The national governments appoint one member each to the European Commission, the European Court of Justice and the European Court of Auditors. Prospective Commissioners must be confirmed both by the President of the Commission and by the European Parliament; prospective justices must be confirmed by the existing members. Historically, larger member states were granted an extra Commissioner. However, as the body grew, this right has been removed and each state is represented equally. The six largest states are also granted an Advocates General in the Court of Justice. Finally, the Governing Council of the European Central Bank includes the governors of the national central banks (who may or may not be government appointed) of each euro area country.[34]

The larger states traditionally carry more weight in negotiations, however smaller states can be effective impartial mediators and citizens of smaller states are often appointed to sensitive top posts to avoid competition between the larger states. This, together with the disproportionate representation of the smaller states in terms of votes and seats in parliament, gives the smaller EU states a greater power of influence than is normally attributed to a state of their size. However most negotiations are still dominated by the larger states. This has traditionally been largely through the "Franco-German motor" but Franco-German influence has diminished slightly following the influx of new members in 2004 (see G6).[35]


Article 4
  1. In accordance with Article 5, competences not conferred upon the Union in the Treaties remain with the member states.
  2. The Union shall respect the equality of member states before the Treaties as well as their national identities, inherent in their fundamental structures, political and constitutional, inclusive of regional and local self-government. It shall respect their essential State functions, including ensuring the territorial integrity of the State, maintaining law and order and safeguarding national security. In particular, national security remains the sole responsibility of each member state.
  3. Pursuant to the principle of sincere cooperation, the Union and the member states shall, in full mutual respect, assist each other in carrying out tasks which flow from the Treaties. The member states shall take any appropriate measure, general or particular, to ensure fulfilment of the obligations arising out of the Treaties or resulting from the acts of the institutions of the Union. The member states shall facilitate the achievement of the Union's tasks and refrain from any measure which could jeopardise the attainment of the Union's objectives.

Article 4 of the Treaty on European Union

While the member states are sovereign, the union partially follows a supranational system for those functions agreed by treaty to be shared. ("Competences not conferred upon the Union in the Treaties remain with the member states"). Previously limited to European Community matters, the practice, known as the 'community method', is currently used in many areas of policy. Combined sovereignty is delegated by each member to the institutions in return for representation within those institutions. This practice is often referred to as 'pooling of sovereignty'. Those institutions are then empowered to make laws and execute them at a European level.

If a state fails to comply with the law of the European Union, it may be fined or have funds withdrawn.

In contrast to some international organisations, the EU's style of integration as a union of states does not "emphasise sovereignty or the separation of domestic and foreign affairs [and it] has become a highly developed system for mutual interference in each other's domestic affairs, right down to beer and sausages.".[36] However, on defence and foreign policy issues (and, pre-Lisbon Treaty, police and judicial matters) less sovereignty is transferred, with issues being dealt with by unanimity and co-operation. Very early on in the history of the EU, the unique state of its establishment and pooling of sovereignty was emphasised by the Court of Justice:[37]

By creating a Community of unlimited duration, having its own institutions, its own personality, its own legal capacity and capacity of representation on the international plane and, more particularly, real powers stemming from a limitation of sovereignty or a transfer of powers from the States to Community, the Member States have limited their sovereign rights and have thus created a body of law which binds both their nationals and themselves...The transfer by the States from their domestic legal system to the Community legal system of the rights and obligations arising under the Treaty carries with it a permanent limitation of their sovereign rights.

— European Court of Justice 1964, in reference to case of Costa v ENEL[38]

The question of whether Union law is superior to State law is subject to some debate. The treaties do not give a judgement on the matter but court judgements have established EU's law superiority over national law and it is affirmed in a declaration attached to the Treaty of Lisbon (the proposed European Constitution would have fully enshrined this). The legal systems of some states also explicitly accept the Court of Justice's interpretation, such as France and Italy, however in Poland it does not override the state's constitution, which it does in Germany.[citation needed] The exact areas where the member states have given legislative competence to the Union are as follows. Every area not mentioned remains with member states.[39]



In EU terminology, the term 'competence' means 'authority or responsibility to act'. The table below shows which aspects of governance are exclusively for collective action (through the commission) and which are shared to a greater or lesser extent. If an aspect is not listed in the table below, then it remains the exclusive competence of the member state. Perhaps the best known example is taxation, which remains a matter of state sovereignty.

Competences of the European Union in relation to those of its member states[40]
Exclusive competence
Shared competence
Supporting competence
The Union has exclusive competence to make directives and conclude international agreements when provided for in a Union legislative act as to …
Member States cannot exercise competence in areas where the Union has done so, that is …
Union exercise of competence shall not result in Member States being prevented from exercising theirs in …
  • research, technological development and (outer) space
  • development cooperation, humanitarian aid
The Union coordinates Member States policies or implements supplemental to their common policies not covered elsewhere in …
The Union can carry out actions to support, coordinate or supplement Member States' actions in …
  • the protection and improvement of human health
  • industry
  • culture
  • tourism
  • education, youth, sport and vocational training
  • civil protection (disaster prevention)
  • administrative cooperation

Conditional mutual support


As a result of the European sovereign debt crisis, some eurozone states were given a bailout from their fellow members via the European Financial Stability Facility and European Financial Stability Mechanism (replaced by the European Stability Mechanism from 2013), but this came with conditions. As a result of the Greek government-debt crisis, Greece accepted a large austerity plan including privatisations and a sell off of state assets in exchange for their bailout. To ensure that Greece complied with the conditions set by the European troika (ECB, IMF, Commission), a 'large-scale technical assistance' from the European Commission and other member states was deployed to Greek government ministries. Some, including the President of the Euro Group Jean-Claude Juncker, stated that "the sovereignty of Greece will be massively limited."[41][42][43] The situation of the bailed out countries (Greece, Portugal and Ireland) has been described as being a ward[44][45] or protectorate[43][46][47] of the EU with some such as the Netherlands calling for a formalisation of the situation.[48]

Multi-speed integration


EU integration is not always symmetrical, with some states proceeding with integration ahead of hold-outs. There are several different forms of closer integration both within and outside the EU's normal framework. One mechanism is enhanced cooperation where nine or more states can use EU structures to progress in a field that not all states are willing to partake in.[49] Some states have gained an opt-out in the founding treaties from participating in certain policy areas.[50][51]

Political systems


The admission of a new state the Union is limited to liberal democracies and Freedom House ranks all EU states as being totally free electoral democracies.[52] All but 4 are ranked at the top 1.0 rating.[53] However, the exact political system of a state is not limited, with each state having its own system based on its historical evolution.

More than half of member states—16 out of 27—are parliamentary republics, while six states are constitutional monarchies, meaning they have a monarch although political powers are exercised by elected politicians. Most republics and all the monarchies operate a parliamentary system whereby the head of state (president or monarch) has a largely ceremonial role with reserve powers. That means most power is in the hands of what is called in most of those countries the prime minister, who is accountable to the national parliament. Of the remaining republics, four[clarification needed] operate a semi-presidential system, where competences are shared between the president and prime minister, while one republic operates a presidential system, where the president is head of both state and government.

Parliamentary structure in member states varies: there are 15 unicameral national parliaments and 12 bicameral parliaments. The prime minister and government are usually directly accountable to the directly elected lower house and require its support to stay in office—the exceptions being Cyprus and France with their presidential systems. Upper houses are composed differently in different member states: it can be directly elected like the Polish senate; indirectly elected, for example, by regional legislatures like the Federal Council of Austria; or unelected, but representing certain interest groups like the National Council of Slovenia. All elections in member states use some form of proportional representation. The most common type of proportional representation is the party-list system.[citation needed]

There are also differences in the level of self-governance for the sub-regions of a member state. Most states, especially the smaller ones, are unitary states; meaning all major political power is concentrated at the national level. 9 states allocate power to more local levels of government. Austria, Belgium and Germany are full federations, meaning their regions have constitutional autonomies. Denmark, Finland, France and the Netherlands are federacies, meaning some regions have autonomy but most do not. Spain and Italy have systems of devolution where regions have autonomy, but the national government retains the legal right to revoke it.[54]

States such as France have a number of overseas territories, retained from their former empires.

See also



  1. ^ The first states first formed the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952 and then created the parallel European Economic Community in 1958. Although the latter was later, it is more often considered the immediate predecessor to the EU. The former has always shared the same membership and has since been absorbed by the EU, which was formally established in 1993.


  1. ^ "Population change - Demographic balance and crude rates at national level". Eurostat. Retrieved 21 June 2024.
  2. ^ "Area by NUTS 3 region". Eurostat. Retrieved 21 June 2024.
  3. ^ a b Council Decision (EU, Euratom) 2021/2320 of 22 December 2021 amending the Council's Rules of Procedure (Decision 2021/2320). Council of the European Union. 22 December 2021.
  4. ^ a b at purchasing power parity, per capita, in international dollars (rounded)
  5. ^ a b "IMF". www.imf.org. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  6. ^ a b "worldbank.org".
  7. ^ a b "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  8. ^ Anonymous (5 July 2016). "Living in the EU - European Union - European Commission". European Union. Archived from the original on 27 April 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  9. ^ "Statistics Portugal - Web Portal". www.ine.pt. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  10. ^ "Portugal tem 92.212 quilómetros quadrados, por enquanto... - Sociedade - PUBLICO.PT". 5 October 2012. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012.
  11. ^ "Índice de Gini (percentagem)". www.pordata.pt. Archived from the original on 16 February 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  12. ^ "Regional and minority languages in the European Union" (PDF) (PDF). European Parliament Members' Research Service. September 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 May 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  13. ^ Regional policy & outermost regions Archived 16 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine, European Commission
  14. ^ "Council Directive 2013/61/EU of December 2013" (PDF). 17 December 2013. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  15. ^ "OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms - EU15 Definition". stats.oecd.org. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  16. ^ "OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms - EU21 Definition". stats.oecd.org. Archived from the original on 31 October 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  17. ^ Vértesy, László (2018). "Macroeconomic Legal Trends in the EU11 Countries" (PDF). Public Governance, Administration and Finances Law Review. 3. No. 1. 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 August 2019. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  18. ^ Loichinger, Elke; Madzarevic-Sujster, Sanja; Vincelette, Gallina A.; Laco, Matija; Korczyc, Ewa (1 June 2013). "EU11 regular economic report". pp. 1–92. Archived from the original on 12 August 2019. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  19. ^ "Who are the "A8 countries"?". 24 April 2005. Archived from the original on 10 May 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  20. ^ "Accession criteria". Europa. Archived from the original on 9 February 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2008.
  21. ^ a b Suspension clause Archived 22 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Europa glossary. Retrieved 22 December 2017
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  23. ^ Elgot, Jessica (2 October 2016). "Theresa May to trigger article 50 by end of March 2017". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
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  25. ^ "Brexit: European Parliament overwhelmingly backs terms of UK's exit". BBC News. 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
  26. ^ Could a 'reverse Greenland' arrangement keep Scotland and Northern Ireland in the EU? Archived 22 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine, London School of Economics 7 July 2016
  27. ^ Happold, Matthew (1999) Scotland Europa: independence in Europe? Archived 22 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Centre for European Reform. Retrieved 14 June 2010 (PDF)
  28. ^ The Internal Enlargement of the European Union, Centre Maurits Coppieters Foundation [1] Archived 3 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine (PDF)
  29. ^ "英語ぺらぺら君中級編で余った時間を有効活用する". www.euinternalenlargement.org. Archived from the original on 14 April 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  30. ^ "The presidency of the Council of the EU". Europa (web portal). The Council of the EU. 2 May 2016. Archived from the original on 26 March 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016. The presidency of the Council rotates among the EU member states every 6 months
  31. ^ "European Union – Guide". politics.co.uk. Archived from the original on 25 August 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2016. Member states take it in turns to assume the presidency of the Council of Ministers for six months at a time in accordance with a pre-established rota.
  32. ^ "The European Parliament: Historical Background". Archived from the original on 26 March 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  33. ^ "Previous UK European elections". BBC News. 2 June 1999. Archived from the original on 24 April 2003. Retrieved 14 May 2016. The 1951 treaty which created the European Coal and Steel Community (a precursor to the European Economic Community and later European Union) provided for a representative assembly of members drawn from the participating nations' national parliaments. In June 1979, the nine EEC countries held the first direct elections to the European Parliament.
  34. ^ "Governing Council". European Central Bank. Archived from the original on 3 February 2019. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  35. ^ Peel, Q; et al. (26 March 2010). "Deal shows Merkel has staked out strong role]". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 4 June 2010. Retrieved 15 June 2010.
  36. ^ Cooper, Robert (7 April 2002) Why we still need empires Archived 21 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian (London)
  37. ^ ECJ opinion on Costa vs ENEL Archived 17 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine Eur-Lex
  38. ^ Judgment of the Court of 15 July 1964. Flaminio Costa v E.N.E.L. Reference for a preliminary ruling: Giudice conciliatore di Milano - Italy. Case 6-64. Archived 29 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Eur-Lex
  39. ^ Consolidated versions of the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union - Tables of equivalences Archived 27 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Eur-Lex
  40. ^ As outlined in Title I of Part I of the consolidated Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union
  41. ^ Kirschbaum, Erik (3 July 2011) Kirschbaum, Erik (3 July 2011). "Greek sovereignty to be massively limited: Juncker". Reuters. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  42. ^ Mahony, Honor (4 July 2011) Greece faces 'massive' loss of sovereignty Archived 7 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, EUobserver
  43. ^ a b Athens becomes EU 'protectorate' Archived 13 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine To Ethnos via PressEurop 4 July 2011
  44. ^ Fitzgerald, Kyran (15 October 2011) Reform agenda's leading light Archived 23 September 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Irish Examiner
  45. ^ Coy, Peter (13 January 2011) If Demography Is Destiny, Then India Has the Edge Archived 6 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Bloomberg
  46. ^ Mahler et al (2 September 2010) How Brussels Is Trying to Prevent a Collapse of the Euro Archived 10 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Der Spiegel
  47. ^ The Economic Protectorate Archived 8 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Open Europe (4 February 2010)
  48. ^ Phillips, Leigh (7 September 2011). "Netherlands: Indebted states must be made 'wards' of the commission or leave euro". EU Observer. Archived from the original on 25 October 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  49. ^ 20 member states confirm the creation of a European Public Prosecutor's Office Archived 16 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine, General Secretariat of the Council 12 October 2017
  50. ^ Eder, Florian (13 September 2017). "Juncker to oppose multispeed Europe". Politico. Archived from the original on 29 December 2017. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  51. ^ Macron revives multi-speed Europe idea Archived 29 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine, EUObserver 30 August 2017
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  53. ^ "Freedom in the World 2018: Table of Country Scores". Freedom House. 2018. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018.
  54. ^ McGarry, John (2010). Weller, Marc; Nobbs, Katherine (eds.). Asymmetric Autonomy and the Settlement of Ethnic Conflicts. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 148–179. ISBN 978-0-8122-4230-0. {{cite encyclopedia}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)