1000 Nepalese rupee banknote (obverse)
|Freq. used||Rs. रू5, रू10, रू20, रू50, रू100, रू500, रू1000|
|Rarely used||Rs.रू1, रू2, रू25, रू250|
|Freq. used||Rs.रू1, रू2|
|Rarely used||1, 5, 10, 25, 50 paisa, Rs.रू5, रू10|
|Date of introduction||1932|
|User(s)|| Kingdom of Nepal (1932 – 2008)
Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (2008 – present)
|Central bank||Nepal Rastra Bank|
|Source||The World Factbook, October 2005 est.|
|Pegged with||Indian Rupee (₹, INR)|
|Pegged by||₹1 = रू1.6000 (buy)
₹1 = रू1.6015 (sell)
The Nepalese rupee (Nepali: रूपैयाँ, symbol: रू, Rs.; ISO 4217: NPR) is the official currency of Nepal. The Nepalese rupee was introduced in 1932 and it replaced the Nepalese mohar at 2:1. Nepalese rupee is subdivided into 100 paisa. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the Nepal Rastra Bank. The Nepalese rupee is pegged to the Indian rupee at 1.6:1.
The rupee was introduced in 1932, replacing the silver mohar at a rate of 2 mohar = 1 rupee. At first, the rupee was called the mohru in Nepali. Its value was pegged to the Indian rupee in 1993 at a rate of 1.6 Nepalese rupees = 1 Indian rupee.
1945 - 1955
The early banknotes which were issued between 1945 and 1955 during the rule of King Tribhuvan were not put into circulation by a Central Bank which did not exist in Nepal at that time. The issuing authority was the treasury which had the name Sadar Muluki Khana. Therefore, the notes of king Tribhuvan were not signed by a bank governor, but by a Kajanchi (head of the treasury) who was a high Hindu priest in the same time. Nepal’s early paper currency probably includes the only notes of the world which were signed by a high priest. These early notes were printed by the Indian Security Press in Nashik and do not have any security features, except for the water marks and the special paper on which they are printed.
1955 - 1972
Starting with King Mahendra who succeeded to his father Tribhuvan in 1955, the banknotes were issued by Nepal Rastra Bank (Nepal National Bank) which was founded in April 1956. The signature of the governors of this institution is found on the banknotes which were issued after this date.
Under King Mahendra the Nepalese Government became “His Majesty’s Government” (expressed by "shri 5 ko sarakar" which literally means “the government of the five times honoured”) and remained this way during the rule of Birendra and Gyanendra. Two series of banknotes were issued during the rule of king Mahendra: The first series shows the king in civilian clothes wearing the Nepalese “topi” while on the notes of the second series the king is shown in military uniform. The second series comprised for the first time notes of the high value of 500 and 1000 rupees.
1972 - 2001
During King Birendra’s rule one can also distinguish between two major series of banknotes. The first series features the king wearing military uniform while on the notes of the second series the king is wearing the traditional Nepalese crown adorned with feathers of the bird of paradise. During this period regular banknotes of 2 and 20 rupees and special banknotes of 25 and 250 rupees were issued for the first time. The legends found on the last issues of Gyanendra revert to Nepal sarakar (“Nepalese Government”), thus omitting the reference to the king.
In October 2007, a 500 rupee note was issued on which the king’s portrait was replaced by Mt. Everest. This reflects the historic change from a kingdom to a republic which took place in May 2008 in Nepal. Further notes of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 1000 rupees with Mt. Everest and without reference to the king in their legends followed in 2008. The first issues of the 500 and 1000 rupee notes were printed on paper which still had the king's crowned portrait as watermark in the "window" on the right part of the face of the notes. It was decided to print a red Rhododendron flower (Nepal's national flower) on top of the watermark. Notes of these denominations which were issued in 2009 and thereafter are printed on paper which has a Rhododenron flower as watermark instead of the royal portrait and were therefore released without the additional overprint in red.
On 17 September 1945, the government introduced notes for 5, 10 and 100 rupees, with the name mohru used in Nepalese. There are also 25 and 250 rupees notes commemorating the Silver Jubilee of Birendra Bir Bikram Shah in 1997. Since 2007, Nepalese rupee banknotes have been produced by Perum Peruri, the National Mint Public Company of Indonesia. 
In 2012, Nepal Rastra Bank issued a revised banknote series that are similar to the 2007 series, but now include inscriptions in English and the year of issue on the back.
|2012 Mount Everest series (current)|
|Image||Value||Main Colour||Description||Date of issue|
|5 Rupees||Lilac, brown and green||Mount Everest; temple of Taleju; obverse of coin||Two yaks grazing; Mount Everest||2012|
|10 Rupees||Brown, green and lilac||Mount Everest; Garud Narayan of Changu Narayan temple||Three black bucks grazing; trees; bank logo||2012|
|20 Rupees||Orange and Brown||Mount Everest; temple of god Krishna of Patan; Garuda atop pillar||Swamp deer; trees; mountain; bank logo||2012|
|50 Rupees||Purple, Green and Blue||Mount Everest; Rama-Janaki temple of Janakpur||Male thar; mountains; bank logo||2012|
|50 Rupees||Purple. Green and Blue||Mount Everest; Rama-Janaki temple of Janakpur||Snow leopard; bank logo||2016|
|100 Rupees||Green and Lilac||Mount Everest; Mayadevi inside silver metallic oval; map of Nepal; Ashoka pillar; wood carvings from temple of Taleju in Kathmandu; description "Lumbini - Birthplace of Lord Buddha"||One-horned rhinoceros in grassy plain; bank logo||2012|
|500 Rupees||Brown and violet||Mount Everest; god Indra; Mount Amadablam and Thyangboche monastery; wood carvings; clouds||Two tigers drinking melted snow||2012|
|1,000 Rupees||Blue and gray||Mount Everest, Swayambhunath stupa & Harati temple||Elephant||2013|
|For table standards, see the banknote specification table.|
|Current NPR exchange rates|
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- Agrawal (Giriya), Shyam and Gyawali, Kamal Prasad: Notes and Coins of Nepal. Nepal Rastra Bank Golden Jubilee Year 2005/06, Kathmandu, 2006.
- Bertsch, Wolfgang: "The Legends on the Banknotes of Nepal", International Banknote Society (IBNS) Journal, vol. 48, no. 3, 2009, p. 39-44.
- Jha, Hari Jaya: An Overview of Nepalese Paper Money. Manjeeta Jha, Lalitpur (Patan), B.S. 2058 (= A.D. 2001).
- Lorenzoli, Giovanni: “Nepali artistic buildings as seen on Nepali notes”. Journal of the International Banknote Society, vol. 43, no. 3 (2004), p. 6-14.
- Shrestha, Ramesh: Nepalese Coins & Bank Notes (1911 to 1955). Kazi Mudhusudan Raj Bhandary, Kathmandu, 2007.
- Wittmann, Hans: Die Banknoten des Königreichs Nepal. Unpublished, Wiesbaden, 2002.
- "Nepal Rastra Bank". nrb.org.np. Retrieved 13 June 2016.
- Linzmayer, Owen (2012). "Nepal". The Banknote Book. San Francisco, CA: www.BanknoteNews.com.
- Krause, Chester L.; Clifford Mishler (1991). Standard Catalog of World Coins: 1801–1991 (18th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0873411501.
- Pick, Albert (1994). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money: General Issues. Colin R. Bruce II and Neil Shafer (editors) (7th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-207-9.