No. 2 Squadron RAF
|No. II (AC) Squadron|
|Active||13 May 1912RFC) – 1 April 1918 (|
1 April 1918 – present (RAF)
|Branch||Royal Air Force|
|Part of||No. 1 Group RAF|
|Home station||RAF Lossiemouth|
|Motto(s)||Hereward – Guardian of the Army|
|Aircraft||Eurofighter Typhoon FGR4|
|Wing Commander Jim Lee|
|Jock Stirrup, Philip Sturley, Chris Nickols, Richard Garwood, Stephen Hillier|
|Squadron tail badge|
|Squadron badge heraldry||The RAF roundel (three concentric circles) over all a wake knot. Approved by King Edward VIII in May 1936. The circles represent the RAF and the wake knot is derived from the arms of Hereward the Wake and indicates the basic role of the unit as a guardian of the Army.|
|Post 1950 squadron roundel|
|Squadron Codes||A–Z (Present)|
Not to be confused with No. 2 Squadron RAF Regiment
No. 2 Squadron's traditional army co-operation role is reflected in the "AC" of its title, its motto Hereward (Guardian of the Army), and the symbol of a Wake knot on its crest. Its unofficial nickname is "Shiny Two".
Foundation until WWI Armistice
No. 2 Squadron was formed at Farnborough, Hampshire on 13 May 1912, on the founding of the Royal Flying Corps as one of the first three squadrons of the new force. It was formed from a detachment of No. 2 (Aeroplane) Company of the Royal Engineers Air Battalion. Both No. 2 Squadron and No. 3 Squadron were equipped with fixed wing aeroplanes, while No. 1 Squadron was equipped with airships. The squadron's first commander was Major C J Burke. The squadron was equipped with a mixture of aircraft types, including the prototype Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2.
From 26 February 1913, the squadron was based at Montrose in Angus, Scotland, the first operational Royal Flying Corps base in the UK. This was established on the instructions of the First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill to protect the Royal Navy. At Montrose the ghost story of Desmond Arthur spread around the flying corps. In May 1914, when the squadron was transferring south from Montrose, five aircraft crashed when they hit a bank of fog just south of the River Tees. Six of the aircraft had to land, with five of them crash landing, resulting in many injuries and two deaths (a Lieutenant and a First Class Mechanic) in a field near Hutton Bonville in the North Riding of Yorkshire.
The squadron was the first to fly the English Channel into France at the start of the First World War.H.D. Harvey-Kelly being the first pilot to land. Starting a role which continues to this day, the squadron spent the war on reconnaissance duties in France flying, amongst other aircraft, the B.E.2.
Although its principal role was not air-to-air combat, it still had one flying ace among its ranks in Arthur William Hammond. It also numbered the first aviation Victoria Cross winners in its ranks, in Second Lieutenant Rhodes-Moorhouse and Lieutenant Alan Arnett McLeod.
Between the World Wars
The squadron gained the 'AC' in its title in the inter-war years, flying army co-operation (AC) sorties during the partition of Ireland in the early 1920s. After time in China during 1927, the squadron re-equipped with the Armstrong Whitworth Atlas again on army co-operation work.
Second World War
At the outbreak of the Second World War the unit was flying Westland Lysanders. In France until the Dunkirk evacuation, the squadron equipped with fighters – the Curtiss Tomahawk in 1940, the North American Mustang in 1942 and Supermarine Spitfire Mk 14s in 1944.
In July 1944, assigned to the 2nd Tactical Air Force, the squadron returned to France in the reconnaissance role, with Spitfire PR.11s.
Post Second World War
The squadron spent much of the Cold War in Germany as part of RAF Germany, flying various fighter types, including latterly McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantoms and then SEPECAT Jaguars. Elements of the squadron were deployed to the 1991 Gulf War.
Along with much of the RAF, No. 2 Squadron withdrew from Germany after returning from the Gulf War – moving to RAF Marham in Norfolk with its Panavia Tornado GR1As. These were upgraded to the latest GR4 standard, with which the squadron deployed at part of Operation Telic in Iraq during 2003. For this operation the squadron received a battle honour with the right of emblazonment on the squadron standard.
In September 2012 a memorial dedicated to all those who served on the squadron and to those that gave their lives whilst serving on the squadron was unveiled at the National Memorial Arboretum in Staffordshire. The design, planning and fund-raising for the memorial took three years and it features a Roman numeral 'II' carved from black granite. A service was held at the memorial which involved a flypast by a Supermarine Spitfire of the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight and No. 2 Squadron Tornado GR4. The service was attended by Air Chief Marshal Lord Jock Stirrup and The Venerable (Air Vice-Marshal) Ray Pentland, RAF Chaplain in Chief.
The squadron has deployed on several occasions to maintain the Tornado GR4 detachment in Afghanistan. It also saw action over Libya during Operation Ellamy/Operation Unified Protector for which it received a further battle honour. The squadron also operated eight aircraft from RAF Akrotiri in Cyprus as part of Operation Shader, the coalition strikes against the extremist group ISIS.
In December 2013, it was announced that following the squadron's scheduled 2014 deployment to Afghanistan as part of Operation Herrick, it was to stand down on 31 March 2015 as a Tornado squadron at Marham, and reactivate the following day (1 April 2015) as a Eurofighter Typhoon squadron at RAF Lossiemouth in Scotland. However, in October 2014, Prime Minister David Cameron said that the Squadron's disbandment and reformation would be put on hold to allow Tornados to continue supporting strikes against ISIS.
During October and November 2016, four No. 2 Squadron Typhoons and support personnel deployed to the Far East to take part in exercises with Japan and South Korea. The squadron operated from the Japan Air Self Defense Force base at Misawa on Honshu, to take part in Exercise Guardian North 16. Subsequently, the squadron was based at Osan Air Base in South Korea and took part in Exercise Invincible Shield, alongside the Republic of Korea Air Force and United States Air Force. It was the first time either Japan or South Korea had hosted exercises with a foreign nation other than the United States.
- Bristol Boxkite (1912)
- Breguet G.3 biplane (1912)
- Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.1 (1912)
- Farman S.7 Longhorn (1912)
- Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2 (1912)
- Henry Farman Biplane (1912)
- Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2a (1912)
- Farman S.11 Shorthorn (1914)
- Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.1 (1914)
- Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c (1914)
- Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.5 (1914)
- Vickers FB.5 (1915)
- Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2b (1915)
- Bristol Scout (1915)
- Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2d (1916)
- Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2e (1917)
- Armstrong Whitworth F.K.8 (1917)
- Bristol F.2b Fighter (1920)
- Armstrong Whitworth Atlas (1929)
- Hawker Audax (1933)
- Hawker Hector (1937)
- Westland Lysander I (1938)
- Westland Lysander II (1940)
- Westland Lysander III (1940)
- Curtiss Tomahawk I (1941)
- Curtiss Tomahawk II (1941)
- North American Mustang I (1942)
- North American Mustang IA (1944)
- North American Mustang II (1944)
- Vickers-Supermarine Spitfire XIV (1944)
- Vickers-Supermarine Spitfire XI (1945)
- Vickers-Supermarine Spitfire PR.19 (1946)
- Gloster Meteor FR.9 (1950–1951)
- Gloster Meteor PR.10 (1951–1956)
- Supermarine Swift FR.5 (1956–1960)
- Hawker Hunter FR.10 (1960–1970)
- McDonell-Douglas Phantom FGR.2 (1970–1976)
- SEPECAT Jaguar GR1 (1976–1988)
- Panavia Tornado GR1A (1988–2001)
- Panavia Tornado GR4A (2001–2015)
- Eurofighter Typhoon FGR4 (2015 – present)
A RAF Westland Lysander Mk.III of No. 2 Squadron during the Second World War.
2 Sqn. Two No. 2 Squadron North American Mustang I in 1942.
Supermarine Swift FR.5s of No. 2 Squadron in 1956.
Panavia Tornado GR1A in camouflage colour scheme and No. 2 Squadron markings during 1990.
Panavia Tornado GR4 in grey colour scheme and special markings for the 95th anniversary of the squadron in 2007.
List of commanding officers of No. 2 Squadron, including date of appointment.
- Major C J Burke (13 May 1912)
- Major G W P Dawes (10 November 1914)
- Major T I Webb-Bowen (8 March 1915)
- Major J H W Becke (2 June 1915)
- Major C F de S.Murphy (3 November 1915)
- Major R A Cooper (9 April 1916)
- Major W R Snow (16 August 1917)
- Major P G Ross-Hume (28 August 1918)
- Squadron Leader B F More (12 November 1919)
- Squadron Leader F W Stent (18 June 1920)
- Squadron Leader A J Butler (16 August 1920)
- Squadron Leader L F Forbes (15 May 1922)
- Squadron Leader R E Saul (15 April 1925)
- Squadron Leader W Sowrey (9 January 1927)
- Squadron Leader H M Probyn (1 April 1928)
- Squadron Leader S E Toomer (29 September 1930)
- Squadron Leader P F Fullard (12 January 1933)
- Squadron Leader J H Green (1 December 1933)
- Squadron Leader N L Despoer (20 July 1935)
- Squadron Leader W A Opie (21 April 1938)
- Squadron Leader A J W Geddes (29 April 1939) (Wing Commander from 1 March 1940)
- Wing CommanderP J A Riddell (24 December 1941)
- Wing Commander P W Stansfeld (8 February 1943)
- Squadron Leader B O C Egan-Wyer (29 June 1943)
- Squadron Leader M J Gray (25 August 1943)
- Squadron Leader C A Maitland (7 September 1944)
- Squadron Leader R J F Mitchell (25 March 1945)
- Squadron Leader D W Barlow (24 April 1946)
- Squadron Leader G Collinson (15 December 1946)
- Squadron Leader W A Newenham (28 October 1948)
- Squadron Leader L H Bartlett (6 February 1950)
- Squadron Leader R M Pugh AFC (1 November 1950)
- Squadron Leader R H G Weighill (29 May 1953)
- Flight Lieutenant M C Newman (31 August 1955)
- Squadron Leader R S Mortley (15 November 1955)
- Squadron Leader C A Wade (12 May 1958)
- Squadron Leader C S MacDonald (16 September 1960)
- Squadron Leader D L F Thornton (15 February 1962)
- Squadron Leader N J R Walpole (13 December 1964)
- Squadron Leader T Barrett (16 June 1967)
- Squadron Leader R J M David (11 November 1969)
- Wing Commander B A Stead (7 December 1971)
- Wing Commander D H Warren (2 December 1972)
- Wing Commander D C Ferguson (8 May 1975)
- Wing Commander R A F Wilson (1 April 1976)
- Wing Commander R Fowler AFC (6 January 1978)
- Wing Commander T G Thorn (4 May 1980)
- Wing Commander F J Hoare AFC (18 January 1983)
- Wing Commander G E Stirrup (31 May 1985)
- Wing Commander Phillip O Sturley (13 March 1987)
- Wing Commander A Threadgould (1 January 1989)
- Wing Commander B C Holding (1 July 1991)
- Wing Commander R J Hounslow (21 July 1993)
- Wing Commander Chris M Nickols (6 December 1993)
- Wing Commander Richard F Garwood (26 April 1996)
- Wing Commander Steve J Hillier (27 November 1998)
- Wing Commander R M Poole (15 September 2000)
- Wing Commander S Cockram (2 May 2003)
- Wing Commander A Hine (25 September 2005)
- Wing Commander J Turner (19 May 2008)
- Wing Commander N A Tucker-Lowe (January 2011)
- Wing Commander J D Holmes (January 2013)
- Wing Commander Roger G Elliott (9 January 2015)
- Wing Commander Jim Lee (Jan 2017)
- Second Lieutenant William Rhodes-Moorhouse, of No. 2 Squadron, was the first British airman to be awarded the Victoria Cross, during a raid on Kortrijk, Belgium on 26 April 1915.
- No. 2 Squadron became the first RFC squadron to cross the Channel to France, at the outbreak of World War I.
- Pine, L.G. (1983). A dictionary of mottoes (1 ed.). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 96. ISBN 0-7100-9339-X.
- Raleigh 1922, p. 217.
- Heathcott 1998, p. 140.
- "Montrose air station, the UK's first airbase, marks centenary". BBC News. 23 February 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- Llyod, Chris (23 June 2017). "Death in the fog". Darlington & Stockton Times (25–2017). p. 61. ISSN 2040-3933.
- http://www.theaerodrome.com/services/gbritain/rfc/2.php Retrieved 7 February 2010
- http://www.theaerodrome.com/aces/england/hammond1.php Retrieved 7 February 2010
- "Battle and Theatre Honours". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Lords. 9 June 2005.
- Semmens, Donna (11 September 2012). "RAF Marham squadron members past and present gather at National Memorial Arboretum, Staffordshire". Eastern Daily Press. Archant Community Media. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
- Mander, Simon (20 October 2017). "Royal honours for heroes of Libya and Iraq". RAF News. High Wycombe: Royal Air Force (1429): 5. ISSN 0035-8614.
- "New Typhoon squadron announced". GOV.UK. UK Government. 13 December 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- "II(AC) Sqn re-role and reformation of 12(B) Sqn". Royal Air Force. 12 January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- Ripley, Tim (4 December 2014). "Final UK Typhoon squadron to stand up". IHS Jane's 360. Jane's. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- "Royal Air Force aircraft arrive in Japan". Royal Air Force. 22 October 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- "'Invincible Shield' - First ever UK-US-ROK Combined Air Exercise". Royal Air Force. 8 November 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- "II (Army Cooperation) Squadron Commanding Officers". II(AC) Squadron Association. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- Butcher, Percy Edwin. Skill and Devotion: A Personal Reminiscence of the Famous No. 2 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps. Hampton Hill, Middlesex, UK: Radio Modeller Book Division, 1971.
- Halley, James J. The Squadrons of the Royal Air Force & Commonwealth, 1918–1988. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 1988. ISBN 0-85130-164-9.
- Heathcott, John. "Unit Heritage: 'Second to None': 'Shiny Two', No. II (AC) Squadron, RAF". Wings of Fame. Volume 11, 1998. London: Aerospace Publishing. pp. 140–157. ISBN 1-86184-017-9. ISSN 1361-2034.
- Jefford, Wing Commander C.G., MBE,BA,RAF (Retd). RAF Squadrons, a Comprehensive Record of the Movement and Equipment of all RAF Squadrons and their Antecedents since 1912. Shrewsbury: Airlife Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-84037-141-2.
- Onderwater, Hans. Second to None: the History of No. II (Army Co-operation) Squadron RAF, 1912–2002. second edition, Airlife Publishing, UK. ISBN 1-84037-408-X.
- Raleigh, Walter. The War in the Air: Being the Story of the part played in the Great War by The Royal Air Force: Vol I. Oxford: The Clarenden Press, 1922.
- Rawlings, John D.R. Coastal, Support and Special Squadrons of the RAF and their Aircraft. London: Jane's Publishing Company Ltd., 1982. ISBN 0-7106-0187-5.
- Rawlings, John D.R. Fighter Squadrons of the RAF and their Aircraft. London: Macdonald and Jane's (Publishers) Ltd., 1969 (new edition 1976, reprinted 1978). ISBN 0-354-01028-X.
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