Recognition of same-sex unions in North America
|Legal status of same-sex unions|
* Not yet in effect
Currently, Canada and the United States[nb 1] are the only countries in North America that allow same-sex couples to marry everywhere within their boundaries. In Mexico, ten Mexican states have legalized same-sex marriage (although such marriages are recognized throughout the 31 states of Mexico) as well as the Mexican federal district of Mexico City. Same-sex marriages are also performed in the Caribbean Netherlands and Greenland. Furthermore Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, recognize same-sex marriages performed in the Netherlands. In addition, four Mexican states perform some sort of civil union and nineteen Mexican states have won injunctions to have individual couple's marriages performed under court order. After South America, North America is the only other continent where an overwhelming majority of people live in a jurisdiction providing marriage rights to LGBT citizens.
|Status||Country||Legal since||Country population
(Last Count, 2008 est.)
(63.5% of the North American population)
but not performed
(21.5% of the North American population)
(0.86% of the North American population)
(85.8% of the North American population)
|Homosexuality is legal|
|Homosexuality is illegal but legislation is not enforced|
|Trinidad and Tobago||—||1,357,000|
|Homosexuality is illegal|
|Antigua and Barbuda||—||89,000|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||—||46,000|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||—||110,000|
(8,82% of the North American population)
|Constitutional ban on marriage
(5.36% of the North American population)
(14,2% of the North American population)
|Other type of partnership
but not performed
|Constitutional ban on same-sex marriage
Government proposals or proposals with a parliamentary majority
Mexico On 17 May 2016, President of Mexico, Enrique Peña Nieto, announced he had signed an initiative to amend Article 4 of the Mexican Constitution, which would legalise same-sex marriage nationwide. Any amendment to the constitution requires support of at least a two-thirds majority in Congress and ratification from a simple majority of the 31 states. He also submitted the bill to make appropriate changes in the civil code. Chairman of the Committee on Constitutional Issues of the Chamber of Deputies, Daniel Ordoñez, announced in June 2016 that the president's initiative will be debated within the committee the second week of September. Ordoñez also said that 47,000 letters expressing opposition to the initiative were received though none of them were signed.
Opposition proposals or proposals without a parliamentary majority
Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten As part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, in April 2015 representatives of all four constituent countries agreed that same-sex couples should have equal rights throughout the Kingdom. In Aruba bills on amendments to the civil code, which would establish gender-neutral registered partnerships and allow same-sex couples to get married, were submitted to parliament in April and September, respectively. On 8 September 2016, the Parliament of Aruba approved the new Civil Code, which includes provision creating registered partnerships for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples.
Costa Rica On March 19, 2015, a bill to legalize same-sex marriage was introduced to the Legislative Assembly by deputy Ligia Elena Fallas Rodríguez from the Broad Front. On December 10, 2015, the organization Front for Equal Rights (Frente Por los Derechos Igualitarios) and a group of deputies from the Citizens' Action Party, the National Liberation Party and the Broad Front presented another bill.
Mexico A decision of the Mexico Supreme Court on 12 June 2015 resulted in a ruling that found that state bans on same-sex marriage were unconstitutional. The court's ruling is considered a "jurisprudential thesis" and does not invalidate any state laws, meaning gay couples denied the right to wed would still have to seek individual injunctions. The ruling standardized the procedures for judges and courts throughout Mexico, to approve all applications for same-sex marriage, and made the approval mandatory. The ruling was published in the country's Judicial Gazette on 19 June 2015 and became binding on 22 June 2015. Some have suggested the ruling "effectively legalises" same-sex marriage in Mexico, though without legislative change, civil registrars are still bound to follow the state constitutions.
|Country||Pollster||Year||For same-sex marriage||Against|
|Canada||Baròmetro de las Américas por LAPOP||2014||71.1%||-|
|USA||Wall Street Journal||2015||59%||33%|
|Puerto Rico||Pew Research Center||2014||33%||55%|
|Costa Rica||Pew Research Center||2014||29%||61%|
|Panama||Baròmetro de las Américas por LAPOP/Pew Research Center||2014||25%||72%|
|Dominican Republic||Pew Research Center||2014||25%||72%|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Baròmetro de las Américas por LAPOP||2014||16.4%||-|
|Nicaragua||Pew Research Center||2014||16||77%|
|Honduras||Baròmetro de las Américas por LAPOP/Pew Research Center||2014||14.1%||83%|
|El Salvador||Baròmetro de las Américas por LAPOP/Pew Research Center||2014||13.9||81%|
|Guatemala||Pew Research Center||2014||12%||82%|
|Bahamas||Baròmetro de las Américas por LAPOP||2014||10.6%||-|
|Belize||Baròmetro de las Américas por LAPOP||2014||8.4%||-|
|Haiti||Baròmetro de las Américas por LAPOP||2014||6.7%||-|
|Jamaica||Baròmetro de las Américas por LAPOP||2014||5.1%||-|
- LGBT rights in the Americas
- Recognition of same-sex unions in South America
- Recognition of same-sex unions in Europe
- Recognition of same-sex unions in Oceania
- Excluding most Native American tribes. (Same-sex marriage is legal at least in 26 of them)
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