Recognition of same-sex unions in North America

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State recognition of same-sex relationships in North America & Hawaii.1
  Same-sex marriage
  Other type of partnership
  Same-sex marriages recognized, but not performed
  Binding decision overturning a ban on same-sex marriage not in effect2
1May include recent laws or court decisions which have created legal recognition of same-sex relationships, but which have not entered into effect yet.
2Some states in these categories also have a ban unions similar to marriage and binding judicial rulings against bans unions similar to marriage.
Homosexuality laws in Central America and the Caribbean Islands.
  Same-sex marriage
  Other type of partnership
  Unregistered cohabitation
  Foreign same-sex marriages recognized
  No recognition of same-sex couples
  Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples
  Same-sex sexual activity illegal but not enforced
  Same-sex sexual activity illegal only for males
  Same-sex sexual activity illegal for males and females
Homosexuality legislation in Lesser Antilles.
  Same-sex marriage
  Same-sex marriage only recognized
  Other type of partnership
  Unrecognized or unknown
  Same-sex sexual activity illegal but not enforced
  Same-sex sexual activity illegal
Legal status of same-sex unions
Marriage
Performed
Recognized
  1. When performed in Mexican states that have legalized same-sex marriage
  2. When performed in the Netherlands proper
  3. Marriages performed in some municipalities and recognized by the state

* Not yet in effect

LGBT portal

Currently, Canada and the United States[nb 1] are the only countries in North America that allow same-sex couples to marry everywhere within their boundaries. In Mexico, five Mexican states have legalized same-sex marriage (although such marriages are recognized throughout the 31 states of Mexico) as well as the Mexican federal district of Mexico City. Same-sex marriages are also performed in the Caribbean Netherlands and Greenland. Furthermore Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, recognize same-sex marriages performed in the Netherlands. In addition, four Mexican states perform some sort of civil union and nineteen Mexican states have won injunctions to have individual couple's marriages performed under court order. After South America, North America is the only other continent where an overwhelming majority of people live in a jurisdiction providing marriage rights to LGBT citizens.

Current situation[edit]

National level[edit]

Status Country Legal since Country population
(Last Count, 2008 est.)
Marriage
(2 countries)
Canada Canada[1] 2005 35,819,000
United States United States[2][3] 2015 321,234,000
Subtotal 357,053,000
(63.5% of the North American population)
Marriage recognized,
but not performed
(1 country)
Mexico Mexico[4] 2010 121,006,000
Subtotal 121,006,000
(21.5% of the North American population)
Unregistered cohabitation
(1 country)
Costa Rica Costa Rica[5][6] 2013 4,851,000
Subtotal 4,851,000
(0.86% of the North American population)
Total 482,910,000
(85.8% of the North American population)
No recognition
(16 countries)
Homosexuality is legal
The Bahamas Bahamas 379,000
El Salvador El Salvador 6,460,000
Guatemala Guatemala 16,176,000
Haiti Haiti 10,994,000
Nicaragua Nicaragua 6,514,000
Panama Panama 3,764,000
Homosexuality is illegal but legislation is not enforced
Barbados Barbados 283,000
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 1,357,000
Homosexuality is illegal
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 89,000
Belize Belize 369,000
Dominica Dominica 71,000
Grenada Grenada 104,000
Jamaica Jamaica 2,729,000
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis 46,000
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia 172,000
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 110,000
Subtotal 49,617,000
(8,82% of the North American population)
Constitutional ban on marriage
(3 countries)
Cuba Cuba[7] 1976 11,252,000
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic[8] 2010 9,980,000
Honduras Honduras[9][10] 2005 8,950,000
Subtotal 30,182,000
(5.36% of the North American population)
Total 79,799,000
(14,2% of the North American population)

Sub-national level[edit]

Status Country Jurisdiction Legal since
Marriage
(43 jurisdictions)
Denmark Denmark 2016
France France 2013
Netherlands Netherlands 2012
Mexico Mexico Varies
United States United States Varies
Marriage recognized,
but not performed
(3 jurisdictions)
Netherlands Netherlands
  • Aruba Aruba (Dutch only)[53]
  • Curaçao Curaçao (Dutch only)[53]
  • Sint Maarten Sint Maarten (Dutch only)[53]
2007
Other type of partnership
(1 jurisdiction)
Mexico Mexico Varies
No recognition
(3 jurisdictions)
United Kingdom United Kingdom
Constitutional ban on same-sex marriage
(3 jurisdictions)
United Kingdom United Kingdom Varies

Future Legislation[edit]

Marriage[edit]

Government proposals or proposals with a parliamentary majority[edit]

Mexico Mexico On 17 May 2016, President of Mexico, Enrique Peña Nieto, announced he had signed an initiative to amend Article 4 of the Mexican Constitution, which would legalise same-sex marriage nationwide. Any amendment to the constitution requires support of at least a two-thirds majority in Congress and ratification from a simple majority of the 31 states.[60][61] He also submitted the bill to make appropriate changes in the civil code.[62] Chairman of the Committee on Constitutional Issues of the Chamber of Deputies, Daniel Ordoñez, announced in June 2016 that the president's initiative will be debated within the committee the second week of September. Ordoñez also said that 47,000 letters expressing opposition to the initiative were received though none of them were signed.[63]

Opposition proposals or proposals without a parliamentary majority[edit]

ArubaAruba, CuraçaoCuraçao, Sint MaartenSint Maarten As part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, in April 2015 representatives of all four constituent countries agreed that same-sex couples should have equal rights throughout the Kingdom.[64] In Aruba bills on amendments to the civil code, which would establish gender-neutral registered partnerships and allow same-sex couples to get married, were submitted to parliament in April and September, respectively.[65][66]

Costa Rica Costa Rica On March 19, 2015, a bill to legalize same-sex marriage was introduced to the Legislative Assembly by deputy Ligia Elena Fallas Rodríguez from the Broad Front.[67] On December 10, 2015, the organization Front for Equal Rights (Frente Por los Derechos Igualitarios) and a group of deputies from the Citizens' Action Party, the National Liberation Party and the Broad Front presented another bill.[68][69][70]

Mexico Mexico A decision of the Mexico Supreme Court on 12 June 2015 resulted in a ruling that found that state bans on same-sex marriage were unconstitutional. The court's ruling is considered a "jurisprudential thesis" and does not invalidate any state laws, meaning gay couples denied the right to wed would still have to seek individual injunctions. The ruling standardized the procedures for judges and courts throughout Mexico, to approve all applications for same-sex marriage,[71][72] and made the approval mandatory.[73] The ruling was published in the country's Judicial Gazette on 19 June 2015 and became binding on 22 June 2015.[74] Some have suggested the ruling "effectively legalises" same-sex marriage in Mexico,[75][76] though without legislative change, civil registrars are still bound to follow the state constitutions.[77][78][79]


See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Excluding most Native American tribes. (Same-sex marriage is legal at least in 26 of them)

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Wolf, Richard (June 26, 2015). "Supreme Court strikes down bans on same-sex marriage". USA Today. Retrieved June 26, 2015. 
  3. ^ Liptak, Adam (26 June 2015). "Gay Marriage Backers Win Supreme Court Victory". nytimes.com. Retrieved 26 June 2015. 
  4. ^ "Supreme court rules gay weddings valid in all Mexico". BBC News. 10 August 2010. 
  5. ^ "Costa Rica Accidentally Approves Same-Sex Unions". The Huffington Post. 3 July 2013. Retrieved July 5, 2013. 
  6. ^ "Presidenta ya firmó ley que podría legalizar derechos a homosexuales". La Nación. 4 July 2013. 
  7. ^ "The text of the Constitution of the Republic of Cuba". Walterlippman. January 31, 2003. Retrieved 2009-08-12. 
  8. ^ (Spanish) Constitución Política de la República Dominicana, proclamada el 26 de enero 2010, Publicada en la Gaceta Oficial No. 10561, del 26 de enero de 2010.
  9. ^ (Spanish) CONSTITUCION POLITICA DE LA REPUBLICA DE HONDURAS DE 1982
  10. ^ "Honduras Bans Gay Marriage & Adoption". Global Gayz. March 30, 2005. Retrieved 2009-08-12. 
  11. ^ "Lov om ændring af myndighedsloven for Grønland, lov om ikrafttræden for Grønland af lov om ægteskabets retsvirkninger, retsplejelov for Grønland og kriminallov for Grønland" (in Danish). Government of Denmark. 4 February 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Vignal, Francois (April 15, 2013). "Mariage pour tous : le détail du vote au Sénat" (in French). Public Senat. Retrieved October 27, 2013. 
  13. ^ a b c "Burgerlijk wetboek BES, boek 1" (in Dutch). overheid.nl. Retrieved 12 October 2012. 
  14. ^ El Congreso aprueba la Ley de Matrimonios Igualitarios
  15. ^ "Ante polémica, descarta Congreso legislar matrimonios" (in Spanish). El Diario de Chihuahua. 22 June 2015. 
  16. ^ "Mexican state of Coahuila legalizes same-sex marriage". LGBTQ Nation. 
  17. ^ "Gay Marriage Law Takes Effect In Mexican State Of Coahuila". ontopmag.com. 2014-09-17. Retrieved 2014-09-18. 
  18. ^ Recibe el Congreso iniciativa que permitirá matrimonios entre personas del mismo sexo
  19. ^ (Spanish) Jalisco: Ordenan a registros no negar trámites a gays
  20. ^ "First same-sex couples married in Puerto Vallarta". Puerto Vallarta Daily News. 20 April 2016. 
  21. ^ Castillo, E. Eduardo (December 21, 2009). "Mexico City Approves Gay Marriage". The Huffington Post. Retrieved December 21, 2009. 
  22. ^ (Spanish) Diputados aprueban matrimonios igualitarios en Michoacán
  23. ^ "Periodico Oficial, Organo Del Gobierno Del Estado De Nayarit" (PDF). 22 December 2015. 
  24. ^ Vázquez, Jesús (18 July 2012). "Bodas gay generan interés en el sector turismo de Quintana Roo". El Economista (in Spanish) (El Economista S.A. de C.V). Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  25. ^ Federal Judge Rules Against Montana’s Ban On Same-Sex Marriage
  26. ^ "Tribal court to conduct same-sex marriages". Juneau Empire. February 23, 2015. Retrieved February 23, 2015. 
  27. ^ "Same-sex Oklahoma couple marries legally under tribal law". KOCO. September 26, 2013. Retrieved October 22, 2013. 
  28. ^ "Title Another tribe recognizes same-sex marriages" (html). dailykos.com. Retrieved 2016-07-27. 
  29. ^ Siletz Tribe becomes latest to join marriage equality movement, Indianz.Com, June 04, 2015
  30. ^ "Colvilles recognize same sex marriage". 
  31. ^ "Tribal Council approves new marriage ordinance". Confederated Tribes of Grande Ronde. Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  32. ^ Robinson, B.A. (May 5, 2012). "Adoption of SSM by the Coquille Nation of Oregon". Same-sex marriage (SSM) among Native Americans. Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. 
  33. ^ a b "Wind River tribal judge presides over first same-sex marriage". Indianz.Com. November 17, 2014. Retrieved November 18, 2014. 
  34. ^ "Nahgahchiwanong Dibahjimowinn, August 2014 (page 5)" (PDF). http://www.fdlrez.com/. Retrieved 2016-07-27.  External link in |website= (help)
  35. ^ Legal hurdles cleared, Nevada sees first same-sex marriage
  36. ^ a b c d Federal Judge Strikes Down Arizona’s Same-Sex Marriage Ban
  37. ^ Minnesota set to legalize same-sex marriage
  38. ^ "Santa Ysabel Tribe First in California to Support Same-Sex Marriage". Indian Country Today Media Network. June 28, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2014. 
  39. ^ "Keweenaw Bay Indian Community backs marriage equality law". Indianz.com. June 10, 2015. Retrieved June 11, 2015. 
  40. ^ </ Supreme Court Rejects Gay Marriage Appeals From 5 States
  41. ^ "8th US Native American tribe allows same-sex couples to wed". Gay Star News. 
  42. ^ "Council of Michigan Indian tribe OKs gay marriage". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Associated Press. March 5, 2013. Retrieved March 5, 2013. 
  43. ^ Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Laws Annotated 2010-2011 Pocket Part
  44. ^ Ernestine Chasing Hawk (3 February 2016). "Traditional elders question same-sex marriage". Native Sun News. 
  45. ^ Ted Miller (28 May 2015). "Oneida Tribe approves same-sex marriage". WBAY. 
  46. ^ POKAGON BAND OF POTAWATOMI INDIANS MARRIAGE CODE
  47. ^ Forget Las Vegas. There’s Heronswood.
  48. ^ Nagle, Matt (July 16, 2014). "Puyallup Tribe Recognizes Same-Sex Marriages". Tacoma Weekly. Retrieved July 21, 2014. 
  49. ^ "Win Awenen Nisitotung, Vol.36, No.8 (page 5)" (PDF). http://www.saulttribe.com. Retrieved 2016-07-25.  External link in |website= (help)
  50. ^ "CHAPTER 61 STOCKBRIDGE-MUNSEE TRIBAL LAW MARRIAGE" (PDF). http://www.mohican.com/. Retrieved 2016-07-25.  External link in |website= (help)
  51. ^ Gardner, Steven (August 1, 2011). "Suquamish Tribe approves same-sex marriage". Kitsap Sun. Archived from the original on August 2, 2011. Retrieved August 2, 2011. 
  52. ^ "Tulalip Tribal Codes". Codepublishing.com. Retrieved 2016-07-28. 
  53. ^ a b c "Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands" (in Dutch). Government of the Netherlands. 10 October 2010. Retrieved 29 December 2010. 
  54. ^ (Spanish) Congreso de Colima aprueba enlaces conyugales de parejas gay
  55. ^ (Spanish) Colima declara válida la ley sobre bodas gay
  56. ^ "The Cayman Islands Constitution Order 2009" (PDF). Cayman Constitution. Retrieved September 15, 2012. 
  57. ^ "The Montserrat Constitution Order 2010". Government of Montserrat. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  58. ^ "Constitution of Montserrat Part I: Fundamental Rights & Freedoms". Government of Montserrat. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  59. ^ "The Turks and Caicos Islands Constitution Order 2011" (PDF). Government of the Turks and Caicos Islands. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  60. ^ "Mexican president proposes legalizing gay marriage". Associated Press. 18 May 2016. 
  61. ^ "Oficio con el que remite Iniciativa de decreto por el que se reforma el primer párrafo del artículo 4º de la Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos" (in Spanish). Senate of Mexico. Retrieved 21 May 2016. 
  62. ^ "Oficio con el que remite Iniciativa de decreto por el que se reforman, adicionan y derogan diversas disposiciones del Código Civil Federal" (in Spanish). Senate of Mexico. Retrieved 21 May 2016. 
  63. ^ "Iniciativa sobre matrimonio igualitario se discutirá en septiembre: Ordoñez". Noticias MVS. 19 June 2016. 
  64. ^ [1]
  65. ^ [2]
  66. ^ [3]
  67. ^ (Spanish) Proyecto de ley N.°19.508
  68. ^ (Spanish) Proyecto de organizaciones sociales para Matrimonio Igualitario ya está en la Asamblea Legislativa
  69. ^ (Spanish) 12 Diputados respaldan proyecto de ley para permitir matrimonio gay
  70. ^ (Spanish) Proyecto de Ley Matrimonio Igualitario by Frente Por los Derechos Igualitarios
  71. ^ "Mexico supreme court says state laws limiting marriage to man and woman unconstitutional". Minneapolis Star Tribune. 12 June 2015. 
  72. ^ "Suprema Corte ampara matrimonio igualitario" (in Spanish). Mexico: Animal Politico. 13 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  73. ^ "SCJN abre la puerta a matrimonio gay en todo el país" (in Spanish). Mexico City, Mexico: La Journada. 12 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  74. ^ México avalará el matrimonio gay a partir del lunes
  75. ^ "Mexico is the latest Latin American country to introduce marriage for same-sex couples". The Independent. 16 June 2015. 
  76. ^ "With Little Fanfare, Mexican Supreme Court Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage". New York Times. 16 June 2015. 
  77. ^ "Organizaciones civiles demandan a tribunal de Yucatán por obstaculizar el matrimonio homosexual" (in Spanish). Mérida, Mexico: Animo Politico. 14 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  78. ^ "Puebla entre los estados que violan la Constitución por impedir matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo" (in Spanish). Puebla, Mexico: Periodico Central. 14 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  79. ^ Rodríguez Castro, Óscar (14 June 2014). "Genera división de opiniones aprobación de la SCJN a la legalización de la unión entre personas del mismo sexo" (in Spanish). Mexico: El Diario de Delicias. Retrieved 15 June 2015.