Same-sex union legislation

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Worldwide laws regarding homosexual relationships and expression
  
Marriage
  
Restricted freedom of expression
  
Civil union, registered partnership or unregistered cohabitation
  
Unenforced penalty
  
Marriage recognized but not performed
  
Imprisonment
  
Same-sex unions not recognized
  
Up to life in prison
  
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Legal status of same-sex unions
Marriage
Performed
Recognized
  1. When performed in Mexican states that have legalized same-sex marriage
  2. When performed in the Netherlands proper

* Not yet in effect

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Same-sex marriage is legal in eighteen countries: Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Denmark,[nb 1] France, Iceland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands,[nb 2] New Zealand,[nb 3] Norway, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom,[nb 4] the United States[nb 5] and Uruguay.[1] The laws in Finland, Ireland and Slovenia are not yet in force.

Same-sex marriage in Mexico is performed in the federal district of Mexico City[2] and the states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Guerrero and Quintana Roo. Their marriage certificates are recognized in all 31 Mexican states. Same sex marriage is recognized, but not performed, in Israel and Malta. Furthermore, same-sex marriages performed in the Netherlands are recognized in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten.

Whether same-sex couples should be allowed to marry has been and remains the topic of debate worldwide. Twenty-nine countries and five jurisdictions worldwide have passed constitutional and/or statutory amendments that explicitly prohibit the legal recognition of same-sex marriage and sometimes other forms of legal unions as well.[3] Nineteen countries and eighteen jurisdictions worldwide have authorized civil unions or unregistered cohabitation for same-sex couples as an alternative to marriage. The legal name of those unions as well as the amount of rights that they provide can vary greatly.

Efforts to enable same-sex unions[edit]

International level[edit]

Several attempts have been made to establish a right to same-sex marriage at the international level through strategic litigation, at the Human Rights Committee of the United Nations and at the European Court of Human Rights, both of which currently have not yet recognized an equal right to marry for same-sex couples. The Human Rights Committee case was in 1999, with two same-sex couples as the plaintiffs/petitioners and the government of New Zealand as the defender/respondent. The ECHR case was in 2010, with a same-sex couple as the plaintiffs/petitioners and the government of Austria as the respondents. Although both New Zealand and Austria then responded against the petitions then in each case, both countries now legally recognize same-sex unions, New Zealand in the form of same-sex marriage and Austria in the form of a registered partnership.

National level[edit]

The first legislation of unregistered cohabitation was introduced in the Netherlands in June 1979.[4][5] However, the first substantial recognition of same-sex couples didn't occur before the introduction of a new legal form, that of registered partnerships, which was first enacted in Denmark in June 1989.[6] Many countries have followed with similar legislation since then. Legislation of these forms of legal unions still occur with a variety of different names, even after the introduction of same sex marriage, although sometimes they are overwritten by subsequent legislation of same-sex marriage.

There are currently nineteen countries that have an alternative form of legal recognition other than marriage on a national level. Those are Andorra, Australia, Austria, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Ecuador, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Liechtenstein, Malta, San Marino (although only for one entitlement), Slovenia and Switzerland.

As of June 2015, legislation to allow or expand any kind of alternative form of legal recognition of same-sex couples other than marriage have been proposed, is pending, or have passed at least one legislative house on a national level in Albania, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Colombia, Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Peru, Romania, Taiwan and Thailand.

The first same-sex marriage bill ever voted on was passed in the Netherlands[nb 2] in December 2000 and went into force in 2001. Belgium passed a same-sex marriage bill in 2003. Spain and Canada legalized same-sex marriage in 2005 and South Africa legalized it in 2006 thus becoming the next three countries to pass such bills. Same-sex marriage was legalized in both Norway and Sweden in 2009 and in Portugal, Iceland and Argentina in 2010. Denmark[nb 1] opened marriage to same-sex couples in 2012. Brazil, France, Uruguay and New Zealand[nb 3] gave same-sex couples the right to marry in 2013. The United Kingdom[nb 4] allows same-sex marriage since 2014. Same-sex marriage in Luxembourg and the United States[nb 5] became legal in 2015. The laws in and Ireland, Slovenia and Finland are expected to take effect in 2015, 2016 and on 1 March 2017, respectively.

As of July 2015, legislation to allow same sex marriage have been proposed, is pending, or have passed at least one legislative house on a national level in Austria, Australia, Colombia, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Philippines, Switzerland, Taiwan and Venezuela.

Country Date Same-sex union Upper house Lower house Head of state Final
outcome
Yes No Yes No
Netherlands Netherlands June 1979 Unregistered cohabitation[4][5] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Netherlands Netherlands December 1980 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[5] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Netherlands Netherlands November 1984 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[5] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark June 1986 Unregistered cohabitation[5][7][8] N/A 78 62 Signed Yes Yes
Sweden Sweden 1987 Unregistered cohabitation[5][9] N/A Passed n/a1 Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark June 1989 Registered partnership[9][10] N/A 71 47 Signed Yes Yes2
Norway Norway July 1991 Unregistered cohabitation[11] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Norway Norway April 1993 Registered partnership[12] 18 16 58 40 Signed Yes Yes2
Sweden Sweden June 1994 Registered partnership[13] N/A 171 141 n/a1 Yes Yes2
Spain Spain November 1994 Unregistered cohabitation[5] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Hungary Hungary May 1996 Unregistered cohabitation[5][14] N/A 207 73 Signed Yes Yes
Iceland Iceland June 1996 Registered partnership[15][16] N/A 44 1 Signed Yes Yes2
Netherlands Netherlands July 1997 Registered partnership[4] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Slovakia Slovakia 1997 Registered partnership[dead link] N/A Failed No No
Czech Republic Czech Republic June 1998 Registered partnership[17] Failed No No
France France October 1998 Civil solidarity pact[18] Failed No No
Belgium Belgium January 1999 Legal cohabitation[19][20] 39 8 98 10 Signed Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark June 1999 Registered partnership (expansion)[21] N/A 61 48 Signed Yes Yes2
France France November 1999 Civil solidarity pact Passed 315 249 Signed Yes Yes
Czech Republic Czech Republic December 1999 Registered partnership[22] 69 91 No No
Germany Germany November 2000 Registered life partnership Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Netherlands Netherlands December 2000 Marriage 49 26 109 33 Signed Yes Yes
Canada Canada 2000 Unregistered cohabitation[23] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Slovakia Slovakia 2000 Registered partnership[dead link] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal March 2001 Unregistered cohabitation N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Zealand New Zealand April 2001 Unregistered cohabitation[24] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Finland Finland September 2001 Registered partnership[25] N/A 99 84 Signed Yes Yes
Czech Republic Czech Republic October 2001 Registered partnership[26] Failed No No
Czech Republic Czech Republic 2001 Unregistered cohabitation[27] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Sweden Sweden June 2002 Registered partnership (expansion)[28] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Belgium Belgium February 2003 Marriage[29] 46 15 91 22 Signed Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark May 2003 Registered partnership (expansion)[30] N/A 49 60 No No
Denmark Denmark May 2003 Registered partnership (expansion)[31] N/A 45 60 No No
Denmark Denmark May 2003 Registered partnership (expansion)[32] N/A 43 61 No No
Denmark Denmark June 2003 Registered partnership (expansion)[33] N/A 11 94 No No
Croatia Croatia July 2003 Unregistered cohabitation N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Luxembourg Luxembourg July 2004 Partnership[34] N/A 33 7 Signed Yes Yes
United Kingdom United Kingdom November 2004 Civil partnership[35] 251 136 426 49 Signed Yes Yes
Germany Germany December 2004 Registered life partnership (expansion) Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Zealand New Zealand December 2004 Civil union[36] N/A 65 55 Signed Yes Yes
Norway Norway 2004 Marriage[37] N/A Failed No No
Panama Panama 2004 Civil union[38] N/A Failed No No
Czech Republic Czech Republic February 2005 Registered partnership Failed No No
Andorra Andorra March 2005 Stable union of a couple N/A Passed Signed 3 Yes Yes
Slovenia Slovenia March 2005 Registered partnership Failed No No
New Zealand New Zealand March 2005 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[39][40] N/A 76 43 Signed Yes Yes
Switzerland Switzerland June 2005 Registered partnership[41] Nationwide referendum (58%) Yes Yes
Spain Spain July 2005 Marriage Vetoed 4 183 136 Signed Yes Yes
Canada Canada July 2005 Marriage[42] 47 21 158 133 Signed Yes Yes
Slovenia Slovenia July 2005 Partnership Passed 44 3 Signed Yes Yes
Czech Republic Czech Republic March 2006 Registered partnership[43] 65 14 86 54 Vetoed 5 Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark June 2006 Registered partnership (expansion)[44] N/A 49 62 No No
Iceland Iceland June 2006 Registered partnership (expansion)[45][46] N/A 41 0 Signed Yes Yes2
France France June 2006 Civil solidarity pact (expansion)[47] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
South Africa South Africa November 2006 Marriage and civil partnership[48] 36 11 230 41 Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal December 2006 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion) N/A Passed Vetoed No No
Colombia Colombia June 2007 Civil union[49] 29 34 62 43 No No
Hungary Hungary December 2007 Registered partnership[50] N/A 185 154 Signed Yes No 6
Uruguay Uruguay December 2007 Cohabitation union[51][52] 17 5 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Iceland Iceland May 2008 Registered partnership (expansion)[53][54] N/A 54 0 Signed Yes Yes2
Norway Norway June 2008 Marriage[55] 23 17 84 41 Signed Yes Yes
Ecuador Ecuador September 2008 Civil union[56] Constitutional referendum (63.93%) Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal October 2008 Marriage[57] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal October 2008 Marriage[57] N/A Failed No No
Australia Australia November 2008 Unregistered cohabitation[58] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Sweden Sweden April 2009 Marriage[59] N/A 261 22 n/a1 Yes Yes
Hungary Hungary April 2009 Registered partnership N/A 199 159 Signed Yes Yes
France France May 2009 Foreign unions as PACS[60] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Finland Finland May 2009 Registered partnership (expansion in adoption rights)[61] N/A 108 29 Signed Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark June 2009 Registered partnership (expansion)[62] N/A 107 2 Signed Yes Yes2
Portugal Portugal August 2009 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[63] N/A Passed Vetoed No No
Uruguay Uruguay September 2009 Cohabitation union (expansion in adoption rights)[64][65] 17 6 40 13 Signed Yes Yes
Austria Austria December 2009 Registered partnership 44 8 110 64 Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal January 2010 Marriage[66] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal January 2010 Marriage[67] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal January 2010 Registered civil union[68] N/A Failed No No
Hungary Hungary February 2010 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion) N/A Passed Vetoed 5 Yes Yes
Australia Australia February 2010 Marriage[69] 5 45 No No
Portugal Portugal May 2010 Marriage[70] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark May 2010 Registered partnership (expansion)[71] N/A 60 54 Signed Yes Yes2
Denmark Denmark June 2010 Marriage[72] N/A 52 57 No No
Iceland Iceland June 2010 Marriage[73][74] N/A 49 0 Signed Yes Yes
Republic of Ireland Ireland July 2010 Civil partnership and unregistered cohabitation[75][76] 48 4 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Argentina Argentina July 2010 Marriage[77] 33 27 125 109 Signed Yes Yes
Luxembourg Luxembourg August 2010 Partnership (expansion)[78] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal August 2010 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[79][80] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Germany Germany September 2010 Marriage[81] Failed No No
Germany Germany October 2010 Registered life partnership (expansion in tax law)[82] Failed No No
Germany Germany April 2011 Registered life partnership (expansion in tax law and adoption rights)[83] Failed No No
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein June 2011 Registered partnership[84] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Nationwide referendum (68%)
France France June 2011 Marriage[85] 222 293 No No
Germany Germany June 2011 Registered life partnership (expansion in tax law)[86] Failed No No
Portugal Portugal February 2012 Marriage (expansion in adoption rights)[87] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal February 2012 Marriage (expansion)[87] N/A Failed No No
Slovenia Slovenia March 2012 Partnership (expansion)[dead link] Nationwide referendum (45.36%) No No
Israel Israel May 2012 Marriage[88] N/A 11 39 No No
Denmark Denmark June 2012 Marriage[89] N/A 85 24 Signed Yes Yes
Germany Germany June 2012 Marriage[90][91] 260 309 No No
San Marino San Marino June 2012 Unregistered cohabitation (only one entitlement)[92] N/A 33 20 Signed Yes Yes
Australia Australia September 2012 Marriage[93] 42 98 No No
Australia Australia September 2012 Marriage[94] 26 41 No No
Germany Germany October 2012 Registered life partnership (expansion in tax law)[95] 253 288 No No
Slovakia Slovakia November 2012 Registered partnership[96] N/A 14 94 No No
Poland Poland January 2013 Registered partnership[97] (Vote no. 45)[98] 150 276 No No
Poland Poland January 2013 Registered partnership[99] (Vote no. 46)[100] 138 284 No No
Poland Poland January 2013 Registered partnership (Vote no. 47)[101] 137 283 No No
Poland Poland January 2013 Registered partnership (Vote no. 48)[102] 137 283 No No
Poland Poland January 2013 Partnership agreement[103] (Vote no. 49)[104] 211 228 No No
Germany Germany March 2013 Registered life partnership (expansion in tax law)[105][106] Passed No No
Germany Germany March 2013 Marriage[107] Passed No No
New Zealand New Zealand April 2013 Marriage[108] N/A 77 44 Signed Yes Yes
Colombia Colombia April 2013 Marriage[109] 17 51 No No
Uruguay Uruguay May 2013 Marriage[110][111] 23 8 71 21 Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal May 2013 Marriage (expansion in adoption rights)[112] N/A 77 104 No No
Portugal Portugal May 2013 Marriage (expansion)[112] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal May 2013 Marriage (expansion)[112] N/A Failed No No
France France May 2013 Marriage[113][114] 171 165 331 225 Signed Yes Yes
Australia Australia June 2013 Recognition of overseas marriage[115] 28 44 No No
Germany Germany July 2013 Registered life partnership (expansion in tax law)[116][117] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
United Kingdom UK
(England and Wales)
July 2013 Marriage[118][119] Passed 366 161 Signed Yes Yes
Austria Austria July 2013 Registered partnership (expansion in adoption rights)[120][121] 45 8 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Netherlands Netherlands December 2013 Marriage (expansion: lesbian parenthood equality)[122][123] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal March 2014 Marriage (expansion)[124] N/A 107 112 No No
Malta Malta April 2014 Civil union[125][126] N/A 37 0 Signed Yes Yes
Belgium Belgium May 2014 Marriage (expansion: lesbian parenthood equality)[127][128] 48 2 114 10 Signed Yes Yes
Germany Germany May 2014 Registered life partnership (expansion in adoption rights)[129][130] 111 432 No No
Andorra Andorra May 2014 Marriage[131][132] N/A 6 21 No No
Germany Germany June 2014 Registered life partnership (expansion in adoption rights)[133][134] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Romania Romania June 2014 Civil partnership[135][136] 2 110 4 298 No No
Luxembourg Luxembourg June 2014 Marriage[137][138] N/A 56 4 N/A7 Yes Yes
Croatia Croatia July 2014 Life partnership[139] N/A 89 16 N/A8 Yes Yes
Germany Germany July 2014 Registered life partnership (expansion in tax law)[140][141][142] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
San Marino San Marino September 2014 Recognition of marriage performed abroad[143] N/A 15 35 No No
Estonia Estonia October 2014 Cohabitation agreement[144][145][146] N/A 40 38 Signed Yes Yes
Andorra Andorra December 2014 Civil union[147][148] N/A 20 3 Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal January 2015 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[149][150] N/A 89 119 No No
Portugal Portugal January 2015 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[149][150] N/A 91 119 No No
Portugal Portugal January 2015 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[149][150] N/A 91 120 No No
Portugal Portugal January 2015 Marriage (expansion: assisted reproduction)[149][150] N/A Failed No No
Finland Finland February 2015 Marriage[151][152][153] N/A 101 90 Signed Yes Yes
Slovenia Slovenia March 2015 Marriage[154][155] Not vetoed 51 28 N/A8 Yes Yes
Republic of Ireland Ireland April 2015 Civil partnership and unregistered cohabitation (expansion: adoption rights)[156][157] 20 2 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Chile Chile April 2015 Civil union agreement[158][159] 25 6 78 9 Signed Yes Yes
Ecuador Ecuador June 2015 Civil union (expansion)[160][161][162][163] N/A 89 1 Signed Yes Yes
Israel Israel July 2015 Civil union[164] N/A 39 50 No No
Republic of Ireland Ireland August 2015 Marriage (constitutional amendment)[165] 29 3 Passed Signed
Constitutional referendum (62.07%)
September 2015 Marriage (statutory legislation)[166] Proposed
Romania Romania September 2015 Civil partnership[167][168] 8 49 Pending
Chile Chile September 2015 Civil union agreement (expansion: adoption rights)[169][170][171] Pending
Cyprus Cyprus October 2015 Civil cohabitation[172][173] N/A Pending
Albania Albania 2015 Cohabitation[174] N/A Proposed
Australia Australia 2015 Marriage[175][176] Pending
Austria Austria 2015 Marriage[177][178][179] Pending
Austria Austria 2015 Registered partnership (expansion)[180][181][182] Pending
Bolivia Bolivia 2015 Civil union[183] Proposed
Chile Chile 2015 Marriage[184][185] Pending
Colombia Colombia 2015 Marriage and civil union[186] Pending
Costa Rica Costa Rica 2015 De facto union[187] N/A Pending
Czech Republic Czech Republic 2015 Registered partnership (expansion)[188] Pending
Germany Germany 2015 Marriage[189][190][191] Pending Pending
Germany Germany 2015 Registered life partnership (expansion)[192][193] Proposed
Hungary Hungary 2015 Marriage [194] N/A Pending
Israel Israel 2015 Civil union[195] N/A Pending
Italy Italy 2015 Civil union and cohabitation agreement[196][197] Pending
Italy Italy 2015 Marriage[198][199][200] Pending
Monaco Monaco 2015 Cohabitation agreement[201] N/A Pending
Peru Peru 2015 Solidarity union[202] N/A Pending
Philippines Philippines 2015 Marriage[203] Proposed
Switzerland Switzerland 2015 Marriage[204][205] Pending
Switzerland Switzerland 2015 Registered partnership (expansion)[206] Pending
Taiwan Taiwan 2015 Marriage[207][208] N/A Pending
Taiwan Taiwan 2015 Civil partnership[207][208] N/A Proposed
Thailand Thailand 2015 Civil partnership[209] N/A Proposed
Venezuela Venezuela 2015 Marriage[210] N/A Pending

Notes:
1According to the 1974 Constitution, the King of Sweden is head of state but does not sign or veto any laws enacted by Parliament.
2Replaced by the gender-neutral marriage law.
3Only one of the two Co-Princes of Andorra signed the law.
4The Spanish Senate voted 131 "yes" to 119 "no" to veto the law. The veto was later overridden by the Spanish Congress of Deputies.
5Veto overridden.
6Ruled unconstitutional.
7Since the 2008 constitutional change, the assent of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg is not required for the enactment of laws adopted by the Parliament.
8The President merely promulgates the laws adopted by the Parliament

Sub-national level[edit]

For status in U.S. states, see Same-sex marriage legislation in the United States

In countries with a federal system of governance, states and territories often may grant recognition to same-sex couples in their own jurisdictions, although unitary states with a level of devolution, such as Spain or the United Kingdom, also offer such legalities to local authorities. The first jurisdiction to enact unregistered cohabitation was British Columbia in Canada in July 1992. The first jurisdiction to legalize registered partnership was Greenland as part of the Kingdom of Denmark in April 1996. Finally, the first jurisdiction to legalize same-sex marriage was the Canadian province of Ontario in June 2003.

Currently eighteen jurisdictions worldwide have legalized some kind of alternative form of legal union of same-sex couples other than marriage. Those are five Australian states (New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania and Victoria) and one Australian territory (the Australian Capital Territory), three Mexican states (Campeche, Colima and Jalisco), the Venezuelan state of Mérida, Greenland, an autonomous country and part of the Kingdom of Denmark, a constituent country of the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland), the Taiwanese cities of Kaoshiung and Taipei, a special ward of Tokyo (Shibuya), the British crown dependencies of Jersey and the Isle of Man, and the British overseas territory of Gibraltar

As of July 2015, legislation to allow or expand any kind of alternative form of legal recognition of same-sex couples other than marriage have been proposed, is pending, or have passed at least one legislative house in the British crown dependency of Guernsey, the British overseas territory of Falkland Islands, and Aruba, a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

For the time being, thirty-four jurisdictions worldwide have legalized same-sex marriage. Those are:

  • Greenland, an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark.

As of July 2015, legislation to allow same sex marriage have been proposed, is pending, or have passed at least one legislative house in the Mexican states of Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chiapas, Colima, Durango, Guanajuato, Jalisco, México (state), Michoacán, Morelos, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Yucatán and Zacatecas, the Mexican city of Tijuana, Greenland and the British crown dependency of Jersey.

State/Territory Country Date Same-sex union Upper House Lower house Head of State Final
outcome
Yes No Yes No
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 1992 Unregistered cohabitation[211][212] N/A 30 17 Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 1993 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[213] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 1993 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[214] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 1993 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[215] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia May 1994 Unregistered cohabitation[216] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Ontario Ontario Canada Canada June 1994 Domestic partnership[217] N/A 58 69 No No
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada June 1995 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[218] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Greenland Greenland Denmark Denmark April 1996 Registered partnership[219][220] N/A 104 1 Signed Yes Yes
Ceuta Ceuta Spain Spain April 1997 De facto union[221] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 1997 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[222] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Catalonia Catalonia Spain Spain June 1998 Stable union of couple[223][224] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Yukon Yukon Canada Canada December 1998 Unregistered cohabitation[225] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Aragon Aragon Spain Spain March 1999 Stable couple[223][226] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Quebec Quebec Canada Canada May 1999 Unregistered cohabitation[227] N/A 80 0 Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia June 1999 Unregistered cohabitation[228] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 1999 Unregistered cohabitation[229] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Ontario Ontario Canada Canada October 1999 Unregistered cohabitation[230] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Yukon Yukon Canada Canada 1999 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[231] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Navarre Navarre Spain Spain July 2000 Stable couple[223][232] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Castilla-La Mancha Castile-La Mancha Spain Spain July 2000 Stable couple[233] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 2000 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[234] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Canada Canada November 2000 Domestic partnership[235][236] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador Canada Canada December 2000 Unregistered cohabitation[237] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Brunswick New Brunswick Canada Canada December 2000 Unregistered cohabitation[238] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Canton of Geneva Geneva Switzerland Switzerland February 2001 Partnership[204][239] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Valencian Community Valencia Spain Spain April 2001 De facto union[240] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Manitoba Manitoba Canada Canada July 2001 Common-law relationship[241] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Canada Canada July 2001 Unregistered cohabitation[242] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Canada Canada July 2001 Unregistered cohabitation[243] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Victoria (Australia) Victoria Australia Australia August 2001 Unregistered cohabitation Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador Canada Canada December 2001 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[244] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Balearic Islands Balearic Islands Spain Spain December 2001 Stable couple[223][245] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Community of Madrid Madrid Spain Spain December 2001 De facto couple[223][246] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Western Australia Western Australia Australia Australia April 2002 Unregistered cohabitation[247] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Asturias Asturias Spain Spain May 2002 Stable couple[223][248] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Quebec Quebec Canada Canada June 2002 Civil union[249] N/A 87 0 Signed Yes Yes
Manitoba Manitoba Canada Canada August 2002 Common-law relationship (expansion)[250] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Manitoba Manitoba Canada Canada August 2002 Common-law relationship (expansion)[251] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Canton of Zurich Canton of Zurich Switzerland Switzerland September 2002 Registered partnership[252] Cantonal referendum (63%) Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia October 2002 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[253][254] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Castile and León Castile and León Spain Spain October 2002 Stable couple[255] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Alberta Alberta Canada Canada December 2002 Adult interdependent relationship[256] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Queensland Queensland Australia Australia December 2002 Unregistered cohabitation N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Andalusia Andalusia Spain Spain December 2002 De facto couple[223][257] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Prince Edward Island Prince Edward Island Canada Canada December 2002 Unregistered cohabitation[258] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Northwest Territories Northwest Territories Canada Canada 2002 Unregistered cohabitation[231] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Argentina Argentina January 2003 Civil union[259][260] N/A 29 10 Signed Yes Yes
Canary Islands Canary Islands Spain Spain March 2003 De facto couple[223][261] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Extremadura Extremadura Spain Spain March 2003 De facto couple[223][262] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country Spain Spain May 2003 De facto couple[223][263] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Río Negro Province Rio Negro Argentina Argentina May 2003 Coexistence[264] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia September 2003 Significant relationship and caring relationship[265] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia January 2004 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion) N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Canton of Neuchâtel Neuchâtel Switzerland Switzerland January 2004 Registered partnership[266][267] N/A 65 38 Signed Yes Yes
Northern Territory Northern Territory Australia Australia January 2004 Unregistered cohabitation[268][269] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Sydney.jpg Sydney Australia Australia July 2004 Relationship N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
South Australia South Australia Australia Australia October 2004 Civil union N/A Failed No No
Quebec Quebec Canada Canada November 2004 Marriage (codification)[270] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Ontario Ontario Canada Canada March 2005 Marriage (codification)[271] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Northwest Territories Northwest Territories Canada Canada March 2005 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[272] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Cantabria Cantabria Spain Spain May 2005 De facto couple[273] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Isle of Man Isle of Man United Kingdom United Kingdom November 2005 UK partnership recognition[274] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Norfolk Island Norfolk Island Australia Australia February 2006 Unregistered cohabitation[275] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia June 2006 Civil union N/A Passed Signed No No1
Galicia (Spain) Galicia Spain Spain June 2006 Common-law marriage[276] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Mexico City Mexico City Mexico Mexico November 2006 Law for coexistence partnerships[277] N/A 43 17 Signed Yes Yes
South Australia South Australia Australia Australia December 2006 Domestic partnership agreement[278] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Coahuila Coahuila Mexico Mexico January 2007 Civil pact of solidarity[279] N/A 20 13 Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia February 2007 Civil partnership N/A Passed Signed No No1
Melbourne Australia Australia April 2007 Relationship N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Victoria (Australia) Yarra Australia Australia May 2007 Relationship declaration program[280] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Argentina Villa Carlos Paz Argentina Argentina November 2007 Civil union[281] N/A 12 6 Signed Yes Yes
Melilla Melilla Spain Spain January 2008 De facto union[282] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Victoria (Australia) Victoria Australia Australia April 2008 Registered relationship 29 10 54 24 Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia May 2008 Civil partnership[283] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Prince Edward Island Prince Edward Island Canada Canada May 2008 Marriage (codification)[284] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia June 2008 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[285] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Manitoba Manitoba Canada Canada October 2008 Marriage (codification)[286] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Brunswick New Brunswick Canada Canada December 2008 Marriage (codification) and unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[287] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Caledonia New Caledonia France France April 2009 Civil solidarity pact[288][289] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna France France April 2009 Civil solidarity pact Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Bandera Rio Cuarto.jpg Río Cuarto Argentina Argentina May 2009 Civil union N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador Canada Canada May 2009 Marriage (codification)[290] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia September 2009 Significant relationship (expansion)[291] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia November 2009 Civil partnership (expansion)[292] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador Canada Canada December 2009 Marriage (codification)[293] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Mexico City Mexico City Mexico Mexico December 2009 Marriage[294] N/A 39 20 Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales Blue Mountains Australia Australia March 2010 Relationship declaration program N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia May 2010 Registered relationship[295][296] 32 5 62 9 Signed Yes Yes
La Rioja (Spain) La Rioja Spain Spain May 2010 Common-law marriage[297] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Vienna Vienna Austria Austria June 2010 Registered partnership (expansion)[298][299] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Catalonia Catalonia Spain Spain July 2010 Marriage (codification)[300] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia October 2010 Out-of-state unions as significant relationship[301][302] Passed 22 3 Signed Yes Yes
Isle of Man Isle of Man United Kingdom United Kingdom March 2011 Civil partnership[303] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Nunavut Nunavut Canada Canada October 2011 Marriage (codification)[304] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Queensland Queensland Australia Australia December 2011 Civil partnership[305][306] N/A 47 40 Signed Yes Yes
Jersey Jersey United Kingdom United Kingdom December 2011 Civil partnership[307][308] N/A 33 0 Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia September 2012 Civil union[309][310] N/A 11 6 Signed Yes Yes
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia September 2012 Marriage[311][312] 6 8 13 11 No No
Western Australia Vincent Australia Australia December 2012 Relationship register[313] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Macau Macau China China March 2013 Civil union[314] N/A Failed No No
South Australia South Australia Australia Australia July 2013 Marriage[315] Failed No No
Colima Colima Mexico Mexico July 2013 Marital bond[316][317][318] N/A 17 2 N/A Yes Yes
August 2013 N/A Passed Signed
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia October 2013 Marriage[319] 6 8 No No
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia October 2013 Marriage[320] N/A 9 8 Signed No No2
Jalisco Jalisco Mexico Mexico October 2013 Civil union[321] N/A 20 15 Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia November 2013 Marriage[322] 19 21 No No
Campeche Campeche Mexico Mexico December 2013 Civil union[323] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Scotland Scotland United Kingdom United Kingdom March 2014 Marriage[324][325] N/A 105 18 Signed Yes Yes
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands Denmark Denmark March 2014 Marriage[326] N/A 11 20 No No
Gibraltar Gibraltar United Kingdom United Kingdom March 2014 Civil partnership[327][328] N/A 16 0 Signed Yes Yes
Durango Durango Mexico Mexico April 2014 Marriage[329] N/A Failed No No
Alberta Alberta Canada Canada May 2014 Marriage (codification)[330] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Coahuila Coahuila Mexico Mexico September 2014 Marriage[331][332][333] N/A 19 1 Signed Yes Yes
Yukon Yukon Canada Canada December 2014 Marriage (codification)[334] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Shibuya, Tokyo.svg Shibuya Japan Japan March 2015 Partnership certificate[335] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Kaohsiung City.svg Kaohsiung Taiwan Taiwan May 2015 Registered partnership[336] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Pitcairn Islands Pitcairn Islands United Kingdom United Kingdom May 2015 Marriage[337] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Taipei City.svg Taipei Taiwan Taiwan June 2015 Registered partnership[338] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Aruba Aruba Netherlands Netherlands September 2015 Registered partnership[339] N/A Pending
Greenland Greenland Denmark Denmark September 2015 Marriage[340][341] N/A 27 0
Flag of Setagaya, Tokyo.svg Setagaya Japan Japan September 2015 Partnership certificate[342] N/A Pending
Aguascalientes Aguascalientes Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage and civil union[343] N/A Pending
Baja California (state) Baja California Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage[344] N/A Pending
Baja California Sur Baja California Sur Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage[345] N/A Proposed
Chiapas Chiapas Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage[346][347] N/A Pending
Chihuahua (state) Chihuahua Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage (codification)[348] N/A Pending
Colima Colima Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage[349] N/A Pending
Durango Durango Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage[350] N/A Pending
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands United Kingdom United Kingdom 2015 Civil partnership[351] N/A Pending
Guanajuato Guanajuato Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage[352] N/A Pending
Guernsey Guernsey United Kingdom United Kingdom 2015 Civil union[353][354][355] N/A Proposed
Guerrero Guerrero Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage (codification)[356] N/A Pending
Jalisco Jalisco Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage[357] N/A Pending
Jersey Jersey United Kingdom United Kingdom 2015 Marriage[358][359] N/A Proposed
State of Mexico México (state) Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage[360] N/A Pending
Michoacán Michoacán Mexico Mexico 2015 Civil union[361] N/A Pending
Morelos Morelos Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage[362] N/A Pending
Nuevo León Nuevo León Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage and civil union[363] N/A Pending
Oaxaca Oaxaca Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage[364] N/A Proposed
Puebla (state) Puebla Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage[365] N/A Pending
Querétaro Querétaro Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage[366] N/A Pending
Quintana Roo Quintana Roo Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage (codification)[367] N/A Pending
San Luis Potosí San Luis Potosí Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage[368] N/A Pending
Sinaloa Sinaloa Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage and civil union[369][370] N/A Pending
Tabasco Tabasco Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage[371] N/A Pending
Tamaulipas Tamaulipas Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage[372] N/A Pending
Baja California (state) Tijuana Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage[373] N/A Pending
Tlaxcala Tlaxcala Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage[374] N/A Pending
Yucatán (state) Yucatán Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage[375] N/A Pending
Zacatecas Zacatecas Mexico Mexico 2015 Marriage[376] N/A Proposed

Note:
1Legislation overturned by federal government.
2Legislation overturned by the High Court.

Constitutional efforts to prohibit same-sex unions[edit]

Sometimes unintentionally but usually in response to legislation providing for marriage or other rights to same-sex couples, twenty-nine countries, fourteen states in the United States, two Mexican states and three British Overseas Territories have passed constitutional amendments banning a variety of same-sex unions. These amendments have taken several forms. Some are limited to banning only marriage. Others ban marriage and prohibit legislation providing "similar rights". Some prohibit government from authorizing any form of same-sex union, while others invalidate existing and future private contracts, including wills, for same-sex couples. Fourteen of the countries with constitutional amendments prohibiting same-sex marriage passed them via constitutional referendum, with the amendment being, most of the times, one of many within a proposed constitution submitted to the people by the government.

National level[edit]

Cuba was the first country to prohibit same-sex marriage in February 1976. Paraguay is the only case that not only marriage is prohibited but also any other equivalent/similar union. In November 2013, Vietnam became the first country to repeal a same-sex marriage ban which was previously established in April 1992. Legislative attempts to ban same-sex marriage in El Salvador and the United States have failed twice.

Currently, twenty-nine countries prohibit same-sex marriage on a national level. Those are Belarus, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Croatia, Cuba, DR Congo, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, Hungary, Kenya, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Montenegro, Palau, Paraguay, Poland, Rwanda, Serbia, Slovakia, South Sudan, Uganda, Ukraine, Venezuela and Zimbabwe.

As of April 2015, legislation to ban same sex marriage has been proposed, is pending, or has passed at least one legislative house on a national level in El Salvador, Georgia, Russia, Switzerland and Macedonia.

Country Date Ban on Upper house Lower house Head of state Final
outcome
Yes No Yes No
Cuba Cuba February 1976 Marriage[377] Constitutional referendum (97.7%) Yes Yes
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso June 1991 Marriage[378] Constitutional referendum (77.1%) Yes Yes
Bulgaria Bulgaria July 1991 Marriage[379] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Vietnam Vietnam April 1992 Marriage[380] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes1
Paraguay Paraguay June 1992 Marriage and equivalent/similar union[381] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Lithuania Lithuania October 1992 Marriage[382][383] Constitutional referendum (75.42%) Yes Yes
Cambodia Cambodia September 1993 Marriage[384] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Belarus Belarus March 1994 Marriage[385] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Moldova Moldova July 1994 Marriage[386] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Ukraine Ukraine June 1996 Marriage[387] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Poland Poland April 1997 Marriage[388] Constitutional referendum (52.71%) Yes Yes
Venezuela Venezuela December 1999 Marriage[389][390] Constitutional referendum (71.78%) Yes Yes
Rwanda Rwanda May 2003 Marriage[391] Constitutional referendum (93.42%) Yes Yes
United States United States July 2004 Marriage[392] 48 50 227 186 No No
Burundi Burundi February 2005 Marriage[393] Constitutional referendum (92.02%) Yes Yes
Honduras Honduras March 2005 Marriage[394][395] N/A 128 0 Signed Yes Yes
Uganda Uganda September 2005 Marriage[396] N/A 111 17 Signed Yes Yes
Latvia Latvia December 2005 Marriage[397] N/A 65 5 Signed Yes Yes
Democratic Republic of the Congo DR Congo December 2005 Marriage[398][399] Constitutional referendum (84.31%) Yes Yes
United States United States July 2006 Marriage[400] 49 48 236 187 No No
Serbia Serbia October 2006 Marriage[401] Constitutional referendum (53.04%) Yes Yes
Montenegro Montenegro October 2007 Marriage[402][403] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Ecuador Ecuador September 2008 Marriage[404] Constitutional referendum (63.93%) Yes Yes
Palau Palau November 2008 Marriage[405][406] Constitutional referendum (83.56%) Yes Yes
Bolivia Bolivia January 2009 Marriage[407] Constitutional referendum (61.43%) Yes Yes
El Salvador El Salvador October 2009 Marriage[408] N/A 46 38 No No2
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic January 2010 Marriage[409] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Kenya Kenya August 2010 Marriage[410] Constitutional referendum (68.55%) Yes Yes
Zambia Zambia March 2011 Marriage[411][412] N/A Failed No No
Hungary Hungary April 2011 Marriage[413][414][415] N/A 262 44 Signed Yes Yes
South Sudan South Sudan July 2011 Marriage[416][417] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Liberia Liberia June 2012 Marriage[418] Passed Failed No No
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe March 2013 Marriage[419] Constitutional referendum (94.5%) Yes Yes
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia September 2013 Marriage[420] N/A Failed No No
Croatia Croatia December 2013 Marriage[421] Constitutional referendum (65.87%) Yes Yes
El Salvador El Salvador February 2014 Marriage[422] N/A Failed No No
Slovakia Slovakia June 2014 Marriage[423] N/A 102 18 N/A Yes Yes
Slovakia Slovakia February 2015 Marriage[424] Constitutional referendum (94.50%) No No3
El Salvador El Salvador 2015 Marriage[425] N/A Pending4
Georgia (country) Georgia 2015 Marriage[426][427] N/A Proposed
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia 2015 Marriage[428][429] N/A Pending
Russia Russia 2015 Marriage[430] Proposed
Switzerland Switzerland 2015 Marriage[204] N/A Pending

Note:
1 Repealed in November 2013, as an article 64 was replaced by article 36, which does not contain a definition of marriage[431][432]
2 The amendment was initially passed in April 2009 but was rejected in a second vote in October 2009.[433]
3 Although the amendment received 94.5% of the vote, turnout was only at 21.4%. For referendums in Slovakia to pass, turnout has to surpass 50% of registered voters.[424]
4Passed first reading, awaits second vote

Sub-national level[edit]

For status in U.S. states, see Same-sex marriage legislation in the United States and List of U.S. state constitutional amendments banning same-sex unions by type

Very few jurisdictions outside of the United States have enacted constitutional bans on same-sex marriage. The first jurisdiction to explicitly ban same-sex marriage was the U.S. state of Alaska in November 1998, but the first jurisdiction outside of the United States states to enact such a ban was the Cayman Islands, which are a British Overseas Territory, in June 2009. The first jurisdiction to repeal a ban on same sex marriage was the US state of California in August 2010, but the ruling went into effect June 2013.

Currently, five jurisdictions worldwide have constitutional bans on same-sex marriage. Those are three British Overseas Territories, the Cayman Islands, Montserrat and Turks and Caicos Islands, two Mexican states, Colima and Yucatán.

State/Territory Country Date Ban on Upper House Lower house Head of
state
Final
outcome
Yes No Yes No
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands June 2009 Marriage[434] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Yucatán (state) Yucatán Mexico Mexico July 2009 Marriage[435] N/A Passed N/A Yes Yes
Montserrat Montserrat October 2010 Marriage[436][437] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands July 2011 Marriage[438] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Colima Colima Mexico Mexico July 2013 Marriage[316][317][439] N/A 17 2 N/A Yes Yes1

Note:
1 Ruled unconstitutional in June 2015 by Mexico's Supreme Court; bill to repeal legislation presented in July 2015.[440][441]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Excluding the Faroe Islands. In Greenland, a law providing for same-sex marriage is expected to go into effect on 1 October 2015.
  2. ^ a b Excluding Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten.
  3. ^ a b Excluding Tokelau, Niue and the Cook Islands.
  4. ^ a b Excluding Northern Ireland, the Crown Dependencies and most British Overseas Territories (Same-sex marriage is legal in the Pitcairn Islands).
  5. ^ a b Excluding most Native American tribes. (Same-sex marriage is legal in 24 of them). Application to American Samoa unclear.

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