Shantinatha

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Shantinatha
16th Jain Tirthankara, 5th Chakravartin, 11th Kamadeva
Shantinatha
Seated image of Shantinatha with old Kannada inscription (1200 A.D.) engraved on the pedestal in Shantinatha Basadi, Jinanathapura
Venerated inJainism
PredecessorDharmanatha
SuccessorKunthunatha
SymbolDeer or Antelope
Height40 bows (120 metres)
Ageover 700,000 years
ColorGolden
Personal information
Born
Died
SpouseYasomati
Parents
  • Visvasena (father)
  • Achira (mother)

Shree Shantinatha was the sixteenth Jain Tirthankar of the present age (Avasarpini).[2] Shree Shantinatha was born to King Visvasen and Queen Achira at Hastinapur in the Ikshvaku dynasty. His birth date is the thirteenth day of the Jyest Krishna month of the Indian calendar. He was also a Chakravarti and a Kamadeva. He ascended to throne when he was 25 years old.[3][4] At the age of 50 years, he became a Jain monk and started his penance. According to Jain beliefs, he became a siddha, a liberated soul which has destroyed all of its karma.

Biography in Jain tradition[edit]

Birth[edit]

Shantinatha was born to King Visvasen and Queen Achira at Hastinapur in the Ikshvaku dynasty on thirteenth day of the Jyest Krishna month of the Indian calendar.[3] During his time epidemic of epilepsy broke out and he helped people to control it giving him name of Shantinath.[5]

Omniscience[edit]

Shanitnath was the fifth Chakravartin and ruled for 25 years after which he decided to spend his life as ascetic.[5] After one year of ascetism on the 9th bright day of month of Pausha (December/January), he achieved omniscience under a nandi tree.[3] The yaksha and yakshi of Shantinatha are Kimpurusha and Mahamanasi according to Digambara tradition and Garuda and Nirvani according to Śvētāmbara tradition.[6]

Moksha[edit]

His death is traditionally called by Jains as moksha or separation of soul from cycles of rebirths.[7] He died atop Shikharji on 13th day of the dark half of the month Jyestha (May–June),[3][note 1] known contemporaneously as the Parasnath Hills in northern Jharkhand.[10]

Previous births[edit]

  • King Srisena
  • Yugalika in Uttar Kurukshetra
  • Deva in Saudharma heaven
  • Amitateja, prince of Arkakirti
  • Heavenly deva in 10th heaven Pranat (20 sagars life span)
  • Aparajit Baldeva in East Mahavideha (life span of 84,00, 000 purva)
  • Heavenly Indra in 12th heaven Achyuta (22 sagars life span)
  • Vajrayudh Chakri, the son of Tirthankar Kshemanakar in East Mahvideha
  • Heavenly deva in Navgraivayak heaven
  • Megharath, the son of Dhanarath in East Mahavideh in the area where Simandhar Swami is moving at present
  • Heavenly deva in Sarvartha Siddha Heaven (33 sagars life span)

Literature[edit]

Legacy[edit]

Iconography[edit]

Shwetambar Shantinath idol with symbol of a deer

Shantinatha is usually depicted in a sitting or standing meditative posture with the symbol of a deer or antelope beneath him.[13][14] Every Tīrthankara has a distinguishing emblem that allows worshippers to distinguish similar-looking idols of the Tirthankaras.[15][16][17] The deer or antelope emblem of shantinath is usually carved below the legs of the Tirthankara. Like all Tirthankaras, Shantinath is depicted with Shrivatsa[note 2] and downcast eyes.[18]

Famous temples[edit]

Colossal statues[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Some texts refer to the place as Mount Sammeta.[8] This place is revered in Jainism because 20 out of 24 Jinas died here.[9]
  2. ^ A special symbol that marks the chest of a Tirthankara. The yoga pose is very common in Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism. Each tradition has had a distinctive auspicious chest mark that allows devotees to identify a meditating statue to symbolic icon for their theology. There are several srivasta found in ancient and medieval Jain art works, and these are not found on Buddhist or Hindu art works.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tandon 2002, p. 45.
  2. ^ Tukol 1980, p. 31.
  3. ^ a b c d Jain 2009, p. 84.
  4. ^ Shah, Chandraprakash. "SHRI SHANTINATH, 16TH TIRTHANKARA".
  5. ^ a b Mittal 2006, p. 689.
  6. ^ Shah 1987, p. 152.
  7. ^ Sangave 2001, p. 104.
  8. ^ Jacobi 1964, p. 275.
  9. ^ Cort 2010, pp. 130–133.
  10. ^ Kailash Chand Jain 1991, p. 13.
  11. ^ Shāntinātha Charitra, UNESCO.
  12. ^ Das 2005, p. 143.
  13. ^ Doniger 1999, p. 550.
  14. ^ Dalal 2010, p. 369.
  15. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica.
  16. ^ Krishna 2014, p. 34.
  17. ^ Zimmer 1953, p. 225.
  18. ^ Moore 1977, p. 138.
  19. ^ Wilson & Ravat 2017, p. 23.
  20. ^ "Shantinatha Basti, Halebid". Archaeological Survey of India. Archived from the original on 28 November 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
  21. ^ Ali Javid; Tabassum Javeed (2008). World Heritage Monuments and Related Edifices in India. Algora. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-87586-482-2.

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]