Deaflympics

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Deaflympics
Logo des ICSD (Veranstalter der Deaflympics).gif
Deaflympics Logo
Motto PER LUDOS AEQUALITAS (Equality through sport)
First event 1924 in Paris, France1924 Summer Deaflympics[1]
Occur every 4 years
Last event 2015 in Khanty-Mansiysk/Magnitogorsk, Russia2015 Winter Deaflympics
Purpose Provision of opportunities for deaf persons to participate in elite sports
Website www.deaflympics.com
www.ciss.org

The Deaflympics (previously called World Games for the Deaf, and International Games for the Deaf) are an International Olympic Committee (IOC)-sanctioned event at which deaf athletes compete at an elite level. Unlike the athletes in other IOC-sanctioned events (the Olympics, the Paralympics, and the Special Olympics), the Deaflympians cannot be guided by sounds (e.g., the starter's guns, bullhorn commands or referee whistles).[2] The games have been organized by the Comité International des Sports des Sourds (CISS, "The International Committee of Sports for the Deaf") since the first event.

History[edit]

The Deaflympics are held every four years, and are the longest running multi-sport event excluding the Olympics themselves.[3] The first games, held in Paris in 1924, were also the first ever international sporting event for athletes with a disability.[4] The event has been held every four years since, apart from a break for World War II, and an additional event, the Deaflympic Winter Games, was added in 1949.[5] The games began as a small gathering of 148 athletes from nine European nations competing in the International Silent Games in Paris, France, in 1924; now, they have grown into a global movement.[2]

Officially, the games were originally called the "International Games for the Deaf" from 1924 to 1965, but were sometimes also referred to as the "International Silent Games". From 1966 to 1999 they were called the "World Games for the Deaf", and occasionally referred to as the "World Silent Games". From 2001, the games have been known by their current name Deaflympics (often mistakenly called the Deaf Olympics).[5]

To qualify for the games, athletes must have a hearing loss of at least 55 db in their "better ear". Hearing aids, cochlear implants and the like are not allowed to be used in competition, to place all athletes on the same level.[5] Other examples of ways the games vary from hearing competitions are the manner in which they are officiated. To address the issue of Deaflympians not being able to be guided by sounds, certain sports use alternative methods of commencing the game. For example, the football referees wave a flag instead of blowing a whistle; on the track, races are started by using a light, instead of a starter pistol. It is also customary for spectators not to cheer or clap, but rather to wave – usually with both hands.

Host nations and cities[edit]

To date, the Summer Deaflympic Games have been hosted by 36 cities in 21 countries, but by cities outside Europe on only five occasions (Washington D.C. 1965, Los Angeles 1985, Christchurch 1989, Melbourne 2005 and Taipei 2009). The last summer games was held in Sofia, Bulgaria in 2013, and the next scheduled summer games will be in Sansum, Turkey in 2017. The last winter games were held in Khanty-Mansiysk, Russian Federation in 2015.

The 2011 Winter Games scheduled to be held in Vysoké Tatry, Slovakia were cancelled due to the lack of readiness by the organizing committee to host the games.[6][7] The International Committee of Deaf Sports filed a criminal complaint against the Slovak Deaflympics Organizing Committee and its President, Mr. Jaromír Ruda.[8] The criminal complaint demands reimbursement of the funds that were transferred to the Slovak Deaflympics Organizing Committee from national deaf sports federations, to cover hotel accommodations and other Deaflympics-related expenses.[8] According to the Slovak newspaper, SME, "Jaromír Ruda, head of the Slovak Organising Committee, [is] a champion of promises and someone who is accused of a 1.6 million Euro Deaflympics-related fraud".[9] In a letter to the United States Deaflympians, International Committee of Sports for the Deaf ICSD President Craig Crowley expressed "his deep apologies for the cancellation of the 17th Winter Deaflympics".[10] Currently, the Slovak Deaflympic Committee and the Slovakia Association of Deaf Sportsmen Unions have been suspended.[11] In 2013 the Special Criminal Court in Banská Bystrica sentenced Ruda to a prison term of 14 and a half years for defrauding €1.6 million that should have been used for Winter Deaflympics.[12]

The host cities and NOCs for all past and scheduled games are as follows:[4][13]

List of Summer Deaflympics Hosts[edit]

Games Year Host Opened by Dates Nations Competitors Sports Events Top Nation
Total Men Women
I 1924 France Paris, France Gaston Doumergue 10–17 August 9 148 7 31  France
II 1928 Netherlands Amsterdam, Netherlands 18–26 August 10 212 8 38  Great Britain
III 1931 Germany Nuremberg, Germany 19–23 August 14 212 7 43  Germany
IV 1935 United Kingdom London, Great Britain 17–24 August 14 212 7 43  Great Britain
V 1939 Sweden Stockholm, Sweden 24–27 August 14 212 7 43  Great Britain
VI 1949 Denmark Copenhagen, Denmark 12–16 August 14 391 9 51  Great Britain
VII 1953 Belgium Brussels, Belgium 15–19 August 57  Germany
VIII 1957 Italy Milan, Italy 25–30 August 69  Soviet Union
IX 1961 Finland Helsinki, Finland 6–10 August 94  Soviet Union
X 1965 United States Washington DC, United States 27 June - 3 July 85  Soviet Union
XI 1969 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Belgrade, Yugoslavia 9–16 August 105  Soviet Union
XII 1973 Sweden Malmö, Sweden 21–28 August 97  United States
XIII 1977 Romania Bucharest, Romania 17–27 July 106  United States
XIV 1981 West Germany Köln, West Germany 23 July - 1 August 110  United States
XV 1985 United States Los Angeles, United States 10–20 August 96  United States
XVI 1989 New Zealand Christchurch, New Zealand 7–17 January 120  United States
XVII 1993 Bulgaria Sofia, Bulgaria 24 July -2 August 126  United States
XVIII 1997 Denmark Copenhagen, Bulgaria 13–26 July 140  United States
XIX 2001 Italy Rome, Italy 22 July -1 August 143  United States
XX 2005 Australia Melbourne, Australia 5–16 January 147  Ukraine
XXI 2009 Flag of Chinese Taipei for Deaf.png Taipei, Chinese Taipei 5–15 September 177  Russia
XXII 2013 Bulgaria Sofia, Bulgaria 26 July - 4 August 203  Russia
XXIII 2017 Turkey Samsun, Turkey 18–30 July

List of Winter Deaflympics Hosts[edit]

Host cities of the Winter Deaflympics
Games Year Host Opened by Dates Nations Competitors Sports Events Top Nation
Total Men Women
I 1949 Austria Seefeld, Austria 26–30 August 5 33 33 0 2 5 Civil Ensign of Switzerland (Pantone).svg Switzerland
II 1953 Norway Oslo, Norway 20–24 February 6 44 42 2 4 9  Norway
III 1955 Germany Oberammergau, Germany 10–13 February 8 59 54 5 4 11  Norway
IV 1959 Civil Ensign of Switzerland (Pantone).svg Montana-Vermala, Switzerland 27–31 January 14  Norway
V 1963 Sweden Åre, Sweden 12–16 March 13  Austria
VI 1967 Germany Berchtesgaden, West Germany 20–25 February 11  Norway
VII 1971 Civil Ensign of Switzerland (Pantone).svg Adelboden, Switzerland 25–30 February 11 Civil Ensign of Switzerland (Pantone).svg Switzerland
VIII 1975 United States Lake Placid, United States 2–8 February 12  Canada
IX 1979 France Méribel, France 21–27 January 12  Soviet Union
X 1983 Italy Madonna di Campiglio, Italy 13–23 January 17  Soviet Union
XI 1987 Norway Oslo, Norway 7–14 February 18  Norway
XII 1991 Canada Banff, Canada 2–9 March 18  Soviet Union
XIII 1995 Finland Ylläs, Finland 14–19 March 15  Russia
XIV 1999 Civil Ensign of Switzerland (Pantone).svg Davos, Switzerland 6-14 March 17  Russia
XV 2003 Sweden Sundsvall, Sweden 26 February–9 March 23  Russia
XVI 2007 United States Salt Lake City, United States 1–10 February 26  Russia
XVII 2011 Slovakia Vysoké Tatry, Slovakia 16–28 February - - - - - - Cancelled
XVIII 2015 Russia Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia 28 March–5 April 31  Russia
XIX 2019 Italy Torino, Italy

All-time medal table[edit]

Summer Deaflympics[edit]

An all-time Summer Deaflympics from 1924 Summer Deaflympics to 2013 Summer Deaflympics, is tabulated below. The table is simply the consequence of the sum of the medal tables of the various editions of the Summer Deaflympics. [14]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States 350 307 330 987
2  Soviet Union 173 124 108 405
3  Germany 164 202 204 575
4  Russia 153 151 159 463
5  Italy 87 81 103 271
6  Iran 84 60 58 202
7  Ukraine 80 97 94 271
8  France 65 88 86 239
9  Great Britain 65 84 90 239
10  Sweden 64 79 60 203
11  Japan 61 56 38 155
12  Hungary 51 44 37 132
13  Finland 47 51 46 144
14  Denmark 46 40 53 139
15  South Korea 44 37 27 108
16  Australia 39 24 30 93
17  Poland 35 51 65 151
18  South Africa 35 16 9 60
19  Belarus 33 31 23 87
20  Netherlands 32 35 27 94
21  China 32 27 32 91
22  Canada 31 40 37 108
23  Norway 31 28 24 83
24  Yugoslavia 24 13 21 58
25 Flag of Chinese Taipei for Deaf.png Chinese Taipei 23 26 26 75
26  Turkey 17 29 38 84
27  India 17 7 9 33
28  Ireland 16 15 11 42
29  Bulgaria 15 42 46 103
30  Czech Republic 14 9 8 31
31  Belgium 15 29 41 85
32  Lithuania 12 12 20 42
33  Estonia 11 8 12 31
34  Cuba 10 3 12 25
35  Kenya 9 8 9 26
36 Civil Ensign of Switzerland (Pantone).svg Switzerland 8 15 16 39
37  East Germany 7 8 8 22
38  Venezuela 7 5 7 19
39  Romania 6 9 14 29
40  New Zealand 5 6 7 18
41  Portugal 5 3 3 11
42  Greece 4 8 5 17
43  Croatia 3 2 1 6
44  Czechoslovakia 3 7 9 19
45  Puerto Rico 3 0 1 4
46  Austria 2 6 7 15
47  Latvia 2 5 3 10
48  Kazakhstan 2 0 3 5
49  Malaysia 1 6 3 10
50  Spain 1 3 5 9
51  Argentina 1 3 3 7
52  Mongolia 1 2 8 11
53  Slovakia 1 2 1 4
54  Macau 1 0 1 2
55  Mexico 0 2 3 5
56  Slovenia 0 2 1 3
 Nigeria 0 2 1 3
58  Brazil 0 1 3 4
59  Serbia 0 1 2 3
60  Moldova 0 1 1 2
61  Iceland 0 1 0 1
 Thailand 0 1 0 1
63  Indonesia 0 0 2 2
64  Armenia 0 0 1 1
 Cyprus 0 0 1 1
 Colombia 0 0 1 1
 Hong Kong 0 0 1 1
 Israel 0 0 1 1
 Kyrgyzstan 0 0 1 1
 Turkmenistan 0 0 1 1
 Saudi Arabia 0 0 1 1
 Uzbekistan 0 0 1 1

Winter Deaflympics[edit]

An all-time Winter Deaflympics from 1949 Winter Deaflympics to 2015 Winter Deaflympics, is tabulated below. The table is simply the consequence of the sum of the medal tables of the various editions of the Winter Deaflympics. [15]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Norway 48 36 40 124
2  Russia 35 22 28 85
3  Canada 27 9 11 47
4  Soviet Union 24 26 21 71
5 Civil Ensign of Switzerland (Pantone).svg Switzerland 22 29 24 75
6  Finland 21 19 20 60
7  United States 20 41 40 101
8  Italy 18 11 12 40
9  Austria 17 24 20 61
10  Czech Republic 16 5 5 26
11  Germany 13 15 28 56
12  France 10 12 8 30
13  Japan 8 2 3 13
14  Australia 6 4 1 11
15  Sweden 2 15 10 27
16  Slovakia 2 5 7 14
17  Slovenia 2 2 3 7
18  Great Britain 2 2 2 6
19  China 1 1 3 5
20  Ukraine 0 10 6 16
21  Yugoslavia 0 1 1 2
22  Lithuania 0 1 0 1
23  Croatia 0 0 1 1
 Turkey 0 0 1 1

Sports[edit]

Summer Deaflympics[edit]

The following sports have been contested in a Summer Deaflympic Games programme:

Sport (Discipline) Body 24 28 31 35 39 49 53 57 61 65 69 73 77 81 85 89 93 97 01 05 09 13
 
Current summer sports
 
Aquatics - Swimming 7 10 11 10 11 14 18 14 14 15 17 17 26 26 34 31 34 32 38 38 38 38
 
Athletics 17 20 23 23 23 24 26 32 32 33 34 34 35 30 32 36 40 40 43 42 43 44
Badminton 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 5
Basketball DIBF 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Bowling 10 10 10 10 8
 
Cycling - Mountain 2
Cycling - Road 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 7
 
Football 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
 
Handball 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
Judo 10 17
Karate 5 15
Orienteering 6 6 5 8 8
Shooting 1 1 2 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 8 7 7 6 6 10 11
Table Tennis 5 5 7 7 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
Taekwondo 8 13
Tennis 2 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
 
Volleyball - Beach 2 2 2
Volleyball - Indoor 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
Wrestling - Freestyle 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 8 7 7 7
Wrestling - Greco-Roman 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 8 7 7 7
 
Discontinued summer sports
 
Aquatics - Diving 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Aquatics - Water Polo 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 
Gymnastics - Artistic 2 2 13 12 12
 
Demonstration summer sports
 
Gymnastics - Artistic
Gymnastics - Rhythmic
 
Total 31 38 43 45 47 51 57 69 94 85 105 97 106 110 96 120 126 140 143 147 177 203

These sports are organised by the CISS but haven't appeared in the Deaflympics:

  • Futsal
  • Golf

Winter Deaflympics[edit]

The following sports have been contested in a Winter Deaflympic Games programme:

Sport (Discipline) Body 49 53 55 59 63 67 71 75 79 83 87 91 95 99 03 07 15
 
Current winter sports
 
Curling 2 2
Ice hockey 1 1 1 1 1 1
 
Skiing - Alpine 3 4 6 10 8 6 6 6 6 8 8 6 8 8 8 10 10
Skiing - Freestyle - Snowboard 6 5 10
Skiing - Nordic - Cross-Country 2 3 3 3 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 9 8
 
Discontinued winter sports
 
Skiing - Nordic - Nordic Combined 1 1
Skiing - Nordic - Ski jumping 1 1 1
 
Speed skating 3 4 5
 
Demonstration winter sports
 
Curling
Ice hockey AHIHA
 
Skiing - Freestyle - Snowboard
 
Speed skating
 
Total 5 9 11 14 13 11 11 12 12 17 18 18 15 17 23 27 31

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Constitution". International Committee of Sports for the Deaf. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  2. ^ a b International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – News. Deaflympics.com. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  3. ^ What are the Deaflympics?. Disabled World. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  4. ^ a b Future Directions of the Deaflympics. Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  5. ^ a b c Historical overview of the Paralympics, Special Olympics, and Deaflympics. Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  6. ^ Winter Olympics: 2011 Winter Deaflympics Cancelled. Healthyhearing.com (17 February 2011). Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  7. ^ International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – PressRelease. Deaflympics.com (13 February 2011). Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  8. ^ a b ICSD Pursuing Legal Action Following Failure of 17th Winter Deaflympics. Deaf Sports Mag. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  9. ^ Slovakia: Deaflympics 2011 Controversy · Global Voices. Globalvoices.org. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  10. ^ 2011 US Deaflympics – Article | Letter from ICSD to USA athletes. Usdeaflympics.org (17 February 2011). Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  11. ^ International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – PressRelease. Deaflympics.com (14 February 2011). Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  12. ^ Deaflympics Committee Head Sentenced to Thirteen Years – English News. Webnoviny.sk. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  13. ^ International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – Games. Deaflympics.com. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  14. ^ "Deaflympics". deaflympics.com. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  15. ^ "Deaflympics". deaflympics.com. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 

External links[edit]