User:Kpalion/Polish heads of state

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Color code
Cream Dukes
Gold Kings
Olive State Leader (dictator)
Lavender Presidents
Pink Chairmen of the Council of State
White Acting and provisional heads of state, including regents and interreges

Early dukedom, until 1138[edit]

Portrait House Name Style From Until Notes
Siemowit
Piast
Piast
Siemowit Duke of the Polans 9th-10th century Semi-legendary tribal ruler
Lestek
Piast
Piast
Lestek Duke of the Polans 10th century Semi-legendary tribal ruler
Siemomysł
Piast
Piast
Siemomysł Duke of the Polans 10th century Semi-legendary tribal ruler
Mieszko I
Piast
Piast
Mieszko I Duke of Poland Before 965 25 May 992 Converted to Latin Christianity in 966.
Boleslaus I
Piast
Piast
Boleslaus I, the Brave
Bolesław I Chrobry
Duke of Poland 25 May 992 1000
King of Poland 1000 17 June 1025 Crowned in 1000 by Emperor Otto III of the Holy Roman Empire and again in 1025 by Archbishop Hipolitus of Gniezno.
Mieszko II
Piast
Piast
Mieszko II Lambert King of Poland 25 December 1025 10 May or 11 May 1034 In exile from 1031 to 1032, period when his brother, Bezprym, was the de facto ruler.
Casimir I
Piast
Piast
Casimir I, the Restorer
Kazimierz I Odnowiciel
Duke of Poland 11 May 1034 28 November 1058 Did not assume de facto reign until 1039.
Boleslaus II
Piast
Piast
Boleslaus II, the Generous (the Bold)
Bolesław II Szczodry (Śmiały)
Duke of Poland 28 November 1058 1076
King of Poland 1076 2 April or 3 April 1082 In exile from 1079.
Vladislaus I Herman
Piast
Piast
Vladislaus I Herman
Władysław I Herman
Duke of Poland 3 April 1082 (de facto from 1079) 4 June 1102 Palatine Sieciech was the virtual power behind the throne until he was deposed between 1097 and 1100 by Vladislaus's sons, Zbigniew and Boleslaus.
Zbigniew
Piast
Piast
Zbigniew Duke of Poland 4 June 1102 1107 Deposed and exiled in 1107 and blinded in 1112 by his brother, Boleslaus
Boleslaus III
Piast
Piast
Boleslaus III, the Wry-Mouthed
Bolesław III Krzywousty
Duke of Poland 1107 28 October 1138

Age of fragmentation, 1138–1306[edit]

Portrait House Name Style From Until Notes
Vladislaus II
Piast
Piast
Vladislaus II, the Exile
Władysław II Wygnaniec
High Duke of Poland 28 October 1138 1146 Duke of Silesia 1138-1146. Deposed and exiled by younger brothers in 1146.
Boleslaus IV
Piast
Piast
Boleslaus IV, the Curly
Bolesław IV Kędzierzawy
High Duke of Poland 1146 5 January 1173 Duke of Masovia 1138-1173, of Silesia 1146-1163, of Sandomierz 1166-1173
Mieszko III
Piast
Piast
Mieszko III, the Old
Mieszko III Stary
High Duke of Poland 1173 1177 Duke of Greater Poland 1138-ca.1178
Casimir II
Piast
Piast
Casimir II, the Just
Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy
High Duke of Poland 1173 1191 Duke of Sandomierz 1173-1194, of Masovia 1186-1194
Mieszko III
Piast
Piast
Mieszko III, the Old
Mieszko III Stary
(again)
High Duke of Poland 1191 1191 Duke of Greater Poland (again) 1182-1202
Casimir II
Piast
Piast
Casimir II, the Just
Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy
(again)
High Duke of Poland 1191 1194
Leszek I
Piast
Piast
Leszek I, the White
Leszek I Biały
High Duke of Poland 1194 1198 Duke of Sandomierz 1194-1227, of Masovia 1194-1247,
Mieszko III
Piast
Piast
Mieszko III, the Old
Mieszko III Stary
(again)
High Duke of Poland 1198 1202
Vladislaus III
Piast
Piast
Vladislaus III, Spindleshanks
Władysław III Laskonogi
High Duke of Poland 1202 1206 Duke of Greater Poland 1202-1229
Leszek I
Piast
Piast
Leszek I, the White
Leszek I Biały
(again)
High Duke of Poland 1206 1210
Piast
Piast
Mieszko IV, Tanglefoot
Mieszko IV Plątonogi
High Duke of Poland 1210 1211 Duke of Silesia 1163-1173, of Racibórz 1172-1211
Leszek I
Piast
Piast
Leszek I, the White
Leszek I Biały
(again)
High Duke of Poland 1211 1227 Assassinated
Vladislaus III
Piast
Piast
Vladislaus III, Spindleshanks
Władysław III Laskonogi
(again)
Duke of Cracow 1228 1231
Henry I
Piast
Piast
Henry I, the Bearded
Henryk I Brodaty
Duke of Cracow 1232 1238 Duke of Silesia 1201-1238, of Greater Poland 1234-1238
Henry II
Piast
Piast
Henry II, the Pious
Henryk II Pobożny
Duke of Cracow 1238 1241 Duke of Silesia and Greater Poland 1238-1241. Killed in the Battle of Legnica.
Conrad
Piast
Piast
Conrad
Konrad Mazowiecki
Duke of Cracow 1241 1243 Duke of Masovia 1194-1247, of Sandomierz 1194-1200
Boleslaus V
Piast
Piast
Boleslaus V, the Chaste
Bolesław V Wstydliwy
Duke of Cracow 1243 1279 Duke of Sandomierz 1227-1279
Leszek II
Piast
Piast
Leszek II, the Black
Leszek II Czarny
Duke of Cracow 1279 1288 Duke of Sandomierz 1279-1288
Henry IV
Piast
Piast
Henry IV, the Righteous
Henryk II Probus
Duke of Cracow 1288 1290 Duke of Silesia 1288-1290
Premislaus
Piast
Piast
Premislaus
Przemysł
Duke of Cracow 1290 1291 Duke of Greater Poland 1273-1296
King of Poland 26 June 1295 8 February 1296 Assassinated by Jakub Kaszuba
Wenceslaus
Přemyslid
Přemyslid
Wenceslaus
Wacław II Czeski
Duke of Cracow 1291 1300 King of Bohemia 1283-1305, Duke of Sandomierz 1292-1304, of Greater Poland 1299-1305
King of Poland 1300 1305

Reunited kingdom, 1306–1572[edit]

Portrait House Name Style From Until Notes
Vladislaus I
Piast
Piast
Vladislaus I, the Elbow-High
Władysław I Łokietek
Duke of Cracow 1306 1320 Duke of Sandomierz 1289-1292, 1304-1320, of Greater Poland 1296-1299, 1314-1320
King of Poland 20 January 1320 2 March 1333
Casimir III
Piast
Piast
Casimir III, the Great
Kazimierz III Wielki
King of Poland 25 April 1333 5 November 1370
Louis
Angevin
Angevin
Louis
Ludwik Węgierski
King of Poland 17 November 1370 10 September 1382 King of Hungary 1342–1382
Hedwig
Angevin
Angevin
Hedwig
Święta Jadwiga Królowa
Queen regnant of Poland 16 October 1384 17 July 1399 Reigned together with her husband, King Vladislaus II
Vladislaus II
Jagiellon
Jagiellon
Vladislaus II
Władysław II Jagiełło
King of Poland 4 March 1386 1 June 1434 Supreme Duke of Lithuania 1386–1434
Vladislaus III
Jagiellon
Jagiellon
Vladislaus III
Władysław III Warneńczyk
King of Poland 25 July 1434 10 November 1444 King of Hungary 1440–1444. Killed in the Battle of Varna.
Casimir IV
Jagiellon
Jagiellon
Casimir IV
Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk
King of Poland 25 June 1447 7 June 1492 Grand Duke of Lithuania 1440–1492
John I
Jagiellon
Jagiellon
John I Albert
Jan I Olbracht
King of Poland 23 September 1492 17 June 1501
Alexander
Jagiellon
Jagiellon
Alexander
Aleksander
King of Poland 12 December 1501 19 August 1506 Grand Duke of Lithuania 1492–1506
Sigismund I
Jagiellon
Jagiellon
Sigismund I, the Old
Zygmunt I Stary
King of Poland 24 January 1507 1 April 1548 Grand Duke of Lithuania 1506–1548
Sigismund II
Jagiellon
Jagiellon
Sigismund II Augustus
Zygmunt II August
King of Poland 20 February 1530 7 July 1572 Crowned vivente rege as a child; assumed actual reign after Sigismund I's death in 1548. Grand Duke of Lithuania 1548–1572.

Elective monarchy, 1572–1795[edit]

Portrait House Name Style From Until Notes
Jakub Uchański
Radwan
Radwan
Jakub Uchański Interrex 1572 1574
Henry
Valois
Valois
Henry
Henryk Walezy
King of Poland 21 February 1574 15 June 1575 On 18 June 1574, on the news of his brother, King Charles IX's death, Henry escaped to France to become the new king of France and never to come back to Poland. He was dethroned by the Sejm on 15 June 1575.
Jakub Uchański
Radwan
Radwan
Jakub Uchański
(again)
Interrex 1575 1576
Anna
Jagiellon
Jagiellon
Anna
Anna Jagiellonka
Queen regnant of Poland 1 May 1575 12 December 1586 Reigned together with her husband, King Stephen
Stephen
Gutkeled
Gutkeled
Stephen
Stefan Batory
King of Poland 1 May 1575 12 December 1586 Duke of Transylvania 1571–1583; from his election as king of Poland, represented in Transylavania by his brother, Voivod Christopher Báthory.
Stanisław Karnkowski
Junosza
Junosza
Stanisław Karnkowski Interrex 1583 1587
Sigismund III
Vasa
Vasa
Sigismund III
Zygmunt III Waza
King of Poland 27 December 1587 30 April 1632 King of Sweden 1592–1599
Jan Wężyk
Wąż
Wąż
Jan Wężyk Interrex 1632 1633
Vladislaus IV
Vasa
Vasa
Vladislaus IV
Władysław IV
King of Poland 6 February 1633 20 May 1648 Tsar-elect of Muscovy 1610–1613
Maciej Łubieński
Pomian
Pomian
Maciej Łubieński Interrex 1648 1649
John II
Vasa
Vasa
John II Casimir
Jan Kazimierz
King of Poland 19 January 1649 16 September 1668 Abdicated.
Mikołaj Prażmowski
Belina
Belina
Mikołaj Prażmowski Interrex 1668 1669
Michael
Korybut
Korybut
Michael
Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki
King of Poland 29 September 1669 10 November 1673
Kazimierz Florian Czartoryski
Czartoryski
Czartoryski
Kazimierz Florian Czartoryski Interrex 1673 15 May 1674 Died before election of a new king
Andrzej Trzebicki
Łabędź
Łabędź
Andrzej Trzebicki Interrex 15 May 1674 1674 Bishop of Cracow
John III
Janina
Janina
John III
Jan III Sobieski
King of Poland 2 February 1676 17 June 1696 Elected in 1674. Coronation delayed because of war
Michał Stefan Radziejowski
Junosza
Junosza
Michał Stefan Cardinal Radziejowski Interrex 1696 1697
Augustus II
Wettin
Wettin
Augustus II, the Strong
August II Mocny
King of Poland 15 September 1697 24 September 1706 Prince-elector of Saxony 1694–1733. Abdicated as king of Poland in favor of Anti-King Stanislaus I by the terms of the Treaty of Altranstadt.
Stanislaus I
Wieniawa
Wieniawa
Stanislaus I
Stanisław Leszczyński
King of Poland 24 September 1706 1709 Illegitimately crowned on [[4 October 1705 as a de facto anti-king. On 24 September 1706, Augustus II abdicated in favor of him by the terms of the Treaty of Altranstadt. Deposed and exiled in 1709.
Augustus II
Wettin
Wettin
Augustus II, the Strong
August II Mocny
(again)
King of Poland 1709 1 February 1733 Came back to Poland in 1709, in spite of his previous formal abdication, to continue his reign until his death in 1733.
Teodor Andrzej Potocki
Piława
Piława
Teodor Andrzej Potocki Interrex 1733 1733
Stanislaus I
Wieniawa
Wieniawa
Stanislaus I
Stanisław Leszczyński
(again)
King of Poland 12 September 1733 1736 Legitimately elected in 1733 with his 1705 coronation declared valid. Abdiated on 26 January 1736 as a result of the War of the Polish Succession. Duke of Lorraine 1737–1766.
Augustus III
Wettin
Wettin
Augustus III
August III Sas
King of Poland 1736 5 October 1763 Prince-elector of Saxony 1733–1763. Illegimately crowned king of Poland on 17 January 1734. In the aftermath of the War of the Polish Succession, a Pacification Sejm declared his coronation valid in 1736.
Władysław Aleksander Łubieński
Pomian
Pomian
Władysław Aleksander Łubieński Interrex 1763 1764
Stanislaus II
Ciołek
Ciołek
Stanislaus II Augustus
Stanisław August Poniatowski
King of Poland 25 November 1764 25 November 1795 Abdicated on 25 November 1795 as a result of the Third Partition of Poland.

Time of partitions, 1795–1918[edit]

Portrait House Name Style From Until Notes
Frederick Augustus
Wettin
Wettin
Frederick Augustus
Fryderyk August
Duke of Warsaw 1807 1815 King of Saxony 1806–1827
Alexander I
Romanov
Romanov
Alexander I
Aleksander I Romanow
King (Tsar) of Poland 1815 1825
Nicholas I
Romanov
Romanov
Nicholas I
Mikołaj I Romanow
King (Tsar) of Poland 1825 1855 Dethroned by the Sejm in 1831, during the November Uprising, but kept the title after the uprising's defeat by Russian forces.
Alexander II
Romanov
Romanov
Alexander II
Aleksander II Romanow
King (Tsar) of Poland 1855 1881 Assassinated by Ignacy Hryniewiecki
Alexander III
Romanov
Romanov
Alexander III
Aleksander III Romanow
King (Tsar) of Poland 1881 1894
Nicholas II
Romanov
Romanov
Nicholas II
Mikołaj II Romanow
King (Tsar) of Poland 1894 15 March 1917 Abdicated.
Wierusz Wacław Niemojowski Grand Crown Marshal of the Provisional Council of State 6 December 1916 25 August 1917 Head of a provisional collective head of state created by the Central Powers who occupied the Kingdom of Poland from 1915.
Józef Mikułowski-Pomorski, Stanisław Bukowiecki, Kazimierz Natanson Interim Commission of the Provisional Council of State 28 August 1917 12 September 1917 Replaced the Provisional Council of State after the Oath Crisis in the Polish Legions.
Regency Council
Aleksander Cardinal Kakowski, Prince Zdzisław Lubomirski, Count Józef Ostrowski Regency Council 12 September 1917 14 November 1918 Provisional collective head of state supposed to select the new king of Poland. Declared independence of Poland on 7 October 1918. Vested in Józef Piłsudski supereme military power on 11 November 1918 and all civilian power on 14 November 1918.

Interbellum and Second World War, 1918–1945[edit]

Portrait Party Name Style From Until Notes
Józef Piłsudski
nonpartisan Józef Piłsudski Generalissimo (Wódz Naczelny) 14 November 1918 22 November 1918
Provisional State Leader 22 November 1918 1919
State Leader 1919 11 December 1922
Gabriel Narutowicz
nonpartisan Gabriel Narutowicz President of the Republic of Poland 11 December 1922 16 December 1922 Assassinated by Eligiusz Niewiadomski.
Maciej Rataj
Polish People's Party (PSL) Maciej Rataj Marshal of the Sejm 16 December 1922 22 December 1922 Acting president
Stanisław Wojciechowski
Polish People's Party – Piast (PSL Piast) Stanisław Wojciechowski President of the Republic of Poland 22 December 1922 15 May 1926 Forced to resign by the May Coup.
Maciej Rataj
Polish People's Party (PSL) Maciej Rataj
(again)
Marshal of the Sejm 15 May 1926 4 June 1926 Acting president
Ignacy Mościcki
nonpartisan Ignacy Mościcki President of the Republic of Poland 4 June 1926 30 September 1939 On 17 September, during the German-Soviet invasion, Ignacy Mościcki fled to Romania where he was interned.
Władysław Raczkiewicz
nonpartisan Władysław Raczkiewicz President of the Republic of Poland 30 September 1939 6 June 1947 President-in-exile. The London-based Polish government-in-exile lost international recognition in July 1945.

Communist era, 1945–1990[edit]

Portrait Party Name Style From Until Notes
Bolesław Bierut
Polish Workers' Party (PPR) Bolesław Bierut President of the State National Council 1 January 1945 5 February 1947
President of the Republic of Poland 5 February 1947 20 August 1952 Office of the President of the Republic of Poland was reintroduced by Communist authorities on 5 February 1947 and abolished on 20 August 1952.
Aleksander Zawadzki
Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR) Aleksander Zawadzki Chairman of the Council of State 21 August 1952 7 August 1964
Edward Ochab
Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR) Edward Ochab Chairman of the Council of State 12 August 1964 11 April 1968
Marian Spychalski
Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR) Marian Spychalski Chairman of the Council of State 11 April 1968 23 December 1970
Józef Cyrankiewicz
Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR) Józef Cyrankiewicz Chairman of the Council of State 23 December 1970 28 March 1972
Henryk Jabłoński
Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR) Henryk Jabłoński Chairman of the Council of State 28 March 1972 6 November 1985
Wojciech Jaruzelski
Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR) Wojciech Jaruzelski Chairman of the Council of State 6 November 1985 19 July 1989
President of the People's Republic of Poland 19 July 1989 31 December 1989 Office of the President reintroduced on 19 July 1989 as a result of the Round Table Agreements.
President of the Republic of Poland 31 December 1989 22 December 1990 Official name of the country changed back to Republic of Poland on 31 December 1989. Jaruzelski's presidential term was shortened by a constitutional amendment of 27 September 1990 and ended with Wałęsa's inauguration.

Third Republic, since 1990[edit]

Portrait Party Name Style From Until Notes
Lech Wałęsa
Solidarity Trade Union (NSSZ Solidarność) Lech Wałęsa President of the Republic of Poland 22 December 1990 23 December 1995 First president elected in a popular vote
Aleksander Kwaśniewski
Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland (SdRP) Aleksander Kwaśniewski President of the Republic of Poland 23 December 1995 23 December 2005 First president re-elected in a popular vote, 2000
Lech Kaczyński
Law and Justice (PiS) Lech Kaczyński President of the Republic of Poland 23 December 2005 10 April 2010 Killed in the Polish Air Force Tu-154 crash
Bronisław Komorowski
Civic Platform (PO) Bronisław Komorowski Marshal of the Sejm 10 April 2010 8 July 2010 Acting president, resigned as marshal of the Sejm after he was elected president
Bogdan Borusewicz
nonpartisan Bogdan Borusewicz Marshal of the Senate 8 July 2010 Acting president for several hours until the Sejm elected a new marshal
Grzegorz Schetyna
Civic Platform (PO) Grzegorz Schetyna Marshal of the Sejm 8 July 2010 6 August 2010 Acting president
Bronisław Komorowski
Civic Platform (PO) Bronisław Komorowski President of the Republic of Poland 6 August 2010 6 August 2015
Andrzej Duda
Law and Justice (PiS) Andrzej Duda President of the Republic of Poland 6 August 2015 Incumbent