User:Mrchris/Timeline of County Kilkenny

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This is a timeline of County Kilkenny history.

To read about the background to these events, see History of County Kilkenny. See also the List of kings of Leinster.[1]

This timeline is incomplete

Mesolithic - Neolithic - 1st - 2nd - 3rd - 4th - 5th - 6th - 8th - 9th - 10th - 11th - 12th - 13th - 14th - 15th - 16th - 17th - 18th - 19th - 20th - 21st

Mesolithic period[edit]


Leac an Scail, Kilmogue Portal Dolmen.

Copper and Bronze Ages (2500–700 BCE)[edit]

Iron Age[edit]

Island of Ireland NASA.png


Tribes of Ireland according to
Ptolemy's Geographia.[4]

  • 600 to 500 BC - The Irish Iron Age begins.
  • Goidelic-speaking Celts (from Spain? and elsewhere) possibly arrive in Ireland.
  • 300 BC - Iron Age La Tene (Celtic) objects.
  • 250 BC - The Laigin from Armorica in northwestern France are said to arrive in southeast Ireland. The term Laigin is an early name for Leinster.
  • 100 BC - Hillforts and huge linear earthworks make their appearance sometime before or around this period. Earthworks on hilltops include Freestone Hill, Clomantagh Hill, Foulksrath and Cairndubh Hill.
  • The Celtic tribes of Ireland include the Brigantes, a name which also belonged to the largest tribe of northern and midland Britain. Another tribe by the 2nd century AD was the Manapii, possibly the same people as the Menapii, a Belgic tribe of northern Gaul.
  • Pottery and stone tools used by the first farmers and the remains of houses found in Granny and Newrath.

2th century[edit]

Celtic tribes in Ptolemy's Iverni

3rd century[edit]

4th century[edit]

  • c300 - Agricultural activity increases and the population expands. Ringforts and Early Church sites develop.
  • c350 - Christianity reaches Ireland.
  • c380 - Roman artifacts at Freestone Hill and at a Stonyford burial site.

5th century[edit]

6th century[edit]

7th century[edit]

8th century[edit]

9th century[edit]

Peoples and subdivisions of early Ireland
Round tower and ruined church, Tullaherin

10th century[edit]

Ireland circa 900
Map showing the Viking settlements in Ireland
Brian Boru, Irish hero who fought the Vikings
  • 894 - Diarmait mac Cerbaill Kings of Osraige 894-905
  • c900 - Waterford, next to the Kilkenny border, is established by the Vikings.
  • c900 - In Osraighe, Diarmaid, son of Cearbhall, was driven from the kingdom of Osraighe; and Ceallach, son of Cearbhall, was made king in his place.
  • c900 - A battle was gained by Ceallach, son of Cearbhall, and by the Osraighi, over the Eili and the Muscraighi, in which fell one hundred and ten persons.
  • c903 - Ceallah, son of Cearbhall, lord of Osraighe, fell in the great battle of Bealach-Mughna.
  • 905 Cellach mac Cerbaill Kings of Osraige 905-908
  • 908 Diarmait mac Cerbaill Kings of Osraige 908-928
  • c914 - Diarmaid, son of Cearbhall, is cited in the Annals as lord of Osraighe, dying about 927.
  • c920 - Ath na nUrlaidhe, "the ford of the sledgings", was the site of a battle between the Irish and the Danes. The town of Urlingford is said to take its name from this battle.
  • 928 - Dunmore Cave is plundered by Godfrey and the Vikings of Dublin. It was said 1,000 people were slain.
  • 928 - Cuilen mac Cellaig Kings of Osraige 928-933
  • c929 - The Annals cite that Godfrey went into Osraighe to expel the grandson of Imhar Magh-Roighne.
  • c931 - Cuilen, son of Ceallach, lord of Osraighe, died.
  • 934 Donnchad mac Cellaig Kings of Osraige 934-976
  • c938 - A great slaughter was made of the Osraighi by Ceallachan, King of Caiseal.
  • c939 - Muircheartach, son of Niall, with the men of the North and of Breagha, went into the territory of Osraighe and Deisi and totally plundered and ravaged the entire country.
  • c945 - A battle was gained by Donnchadh, son of Ceallach, lord of Osraighe, over the Leinstermen, in which Braen, son of Maelmordha, King of Leinster, was slain along with the lord of the Ui Ceinnsealaigh.
  • c960 - Clonmacnoise was plundered by the Osraighi.
  • c962 - A victory was gained over Amlaeibh, son of Sitric, by the Osraighi, at Inis Teoc.
  • c965 - Murchadh, King of Leinster plundered Magh Raighne in Osraighe, but was driven out by the men of Munster, Osraighe and Deisi.
  • c967 - Murchadh, King of Leinster, raided Osraighe and was again driven out.
  • c967 - Aedh Allan, son of Fearghal, lord of Osraighe, died.
  • c971 - Dunchadh, the foster-son of Diarmaid, distinguished bishop and chief poet of Osraighe, died.
  • c972 - Another battle was gained by the Osraighi over the Ui Ceinnsealaigh.
  • c974 - Donnchadh, son of Ceallach, lord of Osraighe, died.
  • 976 - Gilla Patráic mac Donnchada Kings of Osraige 976-996
  • c981 - Brian Boru plunders Osraighe.
  • 984 - Brian Boru gains control of all southern Ireland (Munster).
  • c995 - Gillaphadraig, son of Donnchadh, lord of Osraighe, was killed by Donndubhan, son of Imhar, and by Domhnall, son of Faelan, lord of the Deisi.
  • 995 - The Kings of Ossory and their clannspeople become known as Mac Giolla Phadraig.
  • 996 - Cellach mac Diarmata Kings of Osraige 996-1103

11th century[edit]

Map showing the Kingdom of Leinster in Gaelic Ireland

12th century[edit]

13th century[edit]

Duiske Abbey Choir Window as seen from South East, in Graiguenamanagh
William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke was the greatest jouster of his age. From Matthew Paris's Chronica Major, Marshal unhorses Baldwin de Guisnes.
  • 1204 - The first stone castle was begun in 1204 by William Marshall, now Kilkenny Castle.
  • c1205 - Thomastown is founded by Thomas FitzAnthony.
  • 1207 - A charter of 1207 from William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke confirmed privileges on the town of Kilkenny and the town was extended northwards as far as the River Breagagh by an exchange of lands with the bishop of Ossory.
  • 1209 - Hugh Rufus (le Rous, of Bodmin) is cited as Bishop of Ossory.
  • c1210 - Around 1210 Kilkenny became a liberty as part of Leinster Province.
  • 1211 - The Augustinian Priory of St. John the Evangelist is founded.
  • 1217 - William Marshal the Elder granted a Charter to the town of Callan.
  • 1219 - In 1219 William Marshall, seneschal of Ireland died.
  • c1221 - Peter Malveisin becomes Bishop of Ossory, and serves until 1230/31.
  • 1225 - The Black Abbey was founded in Kilkenny city by William Marshall the younger.
  • c1232 - Walter de Brackley serves as Bishop of Ossory until 1243.
  • c1232 - St. Francis' Friary is founded by Richard the Marshal.
  • 1234 - Richard Marshal, brother of William the 2nd Earl Marshal, dies at Kilkenny of wounds received on the Curragh in Kildare.
  • 1244 - Geoffrey de Turville cited as Bishop of Ossory, and serves until 1250.
  • 1245 - The last of the male line of the Marshals, Earl Anselm, dies, and Leinster is partitioned into five liberties. Among the divisions the lordship of Kilkenny descends to Isabel Marshal and her husband Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester, and to their son Earl Richard de Clare.
  • 1247 - Donough, the son of Anmchadh O'Gillapatrick, and Turlough O'Conor of Connaught kindled a great war against the English of Connaught. Donough slew Mac Elget, Seneschal of Connaught.
  • 1249 - Donough O'Gillapatrick, i.e. the son of Anmchadh, son of Donough, was killed by the English in retaliation.
  • 1251 - The Episcopal Palace at Uppercourt is built by Hugh de Mapleton, Bishop of Ossory (1251-1260). He continued the work on St. Canice's Cathedral at great expense.
  • 1260 - Geoffry de St. Leger serves as Bishop of Ossory until 1286/87.
  • c1270 - St. Canice Cathedral is completed by Bishop Geoffrey St. Leger. Note: This completion date is also said to be in the year 1280 and 1285.
  • 1287 - Geoffrey St. Leger, Bishop of Ossory, dies. Roger of Wexford assumes his place until his death in 1289.
  • 1289 - Michael of Exeter serves as Bishop of Ossory until his death in 1302.
  • 1293 - First parliament in Kilkenny during medieval times. 12 parliaments sat in Kilkenny over the next 70 years.
  • 1294 - A great council of barons of the English Pale is held in Kilkenny city.
  • 1297 - The castle of Moifillith (Muckalee?), near Castlecomer, is burnt down by the Gaelic O'Brennan clan.
  • 1297 - The Butlers acquire the lordship of Rathdowney from John Pippard.

14th century[edit]

The extent of Norman control of Ireland in 1300.
The Black Death rapidly spread along the major European sea and land trade routes. It reached Ireland in 1348 and decimated the Hiberno-Norman urban settlements
East front of Jerpoint Abbey
  • 1302- William FitzJohn is Bishop of Ossory, and serves until 1317. Elected 10 September 1302; consecrated after 6 January 1303; translated to Cashel 26 March 1317
  • The first attempt to record Ireland's wealth at the parish level was made in the records of Papal Taxation of 1303 (Ireland's equivalent of the Domesday Book), which was required to operate the new tithing system.
  • 1307 - Offerlane, in northern Aghaboe, is a beleagured Norman outpost surrounded by the indigenous population (MacGillapatricks). The Anglo-Norman settlement in much of northern Kilkenny is assumed in the form of a military aristocracy governing a largely unassimilated Gaelic population (including the O'Brennans).
  • 1308/14 - The suppression of the Templars, a Christian sect.
  • 1309 - A parliament was assembled at Kilkenny city in which severe laws were enacted against English settlers who adopt the Irish customs.
  • 1314 - Gilbert de Clare, grandson of Richard fitz Gilbert of 1245, absentee lord of Kilkenny, falls at the battle of Bannockburn (Scotland).
  • 1314 - The Butlers gain the manor and cantred of Knocktopher fom Nigel le Brun.
  • 1315 - Parliament called to resist the invasion of Edward Bruce.
  • 1316 - The army of the Bruces visit Gowran, Callan and Kells. Edward Bruce, brother of Robert Bruce of Scotland, crowned King of Ireland.
  • 1317 - The Lordship of Kilkenny is divided among Gilbert de Clare three sisters, Eleanor le Despenser, Margaret de Audley, and Elizabeth Dammory. The lordship of Kilkenny is partitioned among 3 of Gilbert de Clare's absentee sisters.
  • 1317 - Richard Ledred, O.F.M. Appointed Bishop of Ossory 24 April 1317; consecrated circa May 1317; died circa 1361
  • 1317 - Edward Bruce of Scotland captures Gowran, a town which was for a time was an early seat of the Kings of Ossory.
  • 1317 - Roger Mortimer, justiciary of Ireland, and the English nobles hold a council in Kilkenny city to deliberate on the most effectual means of opposing the ravages of Edward Bruce. An army of 30,000 is assembled.
  • 1318 - The accession of Richard Ledrede, an English Franciscan, to bishop of Ossory (1317-1360).
  • 1319 - The Butlers acquire the lordship of Iverk, in lower Co. Kilkenny.
  • 1324 - Donough Mac Gillapatrick, Lord of Ossory, died.
  • 1324 - Alice Kyteler's trial in Kilkenny by secular and ecclesiastical authorities for diabolism, invocation and sorcery. She escapes.
  • 1327 - Simon Purcell, the sheriff of the liberty of Kilkenny, is killed with twenty others fighting the O'Brennans.
  • 1328 - James Butler, 1st Earl of Ormonde from 1328 to 1337.
  • 1329 - The O'Brennans burn Drumhythyr (Kilmadum in northern Oskelan).
  • 1330 - A parliament is held in Kilkenny city, when an army assembled here to drive Brien O'Brien from Urkuffs, near Cashel.
  • 1332 - The fall of the original belfry and tower at St. Canice's Cathedral.
  • 1334 - The paving of the streets of Kilkenny.
  • 1335 - The Market Cross is erected at Kilkenny city.
  • 1338 - Imprisonment in Kilkenny castle of Sir Oliver and Sir Fulco de la Freyne, by Eustace le poer, seneschal of Kilkenny. Oliver escapes, alerts his friends, and attacks and breaks down the castle gates.
  • 1338 - James Butler, the "Noble Earl", 2nd Earl of Ormonde, 1338 to 1382.
  • 1338 - A year of a very great flood according to the annals of John Clyn.
  • 1340 - Henry de Valle, seneschal of Kilkenny, repels a Mac Murrough invasion.
  • 1343 - Building of the bell tower of St. Mary's.
  • 1348 - The Black Death takes its toll on the households of the county.
  • 1349 - Patrick de la Freyne engaged in fighting the McGillapatricks who storm the castle of Aghaboe.
  • c1350 - The Anglo-Normans abandon serious effort to recover the north following a Gaelic resurgence.
  • c1350 - Ballylarkin Abbey, in Freshford, is founded by the Shortall family.
  • 1352 - John fitz Oliver de la Freyne is commissioned as new sheriff of a united county. Prior to this. parts of Kilkenny were politically sub-divided into the "county of the cross" which included the crosslands (church lands) as administered by the government in Dublin.
  • 1356 - A foundation was made at Jerpoint Abbey by the Earl of Ormond, James Butler (the Noble Earl), for the Carmelite Order of Friars.
  • 1361 Richard Ledred, O.F.M. Bishop of Ossory died.
  • 1361 - John de Tatenhall serves as Bishop of Ossory until his death in 1366.
  • 1361 John de Tatenhale, O.P. Appointed 8 November 1361; consecrated before 14 December 1361; died after March
  • 1364 William Became bishop before February 1366
  • 1367 - The Statutes of Kilkenny are enacted. The statutes unsuccessfully try to legislate the English who "live and govern themselves according to the manners, fashion, and language of the Irish enemies."
  • 1370 - John de Oxford serves as Bishop of Ossory, but dies before the end of the year.
  • 1370 John of Oxford, O.E.S.A. died circa 1370
  • 1370 Alexander Petit (de Balscot) Elected circa 1370 and appointed 9 February 1371; translated to Meath circa 10 March 1386
  • 1371 - Alexander de Balscot serves as Bishop of Ossory until 1386.
  • 1371/72 - Parliament in Kilkenny.
  • 1374 - A parliament at Kilkenny city swears Sir William I Windsor into the office of Lord-Lieutenant.
  • 1375 - Parliament held by King Richard II in person.
  • 1376 - Alexander Balscot, bishop of Ossory.
  • 1382 - The "Noble Earl" dies at Knocktopher Castle, His son, James Butler becomes the 3rd Earl of Ormonde, 1382 to 1405.
  • 1383 - The Annals record Mac Gillapatrick, Lord of Ossory, died of the plague.
  • 1386 - Numbers of the English of Ossory fell by Mac Murrough, King of Leinster.
  • 1386 - Richard Northalis, O.Carm. Elected Bishop of Ossory 1386, appointed before 17 February 1387 and consecrated 4 December 1387; translated to Dublin 25 October 1395
  • 1387 - Richard De Northalis ascends to the Bishop of Ossory (1387-1395).
  • 1391 - Kilkenny Castle, and the 1317 'le Despenser' share of Kilkenny, is granted to James, Earl of Ormonde.
  • 1395 Thomas Peverell, O.Carm. Bishop of Ossory Appointed 25 October 1395; translated to Llandaff 2 July 1398
  • 1395 - Thomas Peverell serves as Bishop of Ossory (1395-98).
  • 1398 John Waltham, O.S.A. Appointed Bishop of Ossory 1 February 1398; translated to Dromore 14 May 1400
  • 13991399 - King Richard II is entertained for 14 days by the Earl of Ormonde.
  • 13991399 - King Richard II confirms charter granted to Kilkenny by William the Earl Marshall.
  • 1399 - John Griffin Bishop of Ossory Translated from Leighlin 2 July 1399; died circa March 1400
  • 1399 - John ?? becomes Bishop of Ossory, and is replaced within months by John Griffin (1399-1400).

15th century[edit]

The Lordship of Ireland in 1450
Norman Lordships and native kingdoms.

16th century[edit]

17th century[edit]

  • From the 16th century onwards the English Government made strenuous efforts to impose Protestantism.
  • 1601 - The army of Elizabeth I of England defeated the Irish at the battle of Kinsale and for the first time the entire country was run by a strong English central Government.
  • 1602 - The See of Ossory is without a Catholic Bishop of Ossory until 1618.
  • 1603 - James I (James IV of Scotland) becomes the 1st Stuart king of England, and encourages new colonists to settle in Ireland.
  • 1608 - James I made the towns of Kilkenny and Irishtown (now Kilkenny city) a free borough, and made Kilkenny a distinct county.
  • 1609 - The borough of Kilkenny is raised to the status of a city, by charter of King James I.
  • 1609 - Dr. Richard Deane becomes Anglican Bishop of Ossory.
  • 1613 - Jonas Wheeler] ascends to the bishopric of Ossory (1613-1618).
  • 1614 - Walter Butler, grandson of James the 9th, becomes 11th earl of Ormonde.
  • 1618 - Dr. David Rothe is appointed Catholic bishop of Ossory (1618-1650), consecrated in Paris in 1620. The See of Ossory had been without a Catholic Bishop of Ossory since 1602.
  • 1621 - David Rothe assumes residency in Kilkenny as Catholic bishop of Ossory, the first since 1564.
  • 1625 - Charles I becomes the 2nd Stuart king of England.
  • 1632 - James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde, 1632 to 1688.
  • 1641 - Griffith Williams is consecrated as Anglican Bishop of Ossory (1641-1672).
  • 1642 - The Catholic Confederation of Kilkenny establishes a provisional government in Ireland with Kilkenny city as its capitol; rebellion begins. The Catholic Confederation Parliament in Kilkenny remained in session until 1648.
  • 1648 - The Catholic Confederation Parliament in Kilkenny remained in session until 1648.
  • 1649 - The King of England, Charles I, (1625-1649) is executed and Oliver Cromwell invades Ireland and ruthlessly crushes the rebellion.
  • 1649 - The seige of Callan by Crowmwell. Callan taken in February, 1650.
  • 1650 - Oliver Cromwell's bloody campaign reaches Kilkenny, and Kilkenny city is sieged and taken on March 28th with large reinforcements under Ireton. Bishop David Rothe dies on April 20th. The Catholic see is vacant until 1669.
  • 1650 - Gowran is besieged and captured by Cromwell's troops.
  • 1651 - Cromwell conquers a plague-stricken Kilkenny city.
  • 1652 - The English Parliament passes the Act for Settling of Ireland.
  • 1653 - A decree of banishment against the Catholic clergy is proclaimed. Bernard Fitzpatrick, who administered the diocese after Bishop Rothe's death, is tracked down and killed.
  • 1653 - Catholic and Jacobite lands are confiscated, and given to Cromwell's soldiers and supporters.
  • 1654 - Deadline for former land owners to "transplant" to Connacht (including Clare).
  • 1660 - A Catholic king, Charles II, is restored "Stuart" king of England, following 10 years of Commonwealth headed by the Cromwells.
  • 1662 - Petitions are granted or refused for restoration for certain lands lost during the confiscations of 1653.
  • 1669 - James Phelan appointed Catholic Bishop of Ossory (1669-1695).
  • 1672 - Bishop Parry becomes the Anglican Bishop of Ossory (1672-1679) after the passing of the previous bishop, Griffith Williams.
  • 1679 - Thomas Otway becomes Anglican Bishop of Ossory. He founded the library of St. Canice cathedral in the churchyard.
  • 1685 - Bishop George Berkeley, philosopher, is born at Dysert Castle, near Thomastown.
  • 1685 - James II comes to the throne of England, Catholic resurgence continues.
  • 1687 - A charter of James II revokes the Charter of James I creating the City and County of Kilkenny.
  • 1688 - James II is deposed and the Williamite War (William of Orange) in Ireland and England begins.
  • 1689 - Deposed King James II flees to Ireland to fight for his throne and is defeated at the Battle of the Boyne by the supporters of the new Protestant King of England, William of Orange. The supporters of James II are known as Jacobites.
  • 1690 - The Williamites occupy Kilkenny on July 16th.
  • 1690 - Five regiments of Irishmen sail for France, and form the nucleus of France's Irish Brigade.
  • 1690 - A charter of William III restoring the Charter of James I.
  • 1691 - The Williamite War in Ireland ends with more confiscation of lands.
  • 1692 - Many members of the former Irish army (Jacobites) have begun to leave and serve in the armies of France, Spain, and other Euopean countries. They are termed "The Wild Geese."
  • 1695 - The death of James Phelan, Catholic Bishop of Ossory. Catholics are excluded from freeman status in Kilkenny city.
  • 1696 - William Daton appointed Catholic Bishop of Ossory (1696-1712), he is forced to flee the country in 1698.
  • 1697 - The Irish parliament passes the Banishment Act, banishing all those holding ecclesiastical jurisdiction by May 1, 1698.

18th century[edit]

  • 1702 - Partial lists of male householders for Kilkenney enumerated separately by religious denomination and parish.
  • 1703 - The proportion of land held by Gaelic and Anglo-Norman Catholic proprietors fell from about 49% in 1641 to nearly 10% in 1703.
  • 1704 - Penal Code enacted. Catholics barred from voting, education and the military. Non-reigistered priests had to leave the country by July 20, 1704.
  • 1710 - John Smithwick started brewing commercially at St. Francis Abbey.
  • 1713 - Malachy Dulaney appointed Catholic Bishop of Ossory (1713-1731), succeeding William Daton.
  • 1730 - Death of Sir Thomas Vesey, Anglican Bishop of Ossory (1714-1730).
  • 1731 - Patrick Shee appointed Catholic Bishop of Ossory (1731-1736).
  • 1735 - The death of Edward Tenison, Anglican Bishop of Ossory.
  • 1736 - Colman O'Shaughnessy, Catholic Bishop of Ossory (1736-1748).
  • 1736 - Acts passed requiring all persons to tithe to the Anglican Church, regardless of their own religion.
  • 1743 - Anthony Dopping, Anglican Bishop of Ossory, dies.
  • 1749 - James Bernard (O)Dunne, Catholic Bishop of Ossory (1749-1758).
  • 1756 - Richard Pococke, Bishop of Ossory (1756-65).
  • 1759 - Thomas de Burgo (Burke), Catholic Bishop of Ossory (1759-1776).
  • 1761 - The Tholsel (town hall) in Kilkenny city is built.
  • 1762 - Edmund Ignatius Rice, Educator and founder of the Christian Brothers, is born in Callan, Co. Kilkenny.
  • 1762 - James Hoban, architect of the White House at Washington. D.C., was born near Callan.
  • 1763 - The Whiteboy movement spreads into southern county Kilkenny, in response to laws on tithing, enclosure of common lands, and grazing.
  • 1763 - Two bridges over the river Nore are destroyed by a great flood at Kilkenny city.
  • 1765 - Robert Fulton, designer of the first steamship, was born in Callan.
  • 1775 - Battle of Ballyragget, the largest assembly of Whiteboys ever in Kilkenny, 300 horsemen and 200 on foot.
  • 1777 - John Thomas Troy succeeds Bishop de Burgo as Catholic Bishop of Ossory (1777-1786).
  • 1782 - Grattan's Parliament persuades British to declare Irish independence, but in name only. St Kieran's College is founded.
  • 1787 - Kilkenny is the first county to petition against tithes. John Dunne succeeds as Catholic Bishop of Ossory (1787-1789).
  • 1789 - James Lanigan consecrated as Catholic Bishop of Ossory (1789-1812).
  • 1791 - James Hoban, a native of Kilkenny, designs the White House in Washington D.C., modelled upon Leinster House in Dublin.
  • 1793 - The Catholic Relief Bill is passed.
  • 1795 - Thomas Lewis O'Beirne appointed Anglican Bishop of Ossory (1795-1787).
  • 1798 - Theobald Wolf Tone organizes an unsucessful Nationalist rebellion.
  • Kilkenny city is placed under martial law. In this year occurs the Engagement at Goresbridge and the Capture of Castlecomer, both in County Kilkenny.
  • 1798 - The British use the town of Ballyragget as an army base.

19th century[edit]

Called the Union Flag, it combined the flags of England (which included Wales) and Scotland with a "St Patrick's Cross" to represent Ireland.
Patrick Cardinal Moran, taken in Brisbane, Queensland circa 1900

20th century[edit]

21th century[edit]


  1. ^ Kilkenny Timeline compiled by Dennis Walsh
  2. ^ The Kilkenny Archaeological Project, Old Kilkenny Review (2009)
  3. ^ Archaeology Ireland xvii, no.1 (2003).
  4. ^ After Duffy (ed.), Atlas of Irish History, p. 15.
  5. ^ Johnston, "Munster, saints of (act. c.450–c.700)."
  6. ^ Dáibhí Ó Cróinín, Early Medieval Ireland 400-1200, Longman, 1995, pp. 1, 14-40
  7. ^ The Concise History of Ireland. Duffy, S. Gill & Macmillan, Dublin. 2005
  8. ^ all dates per The Chronology of the Irish Annals, Daniel P. McCarthy
  9. ^ Francis J.Byrne, Irish Kings and High-Kings, Table 8
  10. ^ a b all dates per The Chronology of the Irish Annals, Daniel P. McCarthy
  11. ^ Byrne, Francis John, Irish Kings and High-Kings. Batsford, London, 1973. ISBN 0-7134-5882-8. Table 10.
  12. ^ The Oxford Illustrated History of Ireland. Foster, RF. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 1989
  13. ^ Moody, TW & Martin, FX (eds) (1967). The Course of Irish History. Cork, Ireland: The Mercier Press. pp. p 85. 
  14. ^ Annals of Ulster AU 707.7
  15. ^ Bracken, "Feidlimid mac Crimthainn..."
  16. ^ a b c Annals of the Four Masters, ed. & tr. John O'Donovan (1856). Annála Rioghachta Éireann. Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters... with a Translation and Copious Notes. 7 vols (2nd ed.). Dublin: Royal Irish Academy.  CELT editions. Full scans at Internet Archive: Vol. 1; Vol. 2; Vol. 3; Vol. 4; Vol. 5; Vol. 6; Indices.
  17. ^ AU 825.1Annals of Ulster AD 431–1201, CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts, 2003, retrieved 2010-03-19 
  18. ^ Byrne, Irish Kings, p. 266.
  19. ^ Byrne, pg.163
  20. ^ Fryde, E. B.; Greenway, D. E.; Porter, S.; Roy, I. (1986). Handbook of British Chronology (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 369–370. ISBN 0-521-56350-X. 
  21. ^ Moody, T. W.; Martin, F. X.; Byrne, F. J., eds. (1984), Maps, Genealogies, Lists: A Companion to Irish History, Part II, New History of Ireland: Volume XI, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 316–318, ISBN 0198217455 
  22. ^ Matching Legislation - Statute Law Database
  23. ^ Welcome, accessed 7 October 2008]
  24. ^ Act of Union 1707, Article 2.
  25. ^, Note 100.  Missing or empty |title= (help)