103d Airlift Wing

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
103d Airlift Wing
118th Airlift Squadron C-21A Learjet - 1.jpg
118th Airlift Squadron C-21A Learjet
Active 1942–1945; 1946–present
Country  United States
Allegiance  Connecticut
Branch US-AirNationalGuard-2007Emblem.svg  Air National Guard
Type Wing
Role Airlift
Part of Connecticut Air National Guard
Garrison/HQ Bradley Air National Guard Base, Windsor Locks, Connecticut
Nickname Flying Yankees
Motto Audeo Latin I Dare
Decorations Distinguished Unit Citation Air Force Outstanding Unit Award French Croix de Guerre with Palm
Insignia
103d Airlift Wing emblem(approved 1 May 1953)[1] 103d Fighter Wing.png
Tail Code CT

The 103d Airlift Wing (103 AW) is a unit of the Connecticut Air National Guard, stationed at Bradley Air National Guard Base, Windsor Locks, Connecticut. If activated to federal service, the Wing is gained by the United States Air Force Air Mobility Command.

The group was first activated in 1943 as the 324th Fighter Group a United States Army Air Forces unit. During World War II, the group served in combat with Ninth Air Force and Twelfth Air Forces, primarily in the Mediterranean, African, and Middle East Theater. It received two Distinguished Unit Citations for engagements in the Mediterranean and the French Croix de Guerre with Palm for supporting French forces during the campaigns for Italy and France, 1944–1945.

In 1946 the group was redesignated as the 103d Fighter Group and allotted to the National Guard.

The 118th Airlift Squadron, assigned to the wing's 103rd Operations Group was, first established during World War I as the 118th Aero Squadron on 31 August 1917. It was reformed on 1 November 1923, as the 118th Observation Squadron, and is one of the 29 original National Guard Observation Squadrons of the United States Army National Guard formed before World War II.

Overview[edit]

The "Flying Yankees" of the 103rd Airlift Wing are the third oldest Air National Guard unit in the United States, including a squadron that has served over 90 years in military aviation. They currently fly the C-130, a four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft designed and built originally by Lockheed, now Lockheed Martin. Capable of using unprepared runways for takeoffs and landings, the C-130 was originally designed as a troop, medical evacuation, and cargo transport aircraft. Its mission is providing cargo and passenger airlift.

Units[edit]

The 103d Airlift Wing consists of the following major units:

  • 103d Operations Group
118th Airlift Squadron
  • 103d Maintenance Group
  • 103d Mission Support Group
  • 103d Medical Group
  • 103rd Air Operations Group

History[edit]

World War II[edit]

The wing was constituted as the 324th Fighter Group in 1942 and activated on 6 July at Mitchel Field, New York.[1] Its original squadrons were the 314th,[2] 315th,[3] and 316th Fighter Squadrons.[4] The group moved immediately to Baltimore Municipal Airport, where it trained with Curtiss P-40 Warhawk fighters until October,[1] while its squadrons trained at Baltimore and bases in Pennsylvania and Virginia.[3][4]

The group moved to the Middle East between October and December 1942[1] for operations with Ninth Air Force along with its 314th and 316th squadrons, while the 315th remained behind until January 1943.[3] The group trained for several weeks with P-40 aircraft. While group headquarters remained in Egypt, the squadrons of the group began operating with other organizations against the enemy in Tunisia. Reunited in June 1943, the 324th group engaged primarily in escort and patrol missions between Tunisia and Sicily until July 1943. It received a Distinguished Unit Citation (DUC) for action against the enemy from March 1943 to the invasion of Sicily.[1]

The unit trained from July to October 1943 for operations with the Twelfth Air Force. It resumed combat on 30 October 1943 and directed most of its attacks against roads, bridges, motor transport, supply areas, rolling stock, gun positions, troop concentrations, and rail facilities in Italy until August 1944. During the assault on Anzio in January 1944, it patrolled the beaches and protected convoys. It aided the Allied offensive in Italy during May 1944, receiving another DUC during the Battle of Monte Cassino for action from 12 to 14 May when the group bombed an enemy position on Monastery Hill, attacked troops massing on the hill for counterattack, and hit a nearby stronghold to force the surrender of an enemy garrison.[1]

The 324th continued to give close support to ground forces until the fall of Rome in June 1944. The group converted to Republic P-47 Thunderbolts in July and supported the assault on southern France in August by dive-bombing gun positions, bridges, and radarfacilities, and by patrolling the combat zone. The unit attacked such targets as motor transport, rolling stock, rail lines, troops, bridges, gun emplacements, and supply depots after the invasion, giving tactical support to Allied forces advancing through France. The unit aided the reduction of the Colmar bridgehead in January and February 1945, and supported Seventh Army's drive through the Siegfried defenses in March. It received the French Croix de Guerre with Palm for supporting French forces during the campaigns for Italy and France in 1944 and 1945.[1]

The 324th Fighter Group returned to the United States between October and November 1945 and was inactivated in November 1945.[1]

Connecticut Air National Guard[edit]

The wartime 324th Fighter Group was redesignated as the 103d Fighter Group, and was allotted to the National Guard, on 24 May 1946. It was organized at Bradley Field, Windsor Locks, Connecticut. It was organized in July and was extended federal recognition on 7 August 1946. The group's mission was the air defense of Connecticut. It was assigned the 118th Fighter Squadron, equipped with Republic P-47D (later F-47D) Thunderbolts.

The 103d Fighter Wing was formed in the fall of 1950 when the Air National Guard converted to the wing base organization system. In addition to the 103d Fighter Group, the wing included the 103d Air Base Group,[5] the 103d Maintenance & Supply Group,[5] and the 103d Medical Group.[5]

Korean War activation[edit]

With the surprise invasion of South Korea on 25 June 1950, and the regular military's lack of readiness, most of the Air National Guard was federalized placed on active duty. The 103d was federalized on 2 March 1951. The group and wing were redesignated as fighter-Interceptor units.[6][7]

The 103d wing was assigned to the Eastern Air Defense Force of Air Defense Command (ADC) and moved to Suffolk County Air Force Base, New York on 1 June 1951, flying air defense missions with their F-47N Thunderbolts.[6] However, ADC was experiencing difficulty under the wing base organizational structure in deploying its fighter squadrons to best advantage.[8] It therefore reorganized its wings on a regional basis and dispersed support units to the locations of the fighter squadrons. On 6 February 1952 the 103d wing and its assigned groups were inactivated and most of its operational squadrons assigned to the 4709th Air Defense Wing at McGuire AFB, New Jersey. During its period of federalization, the 118th FIS transferred many of its pilots and ground support personnel to regular Air Force units.

Cold War[edit]

118th Fighter-Bomber Squadron - F-84D Thunderjet formation 1954

The 103d wing was reactivated on 1 November 1952 with the end of the units federalization period. The 103d was reactivated as a Fighter-Bomber Wing being Tactical Air Command-gained. However, air defense remained as a secondary mission.

Upon the 118th's return, the F-47s were sent to Davis-Monthan Air Force Base for storage and the squadron was re-equipped with very long range F-51H Mustangs by TAC with a close air support mission. In January 1953, the 103d received several F-84D Thunderjets for maintenance instruction, and the squadron was fully equipped with the Thunderjet during the summer of 1953.

In the spring of 1955, the F-84Gs were transferred to the Georgia ANG 128th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, and the 118th converted to F-94B Starfires. The F-94Bs, however, only remained with the 118th for about a year when they were replaced by F-86H Sabre tactical fighters in 1957. At this time the wing, now designated the 103d Air Defense Wing was inactivated.

118th Tactical Fighter Squadron - F-100D Formation, 1975

The Sabres were then replaced by F-100A Super Sabres during the summer of 1960 and the Wing becoming ADC-gained. The F-100As gave way to Convair F-102 Delta Daggers in January 1966, standing a 24-hour air defense alert. then in 1971 the group transferred back to Tactical Air Command, becoming an F-100D Super Sabre Group.

From 1971 to 1979, the 103d flew the F-100 Super Sabre and its mission was close air support and it began a NATO comttment, deploying frequently in the 1970s to bases in West Germany to reinforce United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE). In 1979, the unit was assigned new A-10 Thunderbolt IIs as part of the as part of the "Total Force" concept which equipped Air National Guard units with front-line USAF aircraft. The USAFE commitment continued, deploying the "Warthog" to bases in West Germany and Italy.

In 1990 the 103d was programmed to receive the specialized Block 10 F-16A/B Fighting Falcon, also referred to as the F/A-16 due to its close air support configuration. The 1990 Gulf Crisis, however, delayed this transition. During Operation Desert Storm, the F/A-16 was battle tested and it was discovered that the close air support F-16 project proved to be a failure. Subsequently, the conversion of the wing was cancelled in 1993, and the 118th squadron remained an A-10 Thunderbolt II close air support squadron.

Air Combat Command[edit]

A-10As 118th FS Connecticut ANG in flight

In March 1992, with the end of the Cold War, the unit was redesignated as the 103d Fighter Group. In June, Tactical Air Command was inactivated as part of the Air Force reorganization after the end of the Cold War. It was replaced by Air Combat Command (ACC). In 1995, in accordance with the Air Force "One Base-One Wing" directive, the 103d adopted the Air Force Objective Organization plan and was changed in status back to a wing, with the 118th Fighter Squadron being assigned to the new 103d Operations Group.

In mid-1996, the Air Force, in response to budget cuts, and changing world situations, began experimenting with Air Expeditionary organizations. The Air Expeditionary Force (AEF) concept was developed that would mix Active-Duty, Reserve and Air National Guard elements into a combined force. Instead of entire permanent units deploying as "Provisional" as in the 1991 Gulf War, Expeditionary units are composed of "aviation packages" from several wings, including active-duty Air Force, the Air Force Reserve Command and the Air National Guard, would be married together to carry out the assigned deployment rotation.

Subsequently in August 1996, the 118th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron (EFS) deployed to Aviano Air Base, Italy to assume the primary close air support mission of international forces in Bosnia. Other deployments of the 118th EFS were made to augment combat operations during Operations Deny Flight and Precise Endeavor.

Airlift mission[edit]

118th Airlift Squadron C-21A Learjet.

In its 2005 BRAC Recommendations, DoD recommended to realign Bradley International Airport Air Guard Station by distributing the 103rd's A-10s to the 104th Fighter Wing, Barnes Municipal Airport Air Guard Station, MA (nine aircraft) and retirement (six aircraft). The wing's expeditionary combat support (ECS) elements would remain in place at Bradley and Bradley would retain capability to support a Homeland Defense mission. By combining the two units into one squadron the Air Force would retain the trained A-10 pilots and maintenance technicians in the area and create an optimum-sized and more effective squadron.

In April 2008, the 103d became an Airlift Wing. Its new missions now include; a bridge mission flying C-21A Learjets supporting JOSAC VIP airlift, counter drug operations in the U.S., Central America, South America and the Caribbean, A Centralized Intermediate Repair Facility (CIRF) for TF-34 engines used on A-10 attack aircraft and an Air Operations Center (AOC) responsible for Command and Control operations during wartime.

Sometime between FY 2012 and 2014, the 103d was programmed to receive the new Joint Cargo Aircraft, the C-27 Spartan. However, the Air Force has recently announced the end of the C-27 Spartan program, eliminating the aircraft from Air National Guards units. Instead, in September 2013 the unit received eight C-130H Hercules aircraft, the first aircraft of this type to serve the 103rd Airlift Wing.

Lineage[edit]

103d Airlift Wing

  • Constituted as the 324th Fighter Group on 24 June 1942
Activated on 6 July 1942
Inactivated on 7 November 1945
  • Redesignated 103d Fighter Group and allotted to the National Guard on 24 May 1946.
Activated on 1 July 1946
Extended federal recognition on 7 August 1946
Federalized and ordered to active service on 2 March 1951[6]
Redesignated: 103d Fighter-Interceptor Group on 2 March 1951
Inactivated on 6 February 1952
Returned to Connecticut state control on 1 November 1952
  • Activated on 1 November 1952
  • Redesignated: 103d Fighter-Bomber Group 1 January 1953
Redesignated: 103d Fighter-Interceptor Group on 1 July 1955
Redesignated: 103d Fighter Group (Air Defense) on 1 July 1955
Redesignated: 103d Tactical Fighter Group on 30 November 1957
Redesignated: 103d Fighter Group (Air Defense) on 1 September 1960
Redesignated: 103d Tactical Fighter Group on 12 June 1971
Redesignated: 103d Fighter Group on 15 March 1992
  • Redesignated 103d Fighter Wing on 11 October 1995
Redesignated: 103d Airlift Wing on 1 Apr 2008

103d Air Defense Wing

  • Constituted as the 103d Fighter-Interceptor Wing on 31 October 1950 and allotted to the Air National Guard
Activated on 1 November 1950 and extended federal recognition
  • Federalized and ordered to active service on 2 March 1951[7]
  • Redesignated 103d Fighter-Interceptor Wing on 2 March 1951[7]
Inactivated on 6 February 1952[7]
Returned to Connecticut state control on 1 November 1952
  • Activated on 1 November 1952
  • Redesignated: 103d Fighter-Bomber Wing 1 January 1953
Redesignated: 103d Fighter-Interceptor Wing on 1 July 1955
Redesignated: 103d Air Defense Wing on 1 July 1955
Inactivated on 1 July 1957

Assignments[edit]

103d Airlift Wing

Gained by: Air Defense Command - 1 July 1948, Continental Air Command -1 December 1950, Air Defense Command
  • 103d Fighter Wing: 1 November 1950
  • Air Defense Command: 2 March 1951[6]
  • 103d Fighter-Interceptor Wing, 23 March 1951 - 6 February 1952[6]
  • 103d Fighter-Interceptor Wing (later 103d Fighter-Interceptor Wing, 103d Air Defense Wing), 1 November 1952
  • Connecticut Air National Guard: 1 July 1957
  • 102d Tactical Fighter Wing: 1 November 1957
Gained by: Tactical Air Command
Gained by: Boston Air Defense Sector, Air Defense Command, 1 September 1960
Gained by: 35th Air Division, Air Defense Command, 1 April 1966
Gained by: 35th Air Division, Aerospace Defense Command, 19 January 1968
Gained by: 21st Air Division, Aerospace Defense Command, 1 January 1970
  • 102d Tactical Fighter Wing: 12 June 1971
Gained by: Tactical Air Command, 12 June 1971
  • 127th Tactical Fighter Wing: c. June 1972
  • 174th Tactical Fighter Wing: 1979
  • 128th Fighter Wing: 15 March 1992
Gained by: Air Combat Command, 1 June 1992
  • Connecticut Air National Guard: 1994
Gained by: Air Mobility Command, 1 April 2008-Present

103d Air Defense Wing

Gained by Air Defense Command

Components[edit]

103d Airlift Wing

103d Air Defense Wing

  • 103d Air Base Group, 1 November 1950 - 2 March 1951; 23 March 1951 - 6 February 1952; 1 November 1952 - 15 April 1956
  • 103d Fighter Group (later Fighter-Interceptor Group, Fighter-Bomber Group, Fighter Group (Air Defense)) 1 November 1950 - 2 March 1951; 23 March 1951 - 6 February 1952; 1 November 1952 - 1 July 1957
  • 103d Medical Group, 1 November 1950 - 2 March 1951; 23 March 1951 - 6 February 1952; 1 November 1952 - 15 April 1956
  • 103d Maintenance & Supply Group, 1 November 1950 - 2 March 1951; 23 March 1951 - 6 February 1952; 1 November 1952 - 15 April 1956

Stations[edit]

103d Airlift Wing

103d Air Defense Wing

Aircraft[edit]

Awards and Campaigns[edit]

Award streamer Award Dates Notes
Streamer PUC Army.PNG Distinguished Unit Citation May 1943-Jul 1943 North Africa and Sicily 324th Fighter Group[1]
Streamer PUC Army.PNG Distinguished Unit Citation 12 May 1944-14 May 1944 Monte Cassino, Italy 324th Fighter Group[1]
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award Streamer.jpg Air Force Outstanding Unit Award 1 January 1972-31 December 1973 103d Tactical Fighter Group[10]
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award Streamer.jpg Air Force Outstanding Unit Award 1 January 1976-31 December 1977 103d Tactical Fighter Group[11]
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award Streamer.jpg Air Force Outstanding Unit Award 19 May 1985-18 May 1987 103d Tactical Fighter Group[11]
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award Streamer.jpg Air Force Outstanding Unit Award 1 July 1992-30 June 1994 103d Fighter Group[11]
Blank300.png French Croix de Guerre with Palm 1944-1945 324th Fighter Group[1]
Campaign Streamer Campaign Dates Notes
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Tunisia December 1942-13 May 1943 324th Fighter Group[1]
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Sicily 14 May 1943 – 17 August 1943 324th Fighter Group[1]
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Naples-Foggia 18 August 1943 – 21 January 1944 324th Fighter Group[1]
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Anzio 22 January 1944 – 24 May 1944 324th Fighter Group[1]
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Rome-Arno 22 January 1944 – 9 September 1944 324th Fighter Group[1]
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Northern France 25 July 1944 – 14 September 1944 324th Fighter Group[1]
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Southern France 15 August 1944 – 14 September 1944 324th Fighter Group[1]
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Rhineland 15 September 1944 – 21 March 1945 324th Fighter Group[1]
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Ardennes-Alsace 16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945 324th Fighter Group[1]
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Central Europe 22 March 1944 – 21 May 1945 324th Fighter Group[1]
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Air Combat, EAME Theater 29 March 1943 – 11 May 1945 324th Fighter Group[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1983) [1961]. Air Force Combat Units of World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1. LCCN 61060979. 
  2. ^ a b Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1982) [1969]. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. p. 382. ISBN 0-405-12194-6. LCCN 70605402. OCLC 72556. 
  3. ^ a b c d Maurer, Combat Squadrons, pp. 383-384
  4. ^ a b c Maurer, Combat Squadrons, p. 385
  5. ^ a b c Cornett, Lloyd H; Johnson, Mildred W (1980). A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization, 1946–1980. Peterson AFB, CO: Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center. p. 75. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Cornett & Johnson, p. 74
  7. ^ a b c d e Cornett & Johnson, p. 52
  8. ^ Grant, C.L., (1961) The Development of Continental Air Defense to 1 September 1954, USAF Historical Study No. 126, p. 33
  9. ^ a b c d e Station numbers in Johnson, 1st Lt. David C. (1988). U.S. Army Air Forces Continental Airfields (ETO) D-Day to V-E Day. Maxwell AFB, AL: Research Division, USAF Historical Research Center. 
  10. ^ AF Pamphlet 900-2, Unit Decorations, Awards and Campaign Participation Credits, Vol II Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC, 30 Sep 1976 , p. 46
  11. ^ a b c Air Force Recognition Program (search December 10, 2013)

Bibliography[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical Research Agency.

Rogers, Brian. (2005). United States Air Force Unit Designations Since 1978. Hinkley, UK: Midland Publications. ISBN 1-85780-197-0. 

External links[edit]