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This article is about the year 1537.
|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1500s 1510s 1520s – 1530s – 1540s 1550s 1560s|
|Years:||1534 1535 1536 – 1537 – 1538 1539 1540|
|1537 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2290|
|Bahá'í calendar||−307 – −306|
|English Regnal year||28 Hen. 8 – 29 Hen. 8|
|Chinese calendar||丙申年 (Fire Monkey)
4233 or 4173
— to —
丁酉年 (Fire Rooster)
4234 or 4174
|- Vikram Samvat||1593–1594|
|- Shaka Samvat||1459–1460|
|- Kali Yuga||4638–4639|
|Japanese calendar||Tenbun 6
|Minguo calendar||375 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2080|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1537.|
- January – Bigod's Rebellion, an uprising by Roman Catholics against Henry VIII of England
- January 6 – Alessandro de Medici is assassinated.
- March – Diego de Almagro successfully charges Manco Inca's siege of Cuzco, thereby saving his antagonists, the Pizarro brothers.
- March 12 – Recife is founded by the Portuguese in Brazil.
- June 2 – Pope Paul III publishes the encyclical Sublimis Deus, which declares the natives of the New World to be rational beings with souls who must not be enslaved or robbed.
- August 15 – Asunción is founded by Juan de Salazar y Espinoza. It's the oldest city in South America.
- August 25 – The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, is formed.
- August-September – The Ottomans fail to capture Corfu.
- Manco II establishes neo-Inca independent state at Vilacampa, Peru.
- The Spaniards bring the potato to Europe.
- The island of Paros is conquered by the Ottoman Empire
- Religious buildings are dissolved by Henry VIII, including
- Bisham Abbey is founded by Henry VIII in place of Bisham Priory.
- Bangalore is first mentioned.
- January 1 – Jan Krzysztof Tarnowski, Polish noble (d. 1567)
- January 16 – Albrecht VII, Count of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (d. 1605)
- January 21 – Anton Maria Salviati, Catholic cardinal (d. 1602)
- February 26 – Christopher II, Margrave of Baden-Rodemachern (d. 1575)
- March 4 – Longqing Emperor, Emperor of China (d. 1572)
- May 18 – Guido Luca Ferrero, Roman Catholic cardinal (d. 1585)
- May 20 – Hieronymus Fabricius, Italian anatomist (d. 1619)
- May 27 – Louis IV, Landgrave of Hesse-Marburg, son of Landgrave Philip I (d. 1604)
- May 28 – Ismail II, Shah of Persia (d. 1577)
- June 3 – João Manuel, Prince of Portugal, Portuguese prince (d. 1554)
- July 20 – Arnaud d'Ossat, French diplomat and writer (d. 1604)
- July 29 – Pedro Téllez-Girón, 1st Duke of Osuna, Spanish duke (d. 1590)
- July 30 – Christopher, Duke of Mecklenburg and administrator of Ratzeburg (d. 1592)
- August 9 – Francesco Barozzi, Italian mathematician (d. 1604)
- August 15 – Shimazu Toshihisa, Samurai (d. 1592)
- October 12
- December 5 – Ashikaga Yoshiaki, Japanese shogun (d. 1597)
- December 20 – King John III of Sweden (d. 1592)
- December 24 – Willem IV van den Bergh (d. 1586)
- December 26 – Albert, Count of Nassau-Weilburg (d. 1593)
- date unknown
- January 6
- January 12 – Lorenzo di Credi, Florentine painter and sculptor (b. 1459)
- February 3 – Thomas FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Kildare (executed) (b. 1513)
- February 8
- June 23 – Pedro de Mendoza, Spanish conquistador (b. 1487)
- June 29 – Henry Percy, 6th Earl of Northumberland (b. 1502)
- July 7 – Madeleine of Valois, queen of James V of Scotland (b. 1520)
- July 14 – Robert Aske (executed) (b. 1500)
- September 4 – Johann Dietenberger, German theologian (b. c. 1475)
- October 9 – Pavle Bakić, last Serb Despot and medieval Serb monarch
- October 24 – Jane Seymour, Third Queen of Henry VIII of England (complications of childbirth) (b. c. 1508)
- date unknown – John Kite, Archbishop of Armagh and Bishop of Carlisle
- probable – Thomas Murner, German satirist (b. 1475)