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|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1550s 1560s 1570s – 1580s – 1590s 1600s 1610s|
|Years:||1582 1583 1584 – 1585 – 1586 1587 1588|
|1585 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2338|
|English Regnal year||27 Eliz. 1 – 28 Eliz. 1|
— to —乙酉年十一月十一日
|- Vikram Samvat||1641–1642|
|- Shaka Samvat||1507–1508|
|- Kali Yuga||4686–4687|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||585–586|
|Japanese calendar||Tenshō 13
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||327 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2128|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1585|
- January 12 – The Netherlands adopts the Gregorian calendar.
- February – The Spanish seize Brussels.
- April 24 – Pope Sixtus V succeeds Pope Gregory XIII as the 227th pope.
- May 19 – Spain seizes English ships in Spanish ports, precipitating the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604).
- July 7 – The Treaty of Nemours forces King Henry III of France to capitulate to the demands of the Catholic League, triggering the Eighth War of Religion (also known as the War of the Three Henrys) to begin in France.
- August 8 – English explorer John Davis enters Cumberland Sound in Baffin Island in his quest for the Northwest Passage.
- August 14 – Queen Elizabeth I of England agrees to establish a protectorate over the Netherlands.
- August 17
- Antwerp is captured by Spanish forces under the Prince of Parma, who orders Protestants to leave the city. As a result, over half of the 100,000 inhabitants flee to the northern provinces. Furthermore, upon hearing of the capture of Antwerp, a relief fleet sent to raise the siege instead blockades the Schelde river, preventing any and all ships from reaching Antwerp for two centuries. This effectively destroys Antwerp's position as an important trade city and de facto capital of the Dutch provinces. Its position is taken over by various northern cities, most prominently Amsterdam.
- A first group of colonists sent by Sir Walter Ralegh under the charge of Ralph Lane lands in the New World to create Roanoke Colony on Roanoke Island, off the coast of North Carolina. This group will depart the following June.
- August 20 – The Treaty of Nonsuch is signed, committing England to support the Dutch Revolt, thus entering the Eighty Years' War.
Date unknown 
- Chocolate is introduced to Europe commercially.
- January 27 – Hendrick Avercamp, Dutch painter (d. 1634)
- March 5 – John George I, Elector of Saxony (d. 1656)
- March 16 – Gerbrand Adriaensz Bredero, Dutch writer (d. 1618)
- March 22 – Krzysztof Radziwiłł, Polish nobleman (d. 1640)
- June 11 – Evert Horn, Swedish soldier (d. 1615)
- August 11 – Hamnet Shakespeare, Son of William Shakespeare
- September 9 – Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu, French statesman (d. 1642)
- October – John Ball, English puritan divine (d. 1640)
- October 9 – Heinrich Schütz, German composer (d. 1672)
- October 15 – Louis Cappel, French Protestant churchman and scholar (d. 1658)
- October 28 – Cornelius Jansen, French bishop of Ypres and religious reformer (d. 1638)
- November 1 – Jan Brożek, Polish mathematician, physician, and astronomer (d. 1652)
- December 4 – John Cotton, founder of Boston, Massachusetts (d. 1652)
- December 13 – William Drummond of Hawthornden, Scottish poet (d. 1649)
- date unknown
- January 16 – Edward Fiennes Clinton, English admiral (b. 1512)
- February 6 – Edmund Plowden, English legal scholar (b. 1518)
- February 13 – Alfonso Salmeron, Spanish Jesuit biblical scholar (b. 1515)
- March 10 – Rembert Dodoens, Flemish physician and botanist (b. 1517)
- April 3 – Thomas Goldwell, English ecclesiastic
- April 10 – Pope Gregory XIII (b. 1502)
- May 15 – Niwa Nagahide, Japanese warlord (b. 1535)
- June 4 – Muretus, French humanist (b. 1526)
- June 21 – Henry Percy, 8th Earl of Northumberland (b. 1532)
- July 6 – Thomas Aufield, English Catholic martyr (b. 1552)
- July 28 – Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford (b. 1527)
- August 5 – Yermak Timofeyevich, Cossack leader and explorer of Siberia
- October 29 – Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha, Ottoman (Turkish) grand vizier (b.1527)
- November 23 – Thomas Tallis, English composer (b. c. 1510)
- November 28 – Hernando Franco, Spanish composer (b. 1532)
- December – Pierre de Ronsard, French poet (b. 1524)
- December 4 – John Willock, Scottish reformer (b. c. 1515)
- December 22 – Vittoria Accoramboni, Italian noblewoman (b. 1557)
- date unknown