42d Air Base Wing
||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (January 2013)|
|42d Air Base Wing
|Active||20 November 1940—present|
|Branch||United States Air Force|
|Part of||Air Education and Training Command|
|Garrison/HQ||Maxwell Air Force Base|
|Motto||Aethera Nobis Latin "The Skies for Us"|
|Decorations||Distinguished Unit Citation
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award
Philippine Presidential Unit Citation
|Colonel Kris Beasley|
|42d Air Base Wing emblem (approved 16 April 1954)[a 1]|
The 42d Air Base Wing (42 ABW) is a United States Air Force unit assigned to the Air Education and Training Command Air University. It is stationed at Maxwell-Gunter Air Force Base, Alabama. The wing is also the host unit at Maxwell-Gunter.
Its primary mission is to support all activities of Air University, which is stationed at Maxwell-Gunter.
Its World War II predecessor, the 42d Bombardment Group was a medium bomber unit, which saw combat in the Central and Southwest Pacific areas as part of Thirteenth Air Force. It was awarded a Distinguished Unit Citation for its pre-invasion bombing of Balikpapan, 23–30 June 1945. Active for over 50 years, the 42d Bombardment Wing was a component wing of Strategic Air Command's deterrent force during the Cold War, flying the B-36 Peacemaker and later B-52 Stratofortress.
The 42d ABW ensures Airmen are ready to deploy in support of U.S. military operations worldwide and takes a proactive approach to promoting their professional and personal growth. The Wing is also responsible for the safety and security of the base, which it accomplishes through force protection, maintaining and modernizing facilities and infrastructure, and seeking efficient new ways of conducting operations.
- 42d Mission Support Group
- Provides contracting, security, civil engineering, operations/airfield support, personnel, communications, transportation, supply, fuels and services for 45,000 personnel
- 42d Medical Group
- Provides quality, prevention-based healthcare anytime, anyplace.
- Team ITT
- Professionally supports Air Education and Training Command, Air University and the 42d Air Base Wing
World War II
The 42d began training in B-26s from, October 1941 – January 1942. The group patrolled the Northwest Pacific Coast and trained B-25 combat crews for the Alaskan Defense Command. It transferred to New Caledonia in April 1943 and entered combat in June of that year, operating from Guadalcanal, and later from other bases in the Solomon Islands. The 42d attacked Japanese airfields, personnel areas, gun positions, and shipping. From January–July 1944, the group engaged primarily in the neutralization of enemy airfields and harbor facilities on New Britain, but also supported ground forces on Bougainville Island and attacked shipping in the northern Solomons and the Bismarck Archipelago. From August 1944 – January 1945, it bombed airfields and installations on New Guinea, Celebes, and Halmahera, and flew reconnaissance missions.
The group moved to the Philippines in February and March 1945. From there is attacked shipping along the China coast, struck targets in French Indochina, bombed airfields and installations in the Philippines, and supported ground operations on Mindanao. The 42d also supported Australian forces on Borneo during May and June 1945. It was awarded a Distinguished Unit Citation for its pre-invasion bombing of Balikpapan, 23–30 June 1945. The group's final combat action of World War II was attacking isolated Japanese units on Luzon, July–August 1945. The 42d Bombardment Group was inactivated on 10 May 1946.
The 42d Bombardment Wing was activated on 25 February 1953 at Limestone Air Force Base, Maine as part of Strategic Air Command (SAC). The wing was assigned three squadrons that had belonged to the old World War II group: the 69th, 70th, and 75th Bombardment Squadrons. The new SAC wing came under the direction of Eighth Air Force.
At first the wing had no aircraft to fly. As a result, Convair B-36 Peacemaker aircraft were rotated in and out of the base so pilots could keep their flying skills sharp. However, by August all operational squadrons were flying.
The 42d continued to expand over the next few years. On 18 January 1955, the 42d Air Refueling Squadron joined the wing. It flew propeller-driven Boeing KC-97G tankers. On 14 August 1954, the last B-36J accepted by SAC was delivered to the wing. The wing's experience with the B-36 was short, however, as it became the first wing to convert from the B-36 to the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress.[a 2]
The first B-52C assigned to the wing arrived at Loring on 16 June 1956 and the last had been accepted by December. All 35 B-52Cs in the Air Force inventory were initially delivered to the 42d. By the end of the year, the wing had completely replaced the older B-36 fleet and had become combat ready with the Stratofortresses. In the fall, the wing began to receive B-52Ds to replace its C series aircraft. However, crew training lagged behind the delivery of new bombers and at the end of the year the wing had only sixteen combat ready crews.
When KC-135A tankers were assigned to the 42d Air Refueling Squadron in 1957, the wing became an all-jet force. On 24 and 25 November 1956, in an operation known as Quick Kick, four B-52Cs of the 42d joined four B-52Bs of the 93d Bombardment Wing for a nonstop flight around the perimeter of North America. Four in-flight refuelings by Boeing KC-97 Stratotankers were required for the 13,500-nautical-mile (25,000 km) journey.
In the late 1950s, Strategic Air Command began a series of aircraft moves designed to disperse the fleet to enhance survivability in case of an attack. One result of this was the reassignment of the 75th Bombardment Squadron to the 4039th Strategic Wing at Griffiss AFB, New York, on 25 June 1956. In July 1958, wing aircrews were placed on alert because of tensions in Lebanon. Although tensions subsided, the wing continued to upgrade its capabilities. For example, the more versatile B-52Gs replaced the B-52Ds and increased the range and payload capabilities of the wing in May 1959.
In January 1962, the wing began to participate in the airborne alert operation nicknamed Chrome Dome. This realistic training mission was designed to deter enemy forces from a surprise attack on the United States because it demonstrated Strategic Air Command’s nearly immediate retaliatory capability. The 42d flew fully combat-configured bombers along a route that covered parts of Western Europe and North Africa. Under the name Hard Head VI, the wing flew similar airborne alert operations which were designed to monitor the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System located at Thule, Greenland. The wing launched two combat-ready B-52s every 20–23 hours for the duration of the 30–60 day operation. To keep the B-52s airborne for long periods, the 42d Air Refueling Squadron also performed a number of air refueling missions. In support of these annual operations, which lasted for five years, the wing amassed thousands of hours in the air and covered several million miles.
While the wing was busy supporting airborne alert missions, Cold War tensions between the United States and Russia came to a head. In October 1962, President John F. Kennedy informed the American public of offensive nuclear-capable missile sites in Cuba. As a result, Strategic Air Command canceled normal flying activity and increased the size of its airborne alert forces. The 42d Bombardment Wing launched four B-52s on Operation Chrome Dome and Operation Hard Head VI missions, established the Loring Tanker Task Force, and placed all aircraft on full combat-alert status. To support this effort, the wing ended all military education courses, canceled leave for those not already off the base, delayed temporary duty assignments to other bases, and placed many on 12-hour shifts, seven days a week. Both the command and the wing maintained this posture until late November when tensions began to ease. During the 40-day crisis, wing bomber crews flew 132 airborne alert missions. Tanker crews from the 42d Air Refueling Squadron flew 214 air refueling missions, transferring almost 24 million pounds of fuel to the B-52s.
The wing lost a second bombardment squadron in 1966 when the 70th was inactivated, and its aircraft were dispersed throughout the command. However, in July 1968, the wing was back up to three tactical squadrons when the 407th Air Refueling Squadron transferred to Loring from Homestead AFB, Florida. The 407th also supported Operation Young Tiger missions. In the same year, the wing deployed periodically in support of Operation Arc Light operations.
The 42d deployed Detachment 1 to McGuire Air Force Base from 1 January 1970 through early 1975 [possibly only with KC-135s].
In 1972 the demand for the wing’s aircraft, crews, and support personnel increased significantly for Bullet Shot, Young Tiger, and Linebacker II operations. In December enemy fire brought down a B-52 and its crew. The aircraft was hit by a surface-to-air missile while over North Vietnam. Crew members managed to maneuver the crippled aircraft over Thailand before bailing out. All of the crew members were successfully recovered within a short period. This was the only time the wing suffered such a loss during the war. Wing personnel and equipment remained active in Southeast Asia operations until late 1973.
Following the Vietnam War, the wing participated in a number of strategic and tactical exercises worldwide. In addition, the 42d continued to provide tankers to support USAF air refueling needs. The 42d also continued its 24-hour nuclear alert status until October 1988 when, after 30 years, the requirement ended.
Effective 31 January 1984, the history of the 42d Bombardment Wing underwent a significant change. On this date, the Air Force combined the history and honors of the old 42d Bombardment Group (World War II-era) with that of the 42d Bombardment Wing. The newly consolidated organization retained the 42d Bombardment Wing designation, but the wing’s history now went back to the early 1940s, when the War Department first established the 42d Bombardment Group.
Adding to its illustrious history, on 7 August 1990, the wing began to deploy aircraft, personnel, and equipment to Southwest Asia in support of Operation Desert Shield. During Desert Shield/Desert Storm, the wing sent bombers to Diego Garcia. The B-52 aircrews flew 960 missions (485 combat) in 44 days and dropped 12,588,766 pounds of bombs on enemy targets. In addition, tankers from the 42d and from other units deployed to Diego Garcia and off-loaded 31,802,500 pounds of fuel to 648 receivers. Seven months after the start of the deployment, the 42d began returning its people and equipment to Loring AFB. The allies had forced Iraqi forces out of Kuwait.
Several organizational changes affected the wing during the early-to-mid-1990s. For example, on 1 October 1990, the 407th Air Refueling Squadron was inactivated, and two days later, President George Bush ordered alert crews to stand down for the first time in Loring’s history. That December, Strategic Air Command stood down all of its alert forces. At the same time, the wing’s home station, Loring AFB, prepared for closure.
On 1 September 1991, the 42d Bombardment Wing (Heavy) was redesignated as the 42d Wing. Two of its squadrons, the 69th Bombardment and 42d Air Refueling Squadrons, inactivated at the same time. Then, on 1 June 1992, HQ USAF inactivated Strategic Air Command and reassigned resources such as the 42d Wing to the newly activated Air Combat Command (ACC). On the same day, ACC redesignated the 42d Wing as the 42d Bomb Wing. The following year, the wing began to prepare for the closure of Loring AFB. The last B-52G assigned to the 42d departed the base on 16 November 1993. Likewise, the final KC-135R left on 2 March 1994. Loring closed on 30 September 1994, and the 42d Wing was inactivated the same day.
On 1 October 1994 the unit was activated and redesignated as the 42d Air Base Wing and took over as the host unit at Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama. This activation was part of a service-wide effort to preserve the lineage of the Air Force’s most honored wings.
42d Bombardment Group
- Constituted as the 42d Bombardment Group (Medium) on 20 November 1940
- Activated on 15 January 1941
- Redesignated 42d Bombardment Group, Medium on 6 September 1944
- Inactivated on 10 May 1946
- Consolidated with the 42d Bombardment Wing as the 42d Bombardment Wing on 31 January 1984
42d Air Base Wing
- Constituted as the 42d Bombardment Wing, Heavy onn 19 February 1953
- Activated on 25 February 1953
- Consolidated with the 42d Bombardment Group on 31 January 1984
- Redesignated 42d Wing on 1 September 1991
- Redesignated 42d Bomb Wing on 1 June 1992
- Inactivated on 30 September 1994
- Redesignated 42d Air Base Wing and activated on 1 October 1994.
- 42d Operations: 1 September 1991 – 31 January 1994.
- 16th Reconnaissance (later, 406th Bombardment) Squadron: attached 15 January 1941 – 2 March 1942, assigned 3 March 1942 – 25 February 1943 (air echelon detached 3 June 1942 – 25 February 1943; ground echelon detached 10 November 1942 – 25 February 1943)
- 42d Air Refueling Squadron: 18 January 1955 – 1 September 1991
- 69th Bombardment Squadron: 26 February 1943 – 10 May 1946 (detached 26 February-c. 15 April 1943); 25 February 1953 – 1 September 1991
- 70th Bombardment Squadron: 26 February 1943 – 10 May 1946 (detached 26 February-c. 15 April 1943); 25 February 1953 – 25 June 1966
- 75th Bombardment Squadron: 15 January 1941 – 10 May 1946; 25 February 1953 – 15 October 1959
- 76th Bombardment Squadron: 15 January 1941 – 12 February 1943 (air echelon detached c. 21 May 1942 – 12 February 1943)
- 77th Bombardment Squadron : 15 January 1941 – 2 February 1942
- 106th Reconnaissance (later, 100th Bombardment) Squadron: attached January 1944, assigned 1 February 1944 – 11 December 1945
- 390th Bombardment Squadron: 20 March 1942 – 27 January 1946
- 407th Air Refueling Squadron: 2 July 1968 – 1 October 1990.
- The emblem had been approved for the 42d Bombardment Group on 11 March 1942 and was slightly modified on 19 March 1997. Warnock. AFHRA Factsheet, 42d Air Base Wing.
- The wing was the second, however to fly B-52s. The 93d Bombardment Wing had converted to B-52s from Boeing B-47 Stratojets. Knaack, p. 237
- Ravenstein, pp. 69-70
- Knaack, p. 51
- Knaack, p. 46
- Knaack, p. 245
- Knaack, p. 251
- Knaack, p. 244
- Knaack, Marcelle Size (1988). Encyclopedia of US Air Force Aircraft and Missile Systems. Vol. 2, Post-World War II Bombers 1945-1973. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-59-5.
- Maurer, Maurer (1983). Air Force Combat Units Of World War II. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-89201-092-4.
- Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1982) . Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-405-12194-6. LCCN 70605402. OCLC 72556.
- Ravenstein, Charles A. (1984). Air Force Combat Wings, Lineage & Honors Histories 1947-1977. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-12-9.
- Loring Remembers Project – Cross-index of assigned veterans from 1950–1994
- 42d Air Base Wing Website
- Maxwell AFB Official Website