136th Airlift Squadron
|136th Airlift Squadron|
A C-130 Hercules from the 136th Expeditonary Airlift Squadron flies over rugged Afghan landscape on its way to delivering much-needed supplies to a forward operating base in Oruzgan Province, Afghanistan,
|Active||10 August 1942–Present|
|Branch||Air National Guard|
|Part of||New York Air National Guard|
|Garrison/HQ||Niagara Falls Joint Air Reserve Station, New York|
|Tail Code||"Niagara" Blue stripe|
|136th Airlift Squadron emblem|
The 136th Airlift Squadron (136 AS) is a unit of the New York Air National Guard 107th Airlift Wing located at Niagara Falls Joint Air Reserve Station, New York. The 136th is equipped with the C-130H Hercules.
World War II 
Formed at Hunter Army Airfield, Georgia, as a Third Air Force Operational Training Unit (OTU), equipped with A-24 Banshee dive bombers. Moved to California in September 1943 as part of Desert Training Center in Mojave Desert.
After the A-24 was taken out of combat service, trained with P-39 Aircobras and became combat ready, being reassigned to VIII Fighter Command in England, April 1944. Re-equipped with P-51 Mustangs, with a mission for escorting B-17 Flying Fortress and B-24 Liberator heavy bombers during its first five weeks of operations, and afterwards flew many escort missions to cover the operations of medium and heavy bombers that struck strategic objectives, interdicted the enemy's communications, or supported operations on the ground.
The group frequently strafed airfields and other targets of opportunity while on escort missions. Provided fighter cover over the English Channel and the coast of Normandy during the invasion of France in June 1944. Strafed and dive-bombed vehicles, locomotives, marshalling yards, anti-aircraft batteries, and troops while Allied forces fought to break out of the beachhead in France. Attacked transportation targets as Allied armies drove across France after the breakthrough at Saint-Lô in July. Flew area patrols during the airborne attack on Holland in September. Escorted bombers to, and flew patrols over the battle area during the German counter attack in the Ardennes (Battle of the Bulge), December 1944 – January 1945. Provided area patrols during the assault across the Rhine in March 1945.
Returned to the US in October and inactivated on 18 October 1945 as an administrative unit.
New York Air National Guard 
The wartime 503d Fighter Squadron was re-designated as the 136th Fighter Squadron, and was allotted to the New York Air National Guard, on 24 May 1946. It was organized at Niagara Falls Municipal Airport, New York, and was extended federal recognition on 8 December 1948 by the National Guard Bureau. The 136th Fighter Squadron was bestowed the lineage, history, honors, and colors of the 503d Fighter Squadron and all predecessor units. The squadron was equipped with F-47D Thunderbolts and was assigned to the New York ANG 107th Fighter Group, operationally gained by Continental Air Command.
The mission of the 136th Fighter Squadron was the air defense of Western New York. Aircraft parts were no problem and many of the maintenance personnel were World War II veterans so readiness was quite high and the planes were often much better maintained than their USAF counterparts. In some ways, the postwar Air National Guard was almost like a flying country club and a pilot could often show up at the field, check out an aircraft and go flying. However, the unit also had regular military exercises that kept up proficiency and in gunnery and bombing contests they would often score at least as well or better than active-duty USAF units, given the fact that most ANG pilots were World War II combat veterans.
Korean War activation 
With the surprise invasion of South Korea on 25 June 1950, and the regular military's complete lack of readiness, most of the Air National Guard was federalized placed on active duty. The 136th was federalized on 2 March 1951, being assigned to the Maine ANG 101st Fighter-Interceptor Group, being moved to Dow Air Force Base, Maine. At Dow, the 101st FIG was composed of the Maine 132d (F-80C), New Hampshire 133d (F-47D) and New York 136th Fighter Squadrons (F-47D). Assigned to the Eastern Air Defense Force, Air Defense Command, the mission of the federalized 101st FIW was the air defense of New England. The wing was moved from Dow AFB to Grenier AFB, New Hampshire on 1 May with no change of mission. It remained at Grenier AFB until 2 August 1951 when the 101st FIW was transferred to the ADC Western Air Defense Force and the unit was moved to Larson Air Force Base, Washington.
At Larson, the mission of the 101st FIW was the air defense of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and the Grand Coulee Dam. It should also be noted that during its period of federalization, the 101st FIW transferred many of its pilots and ground support personnel to Fifth Air Force, where they served in combat in Korea. The unit was returned to state control on 1 December 1952 and the units returned to their various home stations.
Air Defense 
The unit was reformed at Niagara Falls by 1 January 1953 and was re-equipped with the F-51H Mustang very long range fighter. The air defense mission for western New York remained and the unit resumed normal peacetime training and drills. In 1954, the Mustang was ending its service life and Air Defense Command was re-equipping its fighter-interceptor squadrons with jet aircraft. The 136th received F-94B Starfires, however the F-94 required a two-man aircrew a pilot and an air observer to operate its radar equipment. Trainees for the radar assignment had to attend regular Air Force Training Schools, and required virtually the same qualifications as the pilot trainees. The additional recruitment of guardsmen led to the units having a manning and capabilities problem that lasted for some time until the unit was returned to full readiness.
In 1956, the 107th Fighter-Interceptor Wing was reorganized and re-designated as the 107th Air Defense Wing. The reorganization resulted in the activation of three (3) new fighter groups, the 107th Fighter Group (AD) was moved from Niagara Falls to Hancock Field, Syracuse, although the 136th FIS remained at its station. The 109th Fighter Group (AD) was established at Schenectady County Airport, and the 105th Fighter Group (AD) at Westchester County Airport, White Plains. Under the reorganization, the group headquarters at Syracuse and the 138th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron were combined into a new 107th Fighter Group (AD), the 139th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron at Schenectady was expanded to be become the 109th Fighter Group (AD) , and the 137th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron at White Plains was expanded to be become the 105th Fighter Group (AD). The F-86H Sabre replaced the F-94B Starfires in 1957.
Tactical Air Command 
A major change to the 107th Air Defense Wing in 1958 was the transition from an Air Defense Command (ADC) mission to Tactical Air Command (TAC) and a tactical fighter mission, the 107th being re-designated as a Tactical Fighter Wing; with subordinate units also being re-designated. The new assignment involved a change in the Wing's training mission to include high-altitude interception, air-to-ground rocketry, ground strafing and tactical bombing. The squadrons retained their F-86H Sabres. In 1960 TAC replaced the F-86H with the F-100C Super Sabre.
The 137th TFS at White Plains was transferred to the 106th Aeromedical Transport Group on 1 February 1961 and was re-designated as the 137th Aeromedical Transport Squadron under the Military Air Transport Service (MATS). In 1962, the 107th TFG was moved back to Niagara Falls, with the activation of the 174th Tactical Fighter Group at Syracuse. This marked a change in status at Niagara Falls with the 107th TFW returning to Group status. Six F-100 fighters of the 136th was deployed to Hickam AFB, Hawaii in 1965 for Operation Tropic Lighting I. The squadron provided close air support for jungle warfare training of the U. S. Army's 25th Division, in Hawaii prior to their combat deployment to South Vietnam The Niagara jets were flown across the Pacific and refuled twice in flight, marking the first time an ANG unit has performed such a mission.
In January 1968, the 136th Tactical Fighter Squadron was federalized in the wake of the USS Pueblo crisis. Deployed to Homestead AFB for gunnery and close air ground support training in April; in June, the squadron was deployed to Tuy Hoa Air Base, South Vietnam to reinforce the 31st Tactical Fighter Wing. It was joined at Tuy Hoa by the New Mexico ANG 188th Tactical Fighter Squadron. In South Vietnam, the squadron carried the tail code "SG" on its F-100s. From Tuy Hoa, the squadron conducted combat operations, carried out interdiction strikes, conducted visual and photo reconnaissance, rescue combat air patrols, and suppressed enemy antiaircraft artillery. The squadron also conducted air operations against enemy forces during the 1968 Tet Offensive and the Siege of Khe Sanh from February–April 1968. It flew close air support missions during the extraction of friendly troops from Kham Duc on 12 May 1968.
In South Vietnam, three squadron members were awarded the Purple Heart; one the Distinguished Flying Cross; and 43 have received Air Medals. The New York State Medal of Valor was awarded posthumously to Captain Joseph L'Hullier of the 136th TFS for heroism in Vietnam. Captain L'Hullier became the first New York Air National Guardsman to be killed in action while on active duty with a mobilized Air Guard organizational unit since World War II. He died while on a combat fighter support mission. Following a distinguished tour of duty by all 107th Members, the squadron was returned to its home base of Niagara Falls in late May and formally demobilized on 11 June 1969. In a final, moving tribute to their four fallen comrades - three pilots of the 136th killed in training, and one in action - F-100s from the 169th Tactical Fighter Group, South Carolina Air National Guard, flew over the demobilization ceremonies in the "missing man" formation.
NORAD Air Defense 
The 107th Tactical Fighter Group returned to an air defense mission in June 1971 when it received F-101B Voodoo interceptors and rejoined Aerospace Defense Command (ADCOM). In 1972, after the completion of the transition to the Voodoo from the F-100s, the 136th FIS began operating on a 24-hour a day, 365 days a year alert as part of the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD). In 1979, ADCOM was inactivated and the air defense mission assumed by Tactical Air Command. The 107th FIG became a part of "Air Defense, Tactical Air Command (ADTAC)", which functioned at the Numbered Air Force echelon of TAC. In 1981 the 136th was re-equipped with F-4C Phantom IIs and in 1982 returned to NORAD alert status.
More advanced F-4D Phantom IIs were received by the 136th FIS in 1986. Beginning in July, a detachment was formed to provide air defense alert at Charleston AFB, South Carolina. With the detachment at Charleston, the 136th FIS were on a 24/365 alert over a 1,480 mile round-trip area. Also interceptors from Charleston monitored Soviet Air Force Tupolev Tu-95 "Bear" Bombers flying down the Atlantic seacoast to and from airfields in Cuba. The 136th also deployed to Ramstein Air Base, West Germany to perform an Air Defense Alert Mission deemed Creek Klaxon. Squadrons from he Air National Guard rotated deployments and stood alert duties for just over a year at Ramstein whilst the resident 86th TFW converted to F-16C/D Fighting Falcons. The 86 TFW resumed alert duties on 1 April 1987.
The 107th replaced its Vietnam Era F-4D Phantom II fighter aircraft with 20 Block 15 F-16 Fighting Falcon fighters configured in the Air Defense Fighter conversion in 1990. Personnel and aircraft deployed to Jacksonville ANGB, Florida, taking advantage of the better weather conditions to accelerate the F-16 conversion.
Due to its air defense commitment, the 136th was not mobilized during the 1991 Gulf Crisis. However, the 107th Fighter-Interceptor Group deployed firefighter and medical personnel as backfilled personnel to stateside bases vacated by active-duty personnel deployed to the Middle East.
In 1992, with the end of the Cold War, the 107th adopted the Air Force Objective Organization plan, and the unit was re-designated as the 107th Fighter Group. On 1 October 1995, in accordance with the Air Force "One Base - One Wing" policy, the 107th Fighter Wing was established and the 136th Fighter Squadron was assigned to the new 107th Operations Group.
Modern era 
With the arrival of the KC-135R Stratotanker in March 1994, the 107th Fighter Wing converted from an air defense mission to aerial refueling and was re-designated as the 107th Air Refueling Wing. The 107th ARW provided support for worldwide air refueling missions. Secondly, when called upon, the 107th ARW used the KC-135R as a cargo and passenger transport.
In mid-1996, the Air Force, in response to budget cuts, and changing world situations, began experimenting with Air Expeditionary organizations. The Air Expeditionary Force (AEF) concept was developed that would mix Active-Duty, Reserve and Air National Guard elements into a combined force. Instead of entire permanent units deploying as "Provisional" as in the 1991 Gulf War, Expeditionary units are composed of "aviation packages" from several wings, including active-duty Air Force, the Air Force Reserve Command and the Air National Guard, would be married together to carry out the assigned deployment rotation.
Since 1996, the 136th Expeditionary Air Refueling Squadron was formed and deployed in support of world contingencies including Operations to include, but not limited to, Strong Resolve 2002, Operation Uphold Democracy, Operation Deny Flight, Operation Decisive Endeavor, Operation Noble Eagle, Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom and the Northeast Tanker Task Force.
In November 2007, the 107th was notified that it would become an airlift unit. This was directed by the Base Realignment and Closure of 2005. It became an associate unit to the Air Force Reserve Command 914th Airlift Wing that was already based at Niagara Falls. The 914th had has responsibility for the C-130H2 Hercules aircraft used by the 136th, and airmen from both units jointly operate them. With this change, the Niagara Falls Air Reserve Station received additional C-130 aircraft from the Tennessee ANG 118th Airlift Wing in Nashville. Tennessee. The 136th Expeditionary Airlift Squadron has deployed to both Iraq and Afghanistan in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom.
During Hurricane Sandy in late October 2012, members of the unit deployed to New York City and Long Island to assist in recovery operations. The unit was deployed first to Stewart Air National Guard Base in Newburgh and then traveled to Peekskill, which is in Westchester County. As part of the recovery effort, unit members performed road clearing, traffic control, helping displaced personnel with feeding and getting them back in their housing and getting them out of flood-stricken areas.
It was announced in early 2012 that federal budget reductions would affect the mission of the 107th Airlift Wing. The future of the unit is presently being discussed by New York representatives and the Air Force.
- Constituted as 482d Bombardment Squadron (Dive) on 3 August 1942
- Activated on 10 Aug 1942
- Re-designated: 503d Fighter-Bomber Squadron on 10 Aug 1943
- Re-designated: 503d Fighter Squadron on 30 May 1944
- Inactivated on 7 Nov 1945
- Re-designated: 136th Fighter Squadron, and allotted to New York ANG, on 24 May 1946.
- Received federal recognition and activated on 8 December 1948
- Federalized and ordered to active service on: 2 March 1951
- Released from active duty and returned to New York state control, 1 December 1952
- Re-designated: 136th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, 1 December 1952
- Re-designated: 136th Tactical Fighter Squadron, 10 November 1958
- Federalized and ordered to active service on: 26 January 1968
- Released from active duty and returned to New York state control, 11 June 1969
- Re-designated: 136th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, 1 June 1971
- Re-designated: 136th Fighter Squadron, 16 March 1992
- Re-designated: 136th Air Refueling Squadron, 1 July 1994
- Components designated as: 136th Expeditionary Air Refueling Squadron when deployed as part of an Air and Space Expeditionary unit after June 1996
- Re-designated: 136th Airlift Squadron, 1 July 2008
- Components designated as: 136th Expeditionary Airlift Squadron when deployed as part of an Air and Space Expeditionary unit after 1 July 2008
- 339th Bombardment (later Fighter-Bomber; Fighter) Group, 10 August 1942-18 October 1945
- 107th Fighter Group, 8 December 1948
- 101st Fighter-Interceptor Group, 2 March 1951
- 4708th Defense Wing, 6 February 1952
- 107th Fighter-Interceptor Group, 1 December 1952
- 107th Air Defense Wing, 1 May 1956
- 107th Tactical Fighter Group, 10 November 1958
- 31st Tactical Fighter Wing, 26 January 1968
- 107th Tactical Fighter Group, 11 June 1969
- 107th Fighter-Interceptor Group, 1 June 1971
- 107th Fighter Group, 16 March 1992
- 107th Air Refueling Group, 1 July 1994
- 107th Operations Group, 1 October 1995 – Present
- Maurer, Maurer. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force: World War II. Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Office of Air Force History, 1982.
- Rogers, B. (2006). United States Air Force Unit Designations Since 1978. ISBN 1-85780-197-0
- Cornett, Lloyd H. and Johnson, Mildred W., A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization 1946 - 1980, Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center, Peterson AFB, CO (1980).
- New York Department of Military Affairs Adjutant General Reports, 1947-1990