forestry sector of Pakistan is a main source of lumber, paper, fuelwood, latex, medicine as well as food and provide ecotourism and wildlife conservation purposes. Less than 4% of land in Pakistan is covered with forests. [1 ]
Statistics [ edit ]
Total forest area coverage (
Total forest area in 2000 (000 ha)
Natural forest area in 2000 (000 ha)
Plantations area in 2000 (000 ha)
Total dryland area in 1981 (000 ha)
Percentage of forests
Distribution [ edit ]
coniferous forests occur from 1,000 to 4,000 m altitudes. Chitral, Swat, Upper Dir, Lower Dir, Malakand, Mansehra and Abbottabad districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Azad Kashmir and Islamabad district of the Punjab are the main areas covered with coniferous forests. Silver fir ( Abies alba), spruce ( Picea smithiana), deodar ( Cedrus deodara), blue pine ( Pinus wallichiana), chir pine ( Pinus roxburghii) are the most common varieties. The Coniferous forests also occur in Balochistan hills. Chilghoza pine ( Pinus gerardiana) and juniper ( Juniperous macropoda) are the two most common species of Balochistan.
sub-tropical dry forests are found in the Attock, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Jhelum and Gujrat districts of the Punjab, and in the Mansehra, Abbottabad, Mardan, Peshawar and Kohat districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa up to a height of 1,000 m. In Balochistan, they are confined to the Sulaiman Mountains and other hilly areas. Dominant tree species are phulai ( Acacia modesta), kau ( Olea cuspidata) and hopbush ( Dodonaea viscosa).
tropical thorn forests are dominated by xerophytic scrubs. They are most widespread in the Punjab plains but also occupy small areas in southern Sindh and western Balochistan. They are mainly used for grazing purposes, watershed protection and fuelwood. Common species are vann ( Salvadora oleoides), khejri ( Prosopis cineraria), kair ( Capparis aphylla), etc.
Ecosystems area by type in 1993 (
Shrublands, woodlands and grasslands
Sparse or barren vegetation; snow and ice
Cropland and natural vegetation mosaic
Wetlands and water bodies
The forests of Pakistan are a main source of
lumber, paper, fuelwood, latex, medicine as well as human and animal food. Other minor products include resin (a fluid in tissue of Chir pine plant that becomes solid on exposure to the air) and 'mazri' (used for making baskets). The forests also provide for ecotourism and wildlife conservation purposes. Forests have also been planted in some areas like Thal Desert to avoid soil erosion and further desertification. Riparian zone along the river Indus have been managed to avoid excess flooding.
Annual production, 1996-1998 (
Total production (000m³)
Fuelwood production (000m³)
Industrial roundwood production (000m³)
Paper (thousand metric tons)
Deforestation [ edit ]
Federal Bureau of Statistics provisionally valued this sector at Rs.25,637 million in 2005 thus registering over 3% decline of forests in Pakistan since 2000. The main reasons of deforestation are [2 ] urbanization, farming, overgrazing, global warming, and tourism development. This has led to severe consequences desertification, flooding and endangering of wildlife.
As a consequence to deforestation and changing land use patterns, the most critically affected ecosystems of Pakistan are:
Juniper forests of northern
Balochistan, have been heavily harvested for timber and fuelwood. Indus River
riparian zone is the other such area where ecological changes have drastically affected the 'Riverain Forests'. Large tracts have been cleared for agriculture. The
Himalayan temperate forests are also under severe pressure from logging for timber and firewood and making clearings for agriculture and the increasing population pressure.
Conservation [ edit ]
The protected areas serve the purpose of conserving the forests and wildife of Pakistan.
National Conservation Strategy of 1993 was a major landmark of start of conservation of natural resources and wildlife in Pakistan. Resource-managed man-made forests like Changa Manga, Kamalia plantation and Chichawatni plantation have also been planted to serve purpose and conserve forests. Through conservation, a large region of Thal desert has been afforested.
Natural protected forests
Artificial resource managed forests
Organizations [ edit ]
Research institutions [ edit ]
Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Sheringal, Dir Upper, KPK, DIR
Agricultural Research Institute, Quetta
Punjab Forest School ( profile), Bahawalpur
Pakistan Forest Institute ( profile), Peshawar The university of agriculture, Peshawar (
Sindh Agriculture University, Hyderabad
University of Agriculture ( profile), Faisalabad
University of Haripur, Haripur Hazara (khyber pakhtunkhwa) (Pakistan)
Botanical gardens [ edit ]
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
Further reading [ edit ]
External links [ edit ]