Demographics of Pakistan
|Demographics of Pakistan|
Population of Pakistan, 1961–2003
|Population:||187,343,000 (2011 est.)|
|Birth rate:||31 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)|
|Death rate:||8 deaths/1,000 population (2009 est.)|
|Life expectancy:||63.39 years (2009 est.)|
|–male:||62.4 years (2009 est.)|
|–female:||64.44 years (2009 est.)|
|Fertility rate:||3.58 children born/woman (2008 est.)|
|Infant mortality rate:||61.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)|
|0-14 years:||36.7% (male 33,037,943/female 31,092,572)|
|15-64 years:||59.1% (male 53,658,173/female 49,500,786)|
|65-over:||4.2% (male 3,495,350/female 3,793,734) (2009 est.)|
|At birth:||1.00 male(s)/female (2006 est.)|
|Under 15:||1.06 male(s)/female (2006 est.)|
|15-64 years:||1.05 male(s)/female (2006 est.)|
|65-over:||0.82 male(s)/female (2006 est.)|
|Major ethnic:||See Ethnic groups of Pakistan|
|Official:||See Languages of Pakistan|
|Spoken:||See List of Pakistani languages by number of native speakers|
Pakistan's estimated population in 2011 is over 187 million making it the world's sixth most-populous country, behind Brazil and ahead of Nigeria. During 1950–2011, Pakistan's urban population expanded over sevenfold, while the total population increased by over fourfold. In the past, the country's population had a relatively high growth rate that has been changed by moderate birth rates. The population growth rate now stands at 1.6%.
Dramatic social changes have led to rapid urbanization and the emergence of megacities. During 1990–2003, Pakistan sustained its historical lead as the second most urbanized nation in South Asia with city dwellers making up 36% of its population. Furthermore, 50% of Pakistanis now reside in towns of 5,000 people or more.
Pakistan has a multicultural and multi-ethnic society and hosts one of the largest refugee populations in the world as well as a young population.
Geographic distribution 
The majority of southern Pakistan's population lives along the Indus River. Karachi is the most populous city in Pakistan. In the northern half, most of the population lives about an arc formed by the cities of Faisalabad, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Nowshera, Swabi, Mardan, and Peshawar.
Population size and growth 
- Population: 187,382,721 (July 2011 est.)
- Growth rate: 1.573% (2011 est.)
Pakistan's yearly population 
Pakistan's yearly population from 1950 to 2011.
|Year||Population||Absolute increase||Percentage increase|
|Total population||Population aged 0–14 (%)||Population aged 15–64 (%)||Population aged 65+ (%)|
Gender ratios 
- Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
- under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
- 15–64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
- 65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
- total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
|Aerab||Live births per year||Deaths per year||Natural change per year||CBR1||CDR1||NC1||TFR1||IMR1|
|1950–1955||1 652 000||937 000||715 000||42.0||23.8||18.2||6.60||176.6|
|1955–1960||1 873 000||907 000||966 000||43.0||20.9||22.1||6.60||156.3|
|1960–1965||2 128 000||894 000||1 233 000||43.5||18.3||25.2||6.60||139.5|
|1965–1970||2 407 000||887 000||1 520 000||43.2||15.9||27.3||6.60||125.7|
|1970–1975||2 738 000||890 000||1 848 000||42.8||13.9||28.9||6.60||114.8|
|1975–1980||3 197 000||935 000||2 262 000||42.9||12.6||30.3||6.60||106.6|
|1980–1985||3 746 000||1 019 000||2 726 000||42.6||11.6||31.0||6.44||101.5|
|1985–1990||4 367 000||1 120 000||3 247 000||42.1||10.8||31.3||6.30||96.7|
|1990–1995||4 566 000||1 166 000||3 400 000||38.2||9.7||28.5||5.67||90.1|
|1995–2000||4 674 000||1 201 000||3 473 000||34.4||8.8||25.6||5.00||83.2|
|2000–2005||4 387 000||1 213 000||3 175 000||28.9||8.0||20.9||4.00||76.8|
|2005–2010||4 666 000||1 277 000||3 390 000||28.1||7.7||20.4||3.65||70.9|
|1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births|
Mortality and life expectancy 
- Maternal mortality ratio: 320 (2009 est.)
- Life expectancy at birth:
As adultery is a crime punishable by death in Pakistan, just in the main cities 1,210 infants were killed or abandoned to die(2010), 90% of them girls and most less than a week old according to conservative estimates by the Edhi Foundation, a charity working to reverse this increasing trend.
Human development 
Human Development Index 
According to the 2009 Human Development Report of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 60.3% of Pakistanis live on less than $2 a day.
|Province||Human Development Index||Comparable country|
|Medium human development|
|Khyber Pakhtunkhwa||0.607||Solomon Islands|
|Region||Human Development Index||Comparable country|
|Medium human development|
|Urban Sindh||0.659||Equatorial Guinea/ South Africa|
|Urban Punjab||0.657||Equatorial Guinea/ South Africa|
|Urban Khyber Pakhtunkhwa||0.627||India|
|Urban Balochistan||0.591||Solomon Islands|
|Low human development|
|Rural Khyber Pakhtunkhwa||0.489||Zimbabwe/ Kenya|
|Region||Human Development Index||Comparable country|
|Medium human development|
|Urban Pakistan||0.656||Equatorial Guinea/ South Africa|
|Low human development|
Note: Regarding the above two tables, information on Pakistan has been taken from the PAKISTAN NATIONAL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2003 and for the countries of the world, information has been take from the Human Development Report 2006 as it best reflects the time when data was taken for Pakistan. Pakistan National Human Development Report gave Pakistan an HDI score of 0.541 whereas the Human Development Report 2006 gave it a score of 0.539. So this is the MOST ACCURATE comparison.
definition: aged 10 and over and can read and write
- Total population: 79.31% 2013est by gallop Pakistan survery
- Male: 81.3%
- Female: 63.5%
- Youth literacy rate: 94.5%
- Primary schools: 156,592
- Middle schools: 320,611
- High schools: 23,964
- College of Arts and Sciences: 3,213
- Degree colleges: 1,202
- Technical and Vocational Institutions: 3,125
- Universities: 137
Nationality, ethnicity, and language 
Ethnic groups 
Pakistan's diversity is more visible along cultural differences and less along linguistic, religious or genetic lines. Almost all Pakistanis belong to the Indo-Iranians ancestral group. Pakistan's rough estimates vary, but the consensus is that the Punjabis are the largest ethnic group. Pashtuns (Pakhtuns) make up the second largest and Sindhi are the third largest ethnic groups.[not in citation given] Saraikis, (a transitional group between Punjabis and Sindhis) make up 10.53% of the total population. The remaining large groups include the Muhajirs and the Baloch people that make up 7.57% and 3.57% of the total population, respectively. Hindkowans and the Brahui, and the various peoples of the Gilgit–Baltistan, constitute roughly 4.66% of the total population. The Pakhtun and Baloch represent two of the major populations that are linguistically Iranic, while the majority Punjabis, Hindkowans, Sindhis and Saraikis are the major linguistically Indo-Aryan groups.
In 1850, the British started developing Karachi as a major port for trade and commerce resulting in arrival of large number immigrants from Rajasthan, Gujarat and Goa. The Goan Catholics constitute the majority of the Christians in the city.
After Pakistan-India war in 1971, thousands of Biharis and Bengalis from Bangladesh arrived in the Karachi, followed by Muslim Rohingya refugees from Burma, and Asians from Uganda. According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), approximately 1.7 million Afghan refugees remain in Pakistan as of 2009. Many of them were born and raised in Pakistan in the last 30 years but are still counted as citizens of Afghanistan. Majority of them are ethnic Pakhtuns from southeastern Afghanistan, where Taliban insurgency, US-led military operations, suicide attacks, and worsening law and order have created massive suffering. In addition, there are pockets of refugees/migrants including Iraqis, Iranians, Tajikistanis, Somalis, Rohingyas, and others.
All major ethnic groups in Pakistan, while categorized as separate entities, have thousands of years of shared history and inter-mingling. Thus, the genetic (as well as cultural and linguistic) differences between ethnic groups in Pakistan and those of its neighbours (Southeastern Afghanistan, North-Western India and others) are insignificant. In addition, inter-marriages between ethnic groups within Pakistan are becoming quite common.
Foreign born population in Pakistan 
The second biggest group of foreign born population consists of Muslim refugees from Afghanistan that have settled in Pakistan due to civil war in Afghanistan. The smaller groups consist of Muslim refugees from Burma, Iraq, Somalia, Bangladesh, Iran, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, etc.
|Year||Population||Foreign born||Percentage foreign born|
Languages of Pakistan 
|Rank||Language||1998 census||1982 census||1961 census||1951 census|
Following are the major languages spoken in Pakistan. The percentage of Pakistanis who are native speakers of that language is also given.
|Language||2008 estimate||1998 census||Main areas spoken|
There are around 75 to 80 known Pakistani languages although, in practice, there are primarily six major languages in Pakistan spoken by 95% of the population: Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Saraiki, Urdu, and Balochi. The official language is English and the national language is Urdu, the census indicates that around 8% of the population speak Urdu as their first language. However, due to rapid urbanization and modernization, the use of Urdu as a primary language is increasing, especially amongst the growing urbanized middle class of Pakistan. Around 44% speak Punjabi, 15.5% speak Pashto, 15.5% speak Sindhi, 10.5% Saraiki, 7.5% Urdu, 3.5% Balochi, and 3.5% other languages (Hindko, Brahui etc.) as their first language. Most Pakistanis, however, speak or understand at least two to three languages and almost all Pakistanis speak or understand the national language, Urdu.
The most prevalent native languages appear in bold below, with the percentage of the population speaking them as their first language rounded to the nearest percentage point:
English is the official language, being widely used within the government, by the civil service and the officer ranks of the military. Pakistan's Constitution and laws are written in English. Nearly all schools, colleges and universities, use English as the medium of instruction. Amongst the more educated social circles of Pakistan, English is seen as the language of upward mobility and its use is becoming more prevalent in upper social circles often spoken alongside native Pakistani languages. Among countries that use English as an official language, Pakistan is the third most populous in the world.
Urdu is the national language of Pakistan, the lingua franca chosen to facilitate inter-provincial communication between the country's diverse linguistic populations. Although only about 7.5% of Pakistanis speak it as their first language, it is spoken as a second and often third language by nearly all Pakistanis. Its introduction as the lingua franca was encouraged by the British upon the capitulation and annexation of Sindh (1843) and Punjab (1849) with the subsequent ban on the use of Persian, the lingua franca of the region for the previous 1,000 years, probably since the time the area was part of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. The decision to make the language change was to institute a universal language throughout the then British Raj in South Asia as well as minimize the influence of Persia, Ottoman Empire, Afghanistan and Central Asia had on this transitional region. Urdu is a relatively new language in the contemporary sense but has undergone considerable modifications and development borrowing heavily on the traditions of older languages like Persian, Arabic, Turkish and local South Asian languages all of which can be found in its vocabulary. It began as a standardized register of Hindi and in its spoken form. It is widely used, both formally and informally, for personal letters as well as public literature, in the literary sphere and in the popular media. It is a required subject of study in all primary and secondary schools. It is the first language of most Muhajirs (Muslim refugees that arrived from different parts of India after Partition of India and independence of Pakistan in 1947) that form nearly 8% of Pakistan's population and is an acquired language. But nearly all of Pakistan's native ethnic groups representing almost 92% of the population making Pakistan a unique country in the choice of national languages. As Pakistan's national language, Urdu has been promoted as a token of national unity. In recent years, the Urdu spoken in Pakistan has undergone further evolution and acquired a particularly Pakistani flavour to it often absorbing local native terminology and adopting a strong Punjabi, Sindhi and Pashto leaning in terms of intonations and vocabulary. It is a modern language which is constantly evolving from its original form. It is written in a modified form of the Perso-Arabic script, Nastaliq, and its basic Hindi-based vocabulary has been enriched by words from Persian, Arabic, Turkic languages and English. Urdu has drawn inspiration from Persian literature and has now an enormous stock of words from that language. In recent years, the Urdu spoken in Pakistan has gradually incorporated words from many of the native languages found there including Pashto, Punjabi and Sindhi to name a few. As such the language is constantly developing and has acquired a particularly 'Pakistani' flavour to it distinguishing itself from that spoken in ancient times and in India. The first poetry in Urdu was by the Persian poet Amir Khusro (1253–1325) and the first Urdu book "Woh Majlis" was written in 1728 and the first time the word "Urdu" was used by Sirajuddin Ali Khan Arzoo in 1741. The Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir (1658–1707) spoke Urdu (or Hindustani) fluently as did his descendents while his ancestors mostly spoke Persian and Turkish.
Punjabi is a provincial language spoken as a first language by more than 31% of Pakistanis, mostly in Punjab as well as by a large number of people in Karachi. It is an important language since Punjabi is spoken by about half of Pakistanis. However, Punjabi does not have any official status in Pakistan. The exact numbers of Punjabi speakers in Pakistan is hard to find since there are many dialects / languages, such as Saraiki, which some regard as part of Punjabi and others regard as separate language. When taking into account Hindko, Potwari, Pahari, Saraiki, Punjabi dialects are thus spoken by almost 60% of the population in Pakistan. The standard Punjabi dialects is from Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala and Sheikhupura districts of the Pakistani Punjab which was used by Waris Shah (1722–1798) in his famous book Heer Ranjha and is also now days the language of Punjabi literature, film and music; such as Lollywood. Other dialects are Multani or Saraiki in the West and South, Pothowari & Hindko in the North, Dogri in the mountain areas and Shahpuri in the Sargodha district.
Punjabi is descended from Prakrit in the Vedic period (1700 B.C.), Pali, Old Persian and Apabhramsha in the Ashoka period (273 B.C. – 232 B.C.) and Hindvi, Lahori and Multani in the Muslim period (711 A.D. – 1857 A.D.) Punjabi literature was principally spiritual in nature and has had a very rich oral tradition. The Great poetry written by Sufi saints has been the folklore of the Punjab and is still sung with great love in any part of Punjab.
- Lahori – "The standard Punjabi language" and spoken in the heart of Punjab where most of the Punjabi population lives. The main districts are Lahore, Sheikhupura, Gujranwala and Sialkot.
- Pothowari – The area where Pothowari is spoken extends in the north from Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Mirpur) to as far south as Jhelum, Gujar Khan, Chakwal and Rawalpindi. The language in the Dhani area of Chakwal is a mix of Pothowari, Saraiki and jhangi
Sindhi is a provincial language spoken as a first language by 15.5% of Pakistanis, mostly in Sindh. It has a rich literature and is used in schools. It is an Indo-Iranian (Indo-European) language, derived from Sanskrit, Persian and Arabic languages. Sindhi absorbed many Persian words as it was lingua franca of the region for the last 2,000 years, probably since the time the area was part of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. The Arabs ruled Sindh for more than 150 years after Muhammad bin Qasim conquered it in 712 AD, remaining there for three years to set up Arab rule. Consequently, the social fabric of Sindh contains elements of Arabic society. Sindhi is spoken by over 36 million people in Pakistan, and is the official language of Sindh province. It is widely spoken in the Lasbela District of Balochistan (where the Lasi tribe speaks a dialect of Sindhi), many areas of the Naseerabad and Jafarabad districts of Balochistan, and by the Sindhi diaspora abroad. Sindhi language has six major dialects: Sireli, Vicholi, Lari, Thari, Lasi and Kachhi. It is written in the Arabic script with several additional letters to accommodate special sounds. The largest Sindhi-speaking cities are Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur, Shikarpur, Dadu, Jacobabad, Larkana, Mirpur Khas, Thatta, Badin and Nawabshah. Sindhi literature is also spiritual in nature. Shah Abdul Latif Bhita'i (1689–1752) is one of its greatest poets, and wrote Sassi Punnun and Umar Marvi, folk stories, in his famous book "Shah Jo Risalo".
- Sindhi Saraiki- a version of Saraiki language regarded as a dialect of Sindhi; spoken mainly in Upper Sindh.
- Vicholi- in Vicholo, i.e. Central Sindh
- Lari- in Laru, i.e. Lower Sindh
- Lasi- in Lasa B’elo, a part of Kohistan in Baluchistan on the western side of Sindh
- Thari or Thareli- in Tharu, the desert region on the southeast border of Sindh and a part of the Jaisalmer district in Rajasthan
- Kachhi- in the Kutch region and in a part of Kathiawar in Gujarat, on the southern side of Sindh
Vicholi is considered as the standard dialect by all Sindhi speakers.
Pashto is a provincial language spoken as a first language by 15.5% (28–30 millions) of Pakistanis, mostly in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and in Balochistan as well as by immigrants to the eastern provinces who are often not counted due to census irregularities. The Pashto has rich written literary traditions as well as an oral tradition. There are two major dialect patterns within which the various individual dialects may be classified; these are Pakhto, which is the Northern (Peshawar) variety, and the softer Pashto spoken in the southern areas. Khushal Khan Khattak (1613–1689) and Rahman Baba (1633–1708) were the most famous poets in the Pashto language. In the last part of 20th century, Pakhto or Pashto has produced some great poets like Ghani Khan, Khatir Afridi and Amir Hamza Shinwari. There are also many Pakistani's from the adjacent regions of Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan who are conversant in Pashto and count it as their second language. They are not included in the overall percentage.
The Pashtuns (Pakhtuns or Pathans), originally from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, FATA and northern Balochistan, are now the city's second largest ethnic group in Karachi after Muhajirs. With as high as 7 million by some estimates, the city of Karachi in Pakistan has the largest concentration of urban Pakhtun population in the world, including 50,000 registered Afghan refugees in the city. Karachi is the biggest Pashto speaking city in the world although the Pashto speakers constitute only about 25% of Karachi's population.
Saraiki, transliterated as Sarāikī and sometimes spelled Seraiki and Siraiki, is a standardized written language of Pakistan belonging to the Indo-Aryan (Indic) languages. It is spoken by the Saraiki people in the Saraiki-speaking regions, also called as Saraikistan by its speakers, in the heart of Pakistan. It is spoken as a first language by 19.5% of Pakistanis, mostly in the southern districts of Punjab.It is mostly spoken in southern and western districts of Punjab,which comprises Multan, Lodhran, Bahawalpur, Mianwali, Bhakkar, Layyah, Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzaffargarh, Rahim Yar Khan, southern and western parts of Khanewal,southern parts of Bahawalnagar and western parts of Khushab districts. It is also spoken by majority of population of Dera Ismail Khan district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (خیبر پښتونخوا) province, kachi plain of Balochistan, northern parts of Sindh, and cities of Hyderabad and Karachi. Saraiki, belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of Indo-European. According to global recordings languages these are also Saraiki. Jhangvi or Jhangochi or Rachnavi, spoken in the central Pakistani Punjab, stretches from districts Khanewal to Jhang and includes Faisalabad, Sahiwal and Chiniot. Shahpuri, spoken in Mianwali, Sargodha, Khushab and Mandi Bahauddin districts. Hindko, spoken in districts of Peshawar, Attock, Nowshehra, Mansehra, Balakot, Abbottabad and Murree and the lower half of Neelum District and Muzafarabad.
Balochi is a provincial language spoken as first language by about 3.5% of Pakistanis, mostly in Balochistan. Sindh and southern Punjab. Balochi language is very close to the Persian itself. The name Balochi or Baluchi is not found before the 10th century. It is believed that the language was brought to its present location in a series of migrations from northern Iran region of Caspian Sea. Rakshani is the major dialect group in terms of numbers. Sarhaddi, is a sub dialect of Rakshani. Other sub – dialects are Qalati, Chagai Kharani, and Makrani. The Eastern Hill Balochi or Northern Balochi are distinct dialects.The Kethran language in North East Balochistan is also a variant of Balochi. It is one of the 9 distinguished languages of Pakistan. Since Balochi is a very poetic and rich language and have a certain degree of affinity to Persian and Urdu, Balochi poets tend to be very good poets in Urdu as well and Ata Shaad, Gul Khan Nasir and Noon Meem Danish are excellent examples of this.
Brahui (Urdu: براہوی ') is a regional language of uncertain origin despite the fact that the bulk of the language shares lexical similarities to Balochi as well as Sindhi. In colonial times, many British linguists tried to make the claim of a possible Dravidian language origin but this has not been conclusively proven despite ongoing research in the language for a century now. spoken in southern Pakistan, may have evolved from the original languages of Indus valley civilizations at Mehrgarh . However it is heavily influenced by Balochi and Pashto. It is spoken in central and east central Balochistan. The Mengals are a famous Brahvi tribe. Around 1–1.5% of Pakistani population has Brahui as their first language. It is one of the nine distinguished languages of Pakistan.
The Brahui population of Balochistan has been taken by some as the linguistic equivalent of a relict population, perhaps indicating that Dravidian languages were formerly much more widespread and were supplanted by the incoming Indo-Aryan languages. However it has now been demonstrated that the Brahui could only have migrated to Balochistan from central India after 1000 CE. The absence of any Avestan, an older Iranian language, loanwords in Brahui supports this hypothesis. The main Iranian contributor to Brahui vocabulary, Balochi, is a western Iranian language like Kurdish, and moved to the area from the west only around 1000 CE.
Hindko is an ancient regional Indo-Aryan language spoken by Hindkowans in Pakistan. It is very similar to northern dialects of Punjabi. The language is spoken in the areas of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (including Hazara), local people of Peshawar Punjab and Azad Kashmir by an estimated 2.2 to 4 million people. During the pre-Buddhist era in present day Pakistan, the language of the masses was refined by the ancient grammarian Pāṇini, who set the rules of a structurally rigorous language called Sanskrit which was used principally for scriptures (analogous to Latin in the Western world). Meanwhile, the vernacular language of the masses, Prakrit developed into many tongues and dialects which spread over the northern parts of South Asia. Hindko is believed to be closely related to Prakrit. Due to the geographic isolation of the regions, it has undergone very little grammatical corruption, but has borrowed considerable vocabulary from its neighbours, in particular Pashto. It shows close affinity to Punjabi and the Lahnda sub-group of Indo-Aryan tongues and can be sub-divided into a northern and southern dialects.
Kashmiri is an ancient regional Dardic language spoken in Azad Kashmir, Gilgit–Baltistan and Punjab provinces of Pakistan. There are over 2 million Kashmiri speakers in Pakistan. Most of the Kashmiris in Punjab province and Karachi are refugees and their descendents who fled from Kashmir in 1948 during Indo-Pak armed struggle.
In 1919 George Abraham Grierson wrote that “Kashmiri is the only one of the Dardic languages that has a literature”. Kashmiri literature dates back to over 750 years, this is, more-or-less, the age of many a modern literature including modern English. Kashmiri retains several features of Old Indo-Aryan that have been lost in other Modern Indo-Aryan languages such as Urdu, Punjabi and Sindhi.
A sizeable proportion of Pakistanis speak Persian. Although Persian has no official status, it had been the lingua franca for a thousand years and a preferred language amongst the educated Muslim elite, and was the official and cultural language of the Mughal Empire, Afghan Empire and various Muslim princely states based in Pakistan. The Persian speaking Qizilbash tribe settled in northern regions of modern Pakistan and their numbers were further increased with the arrival of tens of thousands of Qizilbash refugees from neighboring Afghanistan when they were termed enemies of the state by the then Emir of Afghanistan for allegedly siding with the British Raj in the First Anglo-Afghan War (1839 to 1842). Persian was officially abolished from the region with the arrival of the British to the province of Sindh in 1843 and Punjab in 1849 to minimize the influence of Persia and Afghanistan on the regions that now make up Pakistan and integrate these regions with the rest of South Asia under a common Urdu language. Nevertheless Persian culture continues to influence the country to this day. It has influenced and formed the base for many of Pakistan's native languages, and has greatly influenced Urdu in more recent times. It is still spoken and understood by the educated elite as a literary and prestigious language, especially in the fields of music (Qawwali) and art. The National Anthem of Pakistan has some Persian words.
Arabic is considered to be the religious language of Pakistan. The Quran, Sunnah, Hadith and Muslim theology is taught in Arabic with Urdu translation. The large numbers of Pakistanis living in the Persian Gulf region and in other Middle Eastern countries has further increased the number of people who can speak Arabic in Pakistan. Arabic is taught as a religious language in Mosques, Schools, Colleges, Universities and Madrassahs. Nearly all of Pakistan's Muslim population has had some form of education in the reading, writing and pronunciation of the Arabic language.
Many Arabs who took part in Afghanistan war have now settled in Pakistan permanently with their families. Millions of Pakistanis that have worked in Middle East also speak Arabic as a second language.
Turkic languages were used by the ruling Turco-Mongols (or Mughals) and earlier Sultans of India many of whom have settled in Pakistan. There are pockets of Turkic speakers found throughout the country, notably in the valleys in the countries northern regions which lie adjacent to Central Asia, western Pakistani region of Waziristan principally around Kanigoram where the Burki tribe dwells and in Pakistan's urban centres of Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad. The autobiography of Mughal emperor Babur, Tuzk Babari was also written in Turkish.
Many Turkic speaking refugees, Uzbeks and Turkmens, from Afghanistan have settled in Pakistan permanently. They are also Uzbeks and Turkmen refugees that have moved from Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan and settled in Pakistan. Turkey also provides scholarships to large number of Pakistani students to study in Turkish universities. President Pervez Musharraf studied in Turkey and spoke Turkish fluently.
Other Pakistani languages 
Numerous other languages are spoken by relatively small numbers of people, especially in some of the more remote and isolated places in, for example, the Northern Areas of Pakistan. Other Indo-European languages spoken in Pakistan include Pothohari, Shina, Gujjari, Kutchi, Wakhi, Kashmiri, Marwari, Memoni, Khowar, and Dari Persian. Non-Indo-European languages include Brahui and Burushaski, a language isolate.
There are some languages that are spoken by less than a thousand people, such as Aer.
Indo-Aryan languages 
Around 80% of Pakistan's population speak one or more of the various Indo-Aryan languages. Usually concentrated in the heavily populated areas east of the Indus river, the Indo-Aryan languages and their cultures form the predominant cultural group in the country. They derive their roots from the Sanskrit language of Aryan invadors and are later heavily influenced by the languages of the later Muslim arrivals (i.e., Turkish, Persian, and Arabic), and are all written in a variant of either the Arabic or Nastaliq script. Urdu, the country's national language, is an Indo-Aryan tongue. Punjabi, Hindko and Seraiki, all mutually intelligible, are classified by linguists as dialects of an Indo-Aryan speech called Lahnda, also spelled as Lehnda. These are also, to a lesser extent, mutually intelligible with Urdu. Added together, speakers of these mutually-intelligible languages make up nearly two-thirds of Pakistan's population. Sindhi is the common language of the people of Sindh in southern Pakistan and has a rich literary history of its own, traced back to the era of the early Arab arrivals. The Dardic languages of Gilgit–Baltistan, Azad Kashmir and the northwestern mountains are sometimes classified by many linguists as belonging to the Indo-Aryan family. Other Indo-Aryan languages include Gujarati, Kutchi, Memoni and others.
Dardic languages 
The Dardic languages are spoken in the northern Pakistan. They include Shina (spoken in Gilgit, Chilas and Diamar), Khowar (spoken in Chitral, Ghizer and the balti language (spoken in [baltistan] including [skardu] district and [Ghanche] district. Majority of population living in the valley of Hunza, Nagar and Yasin speak Mishaski. Kalam Valley of upper Swat), Kalash (spoken by Kalash tribe), Kohistani (spoken in upper Swat and Kohistan) and Kashmiri mostly by Immigrants from Kashmir valley and by a few in the Neelum District.
Kashmiri spoken in north east Azad Kashmir and the adjacent Kashmir valley, (not to be confused with Pahari language spoken in the lower Azad Kashmir) is one of the Dardic languages that has a literary tradition that goes well back into the history whereas other Dardic languages spoken in northern Pakistan, do not have written literature. It is believed to be the result of the northern areas of Pakistan having remained isolated in the mountain valleys from the others for centuries.
Iranic family of languages 
Pashto, Yidgha and Wakhi are Eastern Iranian languages spoken in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan and the Gilgit–Baltistan region of Pakistan. Balochi spoken in Balochistan is classified as a members of the Northwestern Iranian languages. If combined, Iranic peoples who speak Pashto, Balochi, Yidgha and Wakhi comprise about 18% of the population of Pakistan, and are concentrated in the northwest and west of Pakistan.
Brahui may or may not be a language isolate and many origins have been hypothesized for it including Iranian and Dravidian. spoken in southern Pakistan, primarily in Kalat in Balochistan. The Brahui population of Balochistan has been taken by some as the linguistic equivalent of a relict population, perhaps indicating that Dravidian languages were formerly much more widespread and were supplanted by the incoming Indo-Aryan languages. However it has now been demonstrated that the Brahui could only have migrated to Balochistan from central India after 1000 CE. The absence of any Avestan, an older Iranian language, loanwords in Brahui supports this hypothesis. The main Iranian contributor to Brahui vocabulary, Balochi, is a western Iranian language like Kurdish, and moved to the area from the west only around 1000 CE.
According to the CIA World Factbook, Library of Congress, Oxford University, over 97% of the population of Pakistan is Muslim and the remaining 3% is Christian, Hindu and others. Majority of the Muslims practice Sunni with a significant minority of Shi'as who make up 15–25%.
Nearly all Pakistani Sunni Muslims belong to the Hanafi school, although there are some Hanbalis and Ahlul Hadeeth. The majority of Shia Muslims belong to the Ithnā‘Ashariyyah branch, while a smaller number practice Ismailism. There are small non-Muslim religious groups, including Christians, Jews, Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs, Parsis, Bahá'ís and Zoroastrians (Parsis).
The religious breakdown of the Pakistani population is as follows:
- Muslims: 181,723,000
- Christians: 2,700,000 (approx. 1.8%)
- Hindus: 1,800,000 (approx. 1.6%)
- Buddhists: 50,000
- Sikhs: 30,000
- Zoroastrian/Parsis: 25,000 (many are undocumented migrants from Iran)
- Jews: 200
- Animists, Baha'i, Atheists: n/a
|United Arab Emirates||1,200,000|
|United States||600,410 – 1,000,000|
Suffix of regions and towns 
Parts of region and settlement names:
- -abad (Urdu: آباد ) means settlement or town. Example: Islamabad.
- Dera- (Urdu: ڈیرہ ) means settlement or town. Example: Dera Ghazi Khan.
- -garh (Urdu: گڑھ ) means settlement or town. Example: Islamgarh.
- -goth (Urdu: گوٹھ ) means settlement or town. Example: Yousuf Goth.
- -istan (Urdu: ستان ) means land. Example: Pakistan.
- -kot (Urdu: کوٹ ) means settlement or town. Example: Sialkot.
- -nagar (Urdu: نگر ) means settlement or town. Example: Islamnagar.
- -pur (Urdu: پور ) means settlement or town. Example: Alipur.
- -wal (Urdu: وال ) means settlement or town. Example: Khanewal.
- -wala (Urdu: والہ ) means settlement or town. Example: Gujranwala.
See also 
- Azad Kashmir
- Pakistani people
- Persian people
- Demography of Central Asia
- CIA – The World Factbook: Population growth rate
- "CIA – The World Factbook: Infant Mortality Rate". Archived from the original on December 18, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Information on other countries: http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_20072008_EN_Complete.pdf
- Burke, Jason (17 August 2008). "Pakistan looks to life without the general". The Guardian (London).
- CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971-2008 (pdf pages 83-85) IEA (OECD/ World Bank) (original population ref OECD/ World Bank e.g. in IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2010 page 57)
- US Census:International Data Base (IDB)
- Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
- Hasan Mansoor (18 January 2011). "Killings of newborn babies on the rise in Pakistan". AFP. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- Taus-Bolstad, Stacy (2003). Pakistan in Pictures. Visual geography series (Revised ed.). Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-8225-4682-5. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
- Goans of Pakistan
- From South to South: Refugees as Migrants: The Rohingya in Pakistan
- "UNHCR and Pakistan sign new agreement on stay of Afghan refugees". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 13 March 2009. Retrieved 23 January 2010.
- "PAKISTAN: Tolerance wanes as perceptions of Afghan refugees change". Irin. 27 February 2012. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
- Human Rights Commission of Pakistan. page 27 (Security Concern about home link
- Urdu/Hindi: an artificial divide: African heritage, Mesopotamian roots
- Bonds of Culture
- Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy (2009-07-17). "Karachi's Invisible Enemy". PBS. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- "In a city of ethnic friction, more tinder". The National. 2009-08-24. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- "UN body, police baffled by minister’s threat against Afghan refugees". Dawn Media Group. 2009-02-10. Retrieved 2012-01-24.
- , thefridaytimes
- Vogelsang, Wilhelm The Afghans Wiley-Blackwell 2002 ISBN 978-0-631-19841-3 pp.61–62 
- (Mallory 1989)
- J. H. Elfenbein, A periplous of the ‘Brahui problem’, Studia Iranica vol. 16 (1987), pp. 215–233.
- K.L. Kalla, The Literary Heritage of Kashmir, Mittal Publications, "... Kashmiri alone of all the modern Indian languages preserves the dvi (Kashmiri du) of Sanskrit, in numbers such as dusatath (Sanskrit dvisaptati), dunamat (Sanskrit dvanavatih) ..."
- Ethnologue report for Pakistan: Languages of Pakistan
- Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda: Language Tree
- Indo-European, Indo-Iranic, Iranic: Language Tree
- "Pakistan, Islam in". Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 29 August 2010. "Approximately 97 percent of Pakistanis are Muslim. The majority are Sunnis following the Hanafi school of Islamic law. Between 10 and 15 percent are Shias, mostly Twelvers."
- "Religions: Muslim 95% (Sunni 75%, Shia 20%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 5%". Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook on Pakistan. 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
- "Country Profile: Pakistan". Library of Congress Country Studies on Pakistan. Library of Congress. February 2005. Retrieved 1 September 2010. "Religion: The overwhelming majority of the population (97 percent) is Muslim, of whom approximately 85 percent are Sunni and 15 percent Shi'a."
- "Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World’s Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. 7 October 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
- Miller, Tracy, ed. (October 2009). Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population (PDF). Pew Research Center. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
- "Pakistan – International Religious Freedom Report 2008". United States Department of State. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
- "YEAR BOOK 2004 – 2005 Government of Pakistan – Ministry of Labour, Manpower & Overseas Pakistanis – (Overseas Pakistanis Division) – See pages 29 to 34"
- American FactFinder
- infopak.gov.pk – Ministry of Information and Broadcasting
- Population Reference Bureau
- statpak.gov.pk – Population by mother tongue
- US Census: International Data Base (IDB)