Clockwise from top: Major Akram Shaheed Memorial, Tareekh-e-Jhelum book cover, Cantonment Square, CMH Mosque and Zamir Jaffri Cricket Stadium
|Nickname(s): City of Soldiers
Land of Martyrs and Warriors
Map of Jhelum City
|Union Council||7 UC|
|• Administrator||Nawabzada Usama Latif|
|• Total||22.5 km2 (8.7 sq mi)|
|Elevation||250 m (825 ft)|
|• Estimate (2012)||188,803|
|• Density||6,500/km2 (17,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
Jhelum // (Urdu, Punjabi: جہلم) (Greek: Alexandria Bucephalous) is a city on the right bank of the Jhelum River, in the district of the same name in the north of Punjab province, Pakistan. Jhelum is known for providing a large number of soldiers to the British and later to the Pakistan armed forces due to which it is also known as city of soldiers or land of martyrs and warriors. Jhelum is a few miles upstream from the site of the Battle of the Hydaspes between the armies of Alexander of Macedonia and Raja Porus. A city called Bucephala was founded nearby to commemorate the death of Alexander's horse, Sarosh. Other notable sites nearby include the 16th-century Rohtas Fort, the Tilla Jogian complex of ancient temples, and the 16th-century Grand Trunk Road which passes through the city. According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, the population of Jhelum was 145,647 and in 2012 its population is 188,803. The name of the city is derived from the words Jal (pure water) and Ham (snow), as the river that flows through the river originates in the Himalayas. There are a number of industries in and around Jhelum city, including a tobacco factory, wood, marble, glass and flour mills.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Administration
- 4 Demography
- 5 Language
- 6 City
- 7 Geography and climate
- 8 Important sites
- 9 Travel and tourism
- 10 Telecommunication
- 11 Sports
- 12 Education
- 13 Hospitals
- 14 Major industries
- 15 Notable people
- 16 Gallery
- 17 See also
- 18 References
- 19 External links
|“||Many writers have different opinions about the name of Jhelum. One suggestion is that in ancient days Jhelumabad was known as Jalham. The word Jhelum is reportedly derived from the words Jal(pure water) and Ham (snow). The name thus refers to the waters of a river (flowing besides the city) which have their origins in the snow-capped Himalayas.
However, some writers believe that when "Dara-e-Azam" reached a certain place on the river bank after winning many battles, he fixed his flag at that place and called it "Ja-e-Alam" which means "Place of the Flag". With the passage of time it became Jhelum from "Ja-e-Alam".
According to tradition, Hazrat Saeed Bin Abi Waqas, brother of Hazrat Saad Bin Abi Waqas, was sent to China to preach Islam, during his journey he arrived at the city of Jhelum, he saw the reflection of a city in the river and said "هذا جهيلم" (this is Jheelum), which means "City besides the river, in full moonlight"
The Janjuas, Rajputs, Jats and Ahirs, who now hold the Salt Range and its northern plateau respectively, appear to have been the earliest inhabitants of Jhelum. The history of Jhelum dates back to the semi-mythical period of the Mahabharata. Hindu tradition represents the nearby Salt Range as the refuge of the five Pandava brothers during the period of their exile. The next major point in the history of the district was the Battle of the Hydaspes between Alexander the Great and the local ruler, Porus. Abisares (or Abhisara; in Greek Αβισαρης), called Embisarus (Eμ Oβισαρoς) by Diodorus, was an Indian king of abhira descent beyond the river Hydaspes, whose territory lay in the mountains, sent embassies to Alexander the Great both before and after the conquest of Porus in 326 BC, although inclined to espouse the side of the latter. Alexander not only allowed him to retain his kingdom, but increased it, and on his death appointed his son as his successor. The Gakhars appear to represent an early wave of conquerors from the west, and who still inhabit a large tract in the mountain north to tilla range. Gakhars were the dominant race during the early Muslim era and they long continued to retain their independence, both in Jhelum itself and in the neighbouring district of Rawalpindi.
In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region.
The Mughals were Persianized Turks who claimed descent from both Timur and Genghis Khan and strengthened the Persianate culture of Muslim India. During the early conquests of the Indus valley, Babur had claimed to be the true and rightful Monarch of the lands of the Lodi dynasty, thus legitimising his intention for an invasion. He believed himself the rightful heir to the throne of Timur, and it was Timur who had originally left Khizr Khan in charge of his vassal in the Punjab, who later became the leader, or Sultan, of the Delhi Sultanate, founding the Sayyid dynasty, by now the Mughals who were very few in number, record that a policy of converting the local jats and Gakhar was to be mandatory and take effect immediately as recorded in the Baburnama. Thus it is credited to the Mughals, who were largely responsible for the conversion of the jatts to Islam. The Baburnama is also the earliest known reference to mass conversions of the jatt tribes converting to Islam and the only known Islamic text describing an Islamic conquest into Hindu India providing a great insight into the ongoings of an Islamic Empire progressing. With the collapse of the Mughal Empire after the death of Aurangzeb, the Durrani empire had occupied the plains but were quickly ousted by the Sikhs.
After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and occupied Jhelum District. The Muslims faced severe restrictions during the Sikh rule. In 1849 Jhelum passed with the rest of the Sikh territories to the British. In 1857 the 14th Native Infantry stationed at Jhelum town mutinied, and made a vigorous defence against a force sent from Rawalpindi to disarm them, but decamped on the night following the action, with the main body being subsequently arrested by the Kashmiri authorities, into whose territory they had escaped.
During British rule, Jhelum was a district of Rawalpindi Division, and was larger than the current district of Jhelum. On 1 April 1914, the tehsil of Talagang was detached from the district and incorporated with the new district of Attock. The old Jhelum district (minus Talagang) covered an area of 7,285 km2 (2,813 sq mi) and included Chakwal tehsil – it was bounded by Shahpur and Attock to the west, and by Rawalpindi to the north – the Jhelum River separated it from Kashmir to the north-east and from Gujrat and Shahpur to the south-east and south.
During British rule, Jhelum was connected by the North-Western Railway to other cities in the Indian Empire, 1,367 miles from Calcutta, 1,413 from Bombay, and 849 from Karachi. The population according to the 1901 census of India was 14,951.
According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India:
"The present town is of modern origin, the old town, which may have been the Bucephala of Alexander having been, on the left or opposite bank of the river. Under Sikh rule the place was quite unimportant, being mainly occupied by a settlement of boatmen, and at the time of annexation contained about 500 houses. It was then chosen as the site of a cantonment and as the head-quarters of the civil administration. For some years it was the seat of the Commissioner of the Division, but in 1859 his head-quarters were transferred to Rawalpindi. Under British rule, Jhelum has steadily advanced in prosperity; and is the entrepôt for most of the trade of the District, though, since the completion of the Sind-Sāgar branch of the North-Western Railway; the salt trade no longer passes through it. It is an important timber dépôt, the timber from the Kashmir forests which is floated down the river being collected here. A good deal of boat-building is carried on. The cantonment, which is 3 miles from the civil station, contains the church and post office. The normal strength of the garrison is one Native cavalry and four Native infantry regiments. The municipality was founded 1867. During the ten years ending 1902–3 the receipts averaged Rs. 32,100, and the expenditure Rs, 31,900. Receipts and expenditure from cantonment funds in the same period averaged Rs. 31,900 and Rs. 6,100 respectively. The chief income of the municipality in 1903-4 was Rs. 34,200 chiefly from octroi; and the expenditure was Rs. 41,000. The town has two Anglo vernacular schools, a municipal high school, and a middle school maintained by the American Presbyterian Mission. Besides the civil hospital, the mission also maintains a hospital."
During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, 35 British soldiers of the 24th Regiment of Foot were killed by the local resistance. Among the dead was Captain Francis Spring, the eldest son of Colonel William Spring. A lectern inside St. John's Church shows the names of the soldiers. The church is located in Jhelum Cantonment beside the river Jhelum. It was built in 1860 and is a landmark of the city. It is a Protestant church and was in use during the British period. For forty years it remained closed. Now[when?] it has been renovated and re-opened.
The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslims refugees from India settled down in the Jhelum District.
As well as being district capital, Jhelum city is also the headquarters of Jhelum Tehsil, the city of Jhelum is administratively subdivided into 7 Union Councils, namely Jhelum-I, Jhelum-II, Jhelum-III, Jhelum-IV, Jhelum-V, Jhelum-VI, Jhelum-VII, while Jhelum Tehsil is subdivided into Union Councils Badlot, Boken, Chak Khasa, Chotala, Darapur, Dhanyala, Dina-I, Dina-II, Garh Mahal, Kala Gujran, Khukha, Kotla Faqir, Madu Kalas, Monan, Mughalabad, Nakka Khurd, Nara, Pandori, Sanghoi and Sohan.
|Jhelum City Population|
Jhelum is one of the oldest districts of Punjab. It was established on 23 March 1849. Jhelum District has a diverse population of 1,103,000 (2006) which mainly consists of Punjabis. The population of the Jhelum city (proper) is about 188,800(2012) and it is the 32nd largest city of Pakistan with respect to population. Population density is 261/km. Population Growth Rate is 1.51 which is very low as compared to other urban areas of Pakistan. The majority of the population i.e. 98.47 percent is Muslim. Among the minorities Christians are in majority sharing 1.36 percent in the district. Punjabi is the dominant language (96.6 percent), while, other languages spoken in the district are Urdu (1.9 percent), Pushto (1.2 percent).Arain, Gujjars, Ghakhar, Janjua, Awan, Syed, Jat, Kashmiri and Khokhar are the main tribes residing here.
Literacy rate of Jhelum is among the highest in Pakistan. At 79%, it is only lower than that of Islamabad and neighbouring Rawalpindi. Somewhat higher than the literacy in Punjab province (58 percent). The literacy rate has remarkably increased from 38.9 percent in 1981. The rate is much higher in urban area when compared with rural areas both for males and females. 84% of the population have electricity and 96% have the water facility. Human Development Index of Jhelum is 0.770, which highest in Pakistan after Karachi.
As per the 1998 census of Pakistan, the following are the demographics of the Jhelum district, by spoken language:
- Punjabi language: 96.6%
- Other: 3.4%
Inhabitants of Jhelum District speak a great variety of Punjabi dialects:
- Majhi or standard (in Jehlum city)
- Pothohari (Northern and Western Side),
- Shahpuri (east side along the river and parts of Tehsil Pind dadan khan)
- Dhani (western side along Chakwal).
Among other languages Urdu is spoken and understood by most of the population.
English is also understood and spoken by the educated elite.
In the past few years, the city has experienced rapid expansion and has become a vibrant economic and cultural center. The old city has narrow streets and crowded bazaars.
The main market area of the city is centred around "Shandar Chowk", "GTS Chowk", "Muhammadi Chowk" and includes "Main Bazaar", "Naya Bazaar", "Raja Bazaar", "Kinari Bazaar", "Sarafa Bazaar", "Chowk-Ehl-e-Hadith" and Soldier Arcade etc. Some of the main roads of Jhelum City are Civil Line, Railway Road, Old GT Road, Kucheri Road, Iqbal Road and Rohtas Road. A cantonment was built during the British rule, which has grown up into a strong Garrison, with an Infantry Division commanded by a Major General.
The estimated population of Jhelum in 2012 is 188,803 and the area of Jhelum is about 22 km2 (8.5 sq mi).
Geography and climate
Lying at 32°56′ North latitude and 73°44′ East longitude, Jhelum is located just 1-hour and 30 minutes drive from the Capital of Pakistan Islamabad, and 3 hours drive from the heart of Punjab Lahore. Jhelum is linked with these cities through the National Highway N-5. Several cities are within 1 to 2 hours drive including Gujrat (home to fan manufacturing), Gujranwala, Chakwal and Mirpur, Azad Kashmir.
Jhelum has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) and is extremely hot and humid in summer, and warm and generally dry in winter. The maximum recorded temperature in the pre-monsoon season of April to June is 49.2 °C (120.6 °F), whereas in winter the minimum temperature recorded is −0.6 °C (30.9 °F). Average annual rainfall is about 850 millimetres (33 in) which is much below the required quantity given the extremely high evaporation levels. Nevertheless, in the rainy season water torrents flow from the north to Jhelum River very rapidly and cause damage to the crops, bridges, roads. This is responsible for the soil erosion in the district.
|Climate data for Jhelum, Punjab|
|Record high °C (°F)||26.1
|Average high °C (°F)||19.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||12.3
|Average low °C (°F)||5.0
|Record low °C (°F)||−0.6
|Rainfall mm (inches)||33.8
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||212.8||202.9||225.3||256.8||312.7||284.7||247.0||243.6||257.0||287.5||251.9||215.3||2,997.5|
|Source: NOAA (1961–1990)|
The biggest floods in Jhelum in recent years were in 1992. This flood put Jhelum city under water.
Rohtas Fort is a garrison fort built by the great Afghan king Sher Shah Suri. This fort is about 4 km in circumference and the first example of the successful amalgamation of Pukhtun and Hindu architecture in the sub-continent. Qila Rohtas is situated in a gorge approximately 16 km NW of Jhelum and 7 km from Dina.
Located in the cantonment area is the St. John's Church Jhelum which was built in 1860. There was a local stadium near Gul Afshan Colony which was changed to a cricket stadium named Zamir Jaffri Cricket Stadium. Close to this stadium is located the Altaf Park which was constructed in 1994–95.
Nearly at a distance of 100m from Shandar Chowk, in the center of city is located Major Akram Shaheed Memorial Park. Major Muhammad Akram Memorial Library is also present in this park. On 6 September at the occasion of Defence Day, Parade also took place over here.
Lehri Nature Park is almost 30 kilometres from Jhelum and 90 kilometres on GT Road in the hilly Pothohar region from Islamabad. It is 10 kilometres from GT Road. The Mangla Dam is located on the Jhelum River about 30 km (19 mi) from Jhelum, it is the twelfth largest dam in the world. It was constructed in 1967 across the Jhelum River. There is the Mangla View Resort that is the first planned resort development in Pakistan to offer residences, villas, townhouses, hotels, serviced apartments & retail outlets. The resort is located on a 340-acre (1.4 km2) site on the Mangla Dam area.
Rasul Barrage is located on the Jhelum River about 30 km downstream from Jhelum. Two major water canals originate at the Rasul barrage, Rasul-Qadirabad link canal which is also called Lower-Jhelum link canal and Rasul-Shahpur branch canal. The area around the Rasul Barrage lake is also a picnic spot.
Travel and tourism
Auto Rickshaws are very popular mode of transport for short routes within the city. Many of the new rickshaws in the city use Compressed natural gas (CNG) instead of the petrol engines as CNG is environmentally clean and cheaper compared to petrol. Rickshaws by QingQi are another important mode of transportation. The older horse drawn tongas are now defunct although some can still be privately commissioned. Taxis and privately commissioned small passengger carrying vans are available
There is a regular bus/Hiace service available running from early hours of the morning to late night. Daily routes includes Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Lahore, Gujrat, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Mandi Bahauddin, Sargodha, Chakwal, Mirpur and Faisalabad.
Regular Bus/Van service is also available within Jhelum District. It includes important towns and villages such as: buses from Jhelum to Pind Dadan Khan, Dina, Sohawa, Lillah, Nakka Khurd, Chakri Rajgan Khalaspur Pind Sawika, Bair Faqiran- Green Hills Village) Nagyal, Sanghoi, Mangla Cantt, Nara, Domeli, Darapur, Jalalpur Sharif and many more, while vans go from Jhelum to Sanghoi,Wagon Stand from Jhelum to Wagh Dina, Kharian, Sarai Alamgir, Chak Jamal, Chak Doulat, Mughalabad, Boken, Dhanyala and many other destinations as well as Baragowah.
The Jhelum Railway Station was built in 1928 during British rule before the independence of Pakistan. It was connected by the North-Western Railway to other cities in the Indian empire. Jhelum is on main line of Pakistan Railways, and linked to whole country through Railway line across the Pakistan. Many of the railway lines and bridges were designed and constructed by exceptionally hardworking engineers during the British time and after independence in railway workshop Jhelum.
The nearest airport is the Islamabad International Airport, which is approximately 110 km by road from Jhelum. A small airport called Mangla Airport, located near Dina, is in use of the aviation wing of the Pakistan Army.
The PTCL provides the main network of landline telephone with minority shares of few other operators like WorldCall. All major mobile phone companies operating in Pakistan provide service in Jhelum. Broadband internet access is available from DSL, EVDO to state of the art WiMax technology from many ISPs, WiMax and WiFi operators like PTCL EVO, Wateen, Mobilink, WorldCall, LinkdotNet etc. WorldCall has laid its fiberoptics throughout the city of Jhelum for future project of FTTH with Tripple Play service. In August 2008 PTCL has also launched its IPTV service named PTCL Smart TV in Jhelum.
Located within the city is a golf course called the River-View Golf Club, where national golf tournaments are held regularly.
Besides the mainstream sports like cricket, hockey, and squash, a lot of other sports are also played in the rural areas around the city. These, which are equally popular, include tent pegging, volleyball, football, stone-lifting, and Kabaddi thousands of people flock to these local grand sporting events as keenly as the average sports fan anywhere in the world.
These events are usually sponsored by the UK and foreign based Paksistani diaspora.
Higher and technical education
In technical education there are two technical colleges, the Government Institute of Technology, Chak Daulat,Government Vocational Institute for woman, civil line Jhelum and the Government Technical Training Institute. Jhelum also has two sub-campuses of the Virtual University of Pakistan, Virtual University own Campus at Civil Lines opposite city Church and other one is Private Virtual Campus namely Wings Institute of Learning. University of the Punjab is also established a sub-campus at Jhelum. Governament of Punjab has allocated 65 kanals of land for this purpose.
Air School System is an Independent Education System that follows National Curriculum in accordance with Federal Ministry of Education and is registered as a Private Limited Company under the Companies Ordinance 1984. Air Foundation School System carries Trade Mark under the Ordinance 2001/Act 1940, Government of Pakistan. AFSS is ISO 9001 – 2000 certified by Moody International – All rights reserved. www.airfoundation.org.pk
The University of the Punjab recently opened a campus in Jhelum, offering programs related to business, commerce, law, and computer science. The new undergraduate and postgraduate degrees programs are due to commence soon. The literacy rate of Jhelum is high in comparison with other cities of the Punjab. Recently Pakistan's one of the top lawyer Raja Waqas Naseem Sikandar announced that he will open another university in Jhelum on 23 March 2013. Virtual University of Pakistan inaugurated its own Campus in Jhelum in March 2012; VU Jhelum Campus has started his vital role to educate people of Jhelum within their affordability. It is located in the middle of the city in a beautiful building. VU Jhelum Campus is well equipped, neat and organised campus. To facilitate students all academics programs are offered at the campus. Students can continue their study without any power cut and internet issue. It is the place where students get prepare for their promising career and meet their respective course fellows.
- Cambridge College, 10-A Civil Lines, Jhelum
- Beaconhouse School System G T Road Jhelum
- World Over School and College Academy Jhelum
- Etekosoft Institute of Computer Sciences Jhelum
- Global College of English Language Bilal Town Jhelum
- Air Foundation School System Jhelum Campus (Boys & Girls)
- Govt Noor Mudrassa Tul Banat Girls School, established since 1944
- Army Public School and College Jhelum Cantt.
- F.G. Intermediate College Jhelum Canttress)
- Government Degree College Jhelum
- Govt. Degree College, Talianwala, Jhelum Fahad College
- Govt. Postgraduate College, Jhelum
- Al-Biruni Govt. College, Pind Dadan Khan, Distt. Jhelum
- Govt. Degree College, Sohawa, Distt. Jhelum
- Govt. Degree College, Dina, Disstt. Jhelum
- Air Foundation School & College Jhelum
- Army Public School and College Jhelum Cantt
- FG Intermediat College Jhelum Cantt
- Army Public School and College Mangla Cantt
- Federal Govt. College, Mangla Cantt
- Fauji Foundation Model School & College, Jhelum Cantt
- Bahria Foundation College, GT Road, Jhelum
- The Educator School G.T Road Jada Jhelum
- Punjab College G.T Road Jhelum
- Govt. College of Commerce, Bilal Town, Jhelum
- Wings College of Commerce, 4-Civil Lines, Jhelum
- M.A. Jinnah College of Commerce & Computer Science, Al-Bilal Building, Old G.T. Road, Jhelum
- PICS, Bilal town 
- Al Islam Sharia College Ketchehry Road Jhelum
- Govt. Institute of Commerce (W), Sohawa
- Govt. Institute of Commerce, Pind Dadan Khan, District Jhelum
- Jinnah College of Commerce, Dina, Jhelum
- Jinnah Law College, Jhelum
- Jhelum Homeopathic Medical College, G.T. Road, Jada, Jhelum
- Govt. Al Bairuni Degree College Pind Dadan Khan
- District Headquarter Hospital, Jada
- Rehmat Foundation Kidney Care and General Hospital Langar pur Road Thathi Gujran Jhelum
- Rehmat Foundation Free Dispensary Mohallah Khawajgan Chowk Ahe e Hadees Jhelum
- Combined Military Hospital Jhelum
- Fauji Foundation Hospital, GT Road
- Khadam Ali Memorial Hospital, Machine Mohalla No. 1
- Khan Muhammad Hospital, AlAsria Road.
- Sughra Hospital, Jhelum Cantt
- Shahid memorial trust hospital Jhelum
- Inayat Karim Medical Center, Jhelum Main G.T.road
- AlKaram Hospital, Civil Lines
- Afzal Hospital, Machine Mohalla No.3
- Noor-un-Nisa Hospital
- Fazal Hospital, Civil Lines
- Azeem Hospital, Jhelum Cantt
- Umair Children Hospital, Machine Mohalla No.3
- Capt. Moazzam Shaheed Hospital
- Mirza Hospital, Shandar Chowk
- Zam Zam Diagnostic Centre, near main gate D.H.Q Hospital Jhelum.
- Zam Zam Pathology Lab, G.T Road, Dina
- Fatima Hospital – Pinan Wal
- Mukhtar Begum Memorial Trust
- Dr Sabah Naz Gynae & Medical Clinic and Infertility Centre
- BHU Bair Faqiran and Pind Swika (Rural health dispensary) are under process
- RHU Jalal Pur Sharif
Some of the major industries are:
- Noor Pur Baghan
- Inder Kumar Gujral, thirteenth Prime Minister of India
- Military College Jhelum
- Rabia Qari, the first female Muslim barrister in South Asia
- Raiya Chak Maddu
- Tilla Satellite Launch Center
- Zamir Jafri
- Chak Jamal
- Dhok Masyal
- "Location of Jhelum – Falling Rain Genomics". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- Jhelum Police official website
- John Pike. "Dominated Recruitment". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- Shoaib, Syed (17 June 2009). "City of Soldiers". BBC News. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- "AAJ NEWS Report (City of martyrs and warriors)". Youtube.com. 10 February 2009. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- The District Jhelum[dead link]
- "Tehsil Municipal Administration Jhelum – Industries of Jhelum". Tmajhelum.com. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- Encyclopaedia of ancient Indian geography By Subodh Kapoor-page-3
- Encyclopaedia of Ancient Indian Geography – Subodh Kapoor. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- Tareekh-e-Jhelum, page 92 by Anjum Sultan Shahbaz
- The District Jhelum
- Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, v. 8, 20, 29; Curtius Rufus, Historiae Alexandri Magni, viii. 12–14, ix. 1, x. 1
- "Jhelum District Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 14, p. 152". Dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- Chisholm, Hugh (1910). "Alexander III (Alexander the Great)". Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition 1.
- Diodorus, Bibliotheca, xvii. 90
- The Tribes and Castes of Bombay: Ill – Reginald E. Enthoven. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- "Biography of Abdur Rahim Khankhana". Retrieved 2006-10-28.
- ^ a b c Robert L. Canfield, Turko-Persia in historical perspective, Cambridge University Press, 1991. pg 20: "The Mughals – Persianized Turks who invaded from Central Asia and claimed descent from both Timur and Genghis – strengthened the Persianate culture of Muslim India"
- "''Imperial Gazetteer of India'', v. 14, p. 159-160". Dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- The London Gazette, 19 May 1858 http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/22141/pages/2492/page.pdf
- "Tehsils & Unions in the District of Jhelum – Government of Pakistan". Nrb.gov.pk. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- World-Gazetteer.com. "Jhelum City". Retrieved 2010-09-19.
- "Jhelum Report". Crprid.org. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- Population of Jhelum District[dead link]
- "Population growth rate". World-gazetteer.com. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- "District Profile". Dawn.com. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- "University of Gujrat". Uog.edu.pk. 3 March 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- Gujranwala Business Center[dead link]
- "Jhelum Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- Annual weather report of Jhelum
- Mangla View Resort[dead link]
- PTCL EVO[dead link]
- LinkdotNET[dead link]
- Jhelum River View Golf Club
- Jang News report(District Cricket Stadium, Jhelum)
- School Directory of PUNJAB (Jhelum)[dead link]
- Technical education in Jhelum[dead link]
- VU Jhelum campuses
- Punjab University NewsLetter[dead link]
- Types of Health Facilities report in Jhelum
- Medical facilities in Jhelum[dead link]
- TMA Jhelum (Industries)
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