List of highest-grossing films

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A screencap of the title card from the trailer of Gone with the Wind.
Gone with the Wind held the record of highest-grossing film for twenty-five years, and, adjusted for inflation, has earned more than any other film.

Films generate income from several revenue streams including theatrical exhibition, home video, television broadcast rights and merchandising. However, theatrical box office earnings are the primary metric for trade publications (such as Box Office Mojo and Variety) in assessing the success of a film, mostly due to the availability of the data compared to sales figures for home video and broadcast rights, and also due to historical practice. Included on the list are charts of the top box-office earners (ranked by both the nominal and real value of their revenue), a chart of high-grossing films by calendar year, a timeline showing the transition of the highest-grossing film record, and a chart of the highest-grossing film franchises and series. All charts are ranked by international theatrical box office performance where possible, excluding income derived from home video, broadcasting rights and merchandise.

Traditionally, war films, musicals and historical dramas have been the most popular genres, but franchise films have been the best performers in the 21st century. All of the films from the Harry Potter franchise and Peter Jackson's Middle-Earth series are included in the nominal earnings chart, while the Transformers and Pirates of the Caribbean franchises both feature prominently. There has also been new interest in the superhero genre; Superman and Batman from DC Comics and films based on the Marvel Comics brand such as Spider-Man, X-Men and films in the Marvel Cinematic Universe have all done particularly well. The only films in the top ten that do not form a franchise are the top two, Avatar and Titanic, both directed by James Cameron, and Disney's Frozen. Animated family films have performed consistently well, with Disney films enjoying lucrative re-releases prior to the home video era. Disney also enjoyed later success with its Pixar brand, of which the Toy Story films and Finding Nemo have been the best performers; beyond Pixar animation, the Shrek, Ice Age, Madagascar and Despicable Me series have met with the most success.

While inflation has eroded away the achievements of most films from the 1960s and 1970s, there are franchises originating from that period that are still active. Besides Superman, James Bond and Star Trek films are still being released periodically, while the Star Wars saga and Planet of the Apes were reprised after a lengthy hiatus; Indiana Jones also saw a successful comeback after lying dormant for nearly twenty years. All six are still among the highest-grossing franchises, despite starting over thirty years ago. Some of the older films that held the record of highest-grossing film still have respectable grosses even by today's standards, but do not really compete against today's top-earners: Gone with the Wind for instance—which was the highest-grossing film for twenty-five years—does not even make the top fifty in the modern market, but, adjusted for inflation, it would still be the highest-grossing film. All grosses on the list are expressed in US dollars at their nominal value, except where stated otherwise.

Highest-grossing films

A portrait of a middle aged man with greying hair.
The two highest-grossing films have both been directed and written by James Cameron.

With a worldwide box-office gross of about $2.8 billion, Avatar is often proclaimed to be the "highest-grossing" film, but such claims usually refer to theatrical revenues only and do not take account of home video and television income, which can form a significant portion of a film's earnings. Once revenue from home entertainment is factored in it is not immediately clear which film is the most successful. Titanic earned $1.2 billion from video and DVD sales and rentals,[1] in addition to the $2.2 billion it grossed in theaters. While complete sales data are not available for Avatar, it earned $345 million from the sale of sixteen million DVD and Blu-ray units in North America,[2] and ultimately sold a total of thirty million DVD and Blu-ray units worldwide.[3] After home video income is accounted for, both films have earned over $3 billion. Television broadcast rights will also substantially add to a film's earnings, with a film often earning as much as 20–25% of its theatrical box-office for a couple of television runs on top of pay-per-view revenues;[4] Titanic earned a further $55 million from the NBC and HBO broadcast rights,[1] equating to about 9% of its North American gross.

When a film is highly exploitable as a commercial property, its ancillary revenues from merchandising can dwarf its income from direct film sales.[5] Pixar's Cars earned $461 million in theatrical revenues[6]—which was only a modest hit by comparison to other Pixar films[7]—but generated global merchandise sales of over $8 billion in the five years after its 2006 release,[8][9] the most revenue ever generated by a single film.[10]

Only the revenues from theatrical exhibition at their nominal value are included here, which sees Avatar rank in the top position. Nineteen films in total have grossed in excess of $1 billion worldwide. The films on this chart have all had a theatrical run (including re-releases) since 1996, and films that have not played since then do not appear on the chart due to ticket-price inflation, population size and ticket purchasing trends not being considered.

film currently playing indicates films still playing in theaters around the world in the week commencing 19 September 2014.
Highest-grossing films[11]
Rank Title Worldwide gross Year Ref
1 Avatar $2,787,965,087 2009 [# 1]
2 Titanic $2,186,772,302 1997 [# 2]
3 The Avengers $1,518,594,910 2012 [# 3]
4 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2 $1,341,511,219 2011 [# 4]
5 Frozen film currently playing $1,275,772,511 2013 [# 5]
6 Iron Man 3 $1,215,439,994 2013 [# 6]
7 Transformers: Dark of the Moon $1,123,794,079 2011 [# 7]
8 The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King $1,119,929,521 2003 [# 8]
9 Skyfall $1,108,561,013 2012 [# 9]
10 The Dark Knight Rises $1,084,439,099 2012 [# 10]
11 Transformers: Age of Extinction film currently playing $1,080,564,448 2014 [# 11]
12 Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest $1,066,179,725 2006 [# 12]
13 Toy Story 3 $1,063,171,911 2010 [# 13]
14 Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides $1,045,713,802 2011 [# 14]
15 Jurassic Park $1,029,153,882 1993 [# 15]
16 Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace $1,027,044,677 1999 [# 16]
17 Alice in Wonderland $1,025,467,110 2010 [# 17]
18 The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey $1,017,003,568 2012 [# 18]
19 The Dark Knight $1,004,558,444 2008 [# 19]
20 The Lion King $987,483,777 1994 [# 20]
21 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone $974,755,371 2001 [# 21]
22 Despicable Me 2 $970,761,885 2013 [# 22]
23 Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End $963,420,425 2007 [# 23]
24 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1 $960,283,305 2010 [# 24]
25 The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug $958,366,855 2013 [# 25]
26 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix $939,885,929 2007 [# 26]
27 Finding Nemo $936,743,261 2003 [# 27]
28 Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince $934,416,487 2009 [# 28]
29 The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers $926,047,111 2002 [# 29]
30 Shrek 2 $919,838,758 2004 [# 30]
31 Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire $896,911,078 2005 [# 31]
32 Spider-Man 3 $890,871,626 2007 [# 32]
33 Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs $886,686,817 2009 [# 33]
34 Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets $878,979,634 2002 [# 34]
35 Ice Age: Continental Drift $877,244,782 2012 [# 35]
36 The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring $871,530,324 2001 [# 36]
37 The Hunger Games: Catching Fire $864,565,663 2013 [# 37]
38 Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith $848,754,768 2005 [# 38]
39 Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen $836,303,693 2009 [# 39]
40 The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn – Part 2 $829,685,377 2012 [# 40]
41 Inception $825,532,764 2010 [# 41]
42 Spider-Man $821,708,551 2002 [# 42]
43 Independence Day $817,400,891 1996 [# 43]
44 Shrek the Third $798,958,162 2007 [# 44]
45 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban $796,688,549 2004 [# 45]
46 E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial $792,910,554 1982 [# 46]
47 Fast & Furious 6 $788,679,850 2013 [# 47]
48 Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull $786,636,033 2008 [# 48]
49 Spider-Man 2 $783,766,341 2004 [# 49]
50 Star Wars $775,398,007 1977 [# 50]

Highest-grossing films adjusted for inflation

A map of the world with different regions colored in correlating to inflation rates.
World map showing inflation rates in 2009

Due to the long-term effects of inflation, notably the significant increase of movie theater ticket prices, the list unadjusted for inflation gives far more weight to later films.[12] The unadjusted list, while commonly found in the press, is therefore largely meaningless for comparing films widely separated in time, as many films from earlier eras will never appear on a modern unadjusted list, despite achieving higher commercial success when adjusted for price increases.[13] To compensate for the devaluation of the currency, some charts make adjustments for inflation, but not even this practise fully addresses the issue since ticket prices and inflation do not necessarily parallel one another. For example, in 1970 tickets cost $1.55 or about $6.68 in inflation-adjusted 2004 dollars; by 1980, prices had risen to about $2.69, a drop to $5.50 in inflation-adjusted 2004 dollars.[14] Ticket prices have also risen at different rates of inflation around the world, further complicating the process of adjusting worldwide grosses.[12]

Another complication is release in multiple formats for which different ticket prices are charged. One notable example of this phenomenon is Avatar, which was also released in 3D and IMAX: almost two-thirds of tickets for that film were for 3D showings with an average price of $10, and about one-sixth were for IMAX showings with an average price over $14.50, compared to a 2010 average price of $7.61 for 2D films.[15] Social and economic factors such as population change[16] and the growth of international markets[17][18][19] also impact on the number of people purchasing theater tickets, along with audience demographics where some films sell a much higher proportion of discounted children's tickets, or perform better in big cities where tickets cost more.[13]

The measuring system for gauging a film's success is based on unadjusted grosses, mainly because historically this is the way it has always been done due to the practices of the film industry: the box office receipts are compiled by theaters and relayed to the distributor, which in turn releases them to the media.[20] Converting to a more representative system that counts ticket sales rather than gross is also fraught with problems due to the fact that the only data available for older films are the sale totals.[16] As the motion picture industry is highly oriented towards marketing currently released films, unadjusted figures are always used in marketing campaigns so that new blockbuster films can much more easily achieve a high sales ranking, and thus be promoted as a "top film of all time",[14][21] so there is little incentive to switch to a more robust analysis from a marketing or even newsworthy point of view.[20]

Despite the inherent difficulties in accounting for inflation, several attempts have been made. Estimates depend on the price index used to adjust the grosses,[21] and the exchange rates used to convert between currencies can also impact upon the calculations, both of which can have an effect on the ultimate rankings of an inflation adjusted list. Gone with the Wind—first released in 1939—is generally considered to be the most successful film, with Guinness World Records in 2011 estimating its adjusted global gross at $3.3 billion. Estimates for Gone with the Wind's adjusted gross have varied substantially: its owner, Turner Entertainment, also estimated its adjusted earnings at $3.3 billion in 2007, a few years earlier than the Guinness estimate;[22] other estimates fall either side of this amount, with one putting its gross just under $3 billion in 2010,[23] while another provided an alternative figure of about $3.8 billion in 2006.[24] Which film is Gone with the Wind's nearest rival depends on the set of figures used: Guinness have Avatar in second place with nearly $2.8 billion, while other estimates see Titanic in the runner-up spot with first-run worldwide earnings of almost $2.9 billion at 2010 prices. Including the Guinness figures, estimates for Star Wars (1977) range from $2.2–2.7 billion at 2010/11 price levels, while E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial has earned approximately $1.9–2.2 billion, and the $1.9–2.0 billion figure for Jaws is corroborated by The Economist.[23][25]

Highest-grossing films adjusted for inflation[26]
Rank Title Worldwide gross
(2011 $)
Year
1 Gone with the Wind $3,301,400,000 1939
2 Avatar $2,782,300,000 2009
3 Star Wars $2,710,800,000 1977
4 Titanic $2,413,800,000T 1997
5 The Sound of Music $2,269,800,000 1965
6 E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial $2,216,800,000 1982
7 The Ten Commandments $2,098,600,000 1956
8 Doctor Zhivago $1,988,600,000 1965
9 Jaws $1,945,100,000 1975
10 Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs $1,746,100,000 1937

TThe figure for Titanic is based on the gross from its 1997 theatrical release, and does not incorporate earnings from the 2012 reissue, which has since added approximately $343 million to the total.[27]

High-grossing films by year

Glossary: Distributor rentals

Box-office figures are reported in the form of gross or distributor rentals, the latter being especially true of older films. Commonly mistaken for home video revenue, the rentals are the distributor's share of the film's theatrical revenue i.e. the box office gross less the exhibitor's cut.[28][29] Historically, the rental price averaged at 35–40% when the distributors owned the theater chains, equating to just over a third of the gross being paid to the distributor of the film.[30] In the modern marketplace, rental fees can vary greatly—depending on a number of factors—although the films from the major studios average out at 43%.[28]

Audience tastes were fairly eclectic during the 20th century, but several trends did emerge. During the silent era, films with war themes were popular with audiences, with The Birth of a Nation (American Civil War), The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, The Big Parade and Wings (all World War I) becoming the most successful films in their respective years of release, with the trend coming to an end with All Quiet on the Western Front in 1930. With the advent of sound in 1927, the musical—the genre best placed to showcase the new technology—took over as the most popular type of film with audiences, with 1928 and 1929 both being topped by musical films. The genre continued to perform strongly in the 1930s, but the outbreak of World War II saw war themed films dominate again during this period, starting with Gone with the Wind (American Civil War) in 1939, and finishing with The Best Years of Our Lives (World War II) in 1946. Samson and Delilah (1949) saw the beginning of a trend of increasingly expensive historical dramas set during Ancient Rome/biblical times throughout the 1950s as cinema competed with television for audiences,[31] with Quo Vadis, The Robe, The Ten Commandments, Ben-Hur and Spartacus all becoming the highest-grossing film of the year during initial release, before the genre started to wane after several high-profile failures.[32] The success of White Christmas and South Pacific in the 1950s foreshadowed the comeback of the musical in the 1960s with West Side Story, Mary Poppins, My Fair Lady, The Sound of Music and Funny Girl all among the top films of the decade. The 1970s saw a shift in audience tastes to high concept films, with six such films made by either George Lucas or Steven Spielberg topping the chart during the 1980s. The 21st century has seen an increasing dependence on franchises and adaptations, with Avatar in 2009 being the only chart-topper forming an original work.

A portrait of a bespectacled middle aged man.
Films directed by Steven Spielberg have been the highest-grossing film of the year on six occasions.

Steven Spielberg is the most represented director on the chart with six films to his credit, occupying the top spot in 1975, 1981, 1982, 1984, 1989 and 1993. Cecil B. DeMille (1932, 1947, 1949, 1952 and 1956) and William Wyler (1942, 1946, 1959 and 1968) are in second and third place with five and four films respectively, while D. W. Griffith (1915, 1916 and 1920), George Roy Hill (1966, 1969 and 1973) and James Cameron (1991, 1997 and 2009) all feature heavily with three films apiece. George Lucas directed two chart-toppers in 1977 and 1999, but also served in a strong creative capacity as a producer and writer in 1980, 1981, 1983, 1984 and 1989 as well. The following directors have also all directed two films on the chart: Frank Lloyd, King Vidor, Frank Capra, Michael Curtiz, Leo McCarey, Alfred Hitchcock, David Lean, Stanley Kubrick, Guy Hamilton, Mike Nichols, William Friedkin, Peter Jackson and Gore Verbinski; Mervyn LeRoy, Ken Annakin and Robert Wise are each represented by one solo credit and one shared credit, and John Ford co-directed two films. Disney films are usually co-directed and some directors have served on several winning teams: Wilfred Jackson, Hamilton Luske, Clyde Geronimi, David Hand, Ben Sharpsteen, Wolfgang Reitherman and Bill Roberts have all co-directed at least two films on the list. Only five directors have topped the chart in consecutive years: McCarey (1944 and 1945), Nichols (1966 and 1967), Spielberg (1981 and 1982), Jackson (2002 and 2003) and Verbinski (2006 and 2007).

Due to release schedules—especially in the case of films released towards the end of the year—and different release patterns across the world, many films can do business in two or more calendar years; therefore the grosses documented here are not confined to just the year of release. Grosses are not limited to original theatrical runs either, with many older films often being re-released periodically so the figures represent all the business a film has done since its original release; a film's first-run gross is included in brackets after the total if known. In the cases where estimates conflict both films are recorded, and in cases where a film has moved into first place due to being re-released the previous record-holder is also retained. Due to incomplete data it cannot be known for sure how much money some films have made and when they made it, but generally the chart chronicles the films from each year that went on to earn the most. At least one film every year has generated $100 million in gross revenue at the box office since 1967, and from 2008 each year has succeeded in producing a billion dollar grossing film.

film currently playing indicates films still playing in theaters around the world in the week commencing 19 September 2014.
High-grossing films by year of release[33][34][35]
Year Title Worldwide gross Budget Ref(s)
1915 The Birth of a Nation $50,000,000–100,000,000
$20,000,000+R ($5,200,000)R
$110,000 [# 51][# 52][# 53]
1916 Intolerance $1,000,000*R IN $489,653 [# 54][# 55]
1917 Cleopatra $500,000*R $300,000 [# 54]
1918 Mickey $8,000,000 $250,000 [# 56]
1919 The Miracle Man $3,000,000R $120,000 [# 57]
1920 Way Down East $5,000,000R ($4,000,000)R $800,000 [# 58][# 59]
1921 The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse $5,000,000R ($4,000,000)R $600,000–800,000 [# 60]
1922 Robin Hood $2,500,000R $930,042.78 [# 61][# 62]
1923 The Covered Wagon $5,000,000R $800,000 [# 63][# 64]
1924 The Sea Hawk $3,000,000R $700,000 [# 63]
1925 The Big Parade $18,000,000–22,000,000R
($6,131,000)R
$382,000 [# 65][# 66][# 67]
Ben-Hur $9,386,000R $3,967,000 [# 68]
1926 For Heaven's Sake $2,600,000R FH $150,000 [# 58][# 69]
1927 Wings $3,600,000R $2,000,000 [# 58][# 70][# 71]
1928 The Singing Fool $5,900,000R $388,000 [# 71][# 72]
1929 The Broadway Melody $4,400,000–4,800,000R $379,000 [# 73][# 74]
Sunny Side Up $3,500,000*R SS $600,000 [# 75][# 76]
1930 All Quiet on the Western Front $3,000,000R $1,250,000 [# 58][# 77][# 78][# 79]
1931 Frankenstein $12,000,000R ($1,400,000)R $250,000 [# 80][# 81]
City Lights $5,000,000R $1,607,351 [# 82]
1932 The Sign of the Cross $2,738,993R $694,065 [# 64][# 83][# 84][# 85]
1933 King Kong $5,347,000R ($1,856,000)R $672,255.75 [# 86]
I'm No Angel $3,250,000+R $200,000 [# 87][# 88]
Cavalcade $3,000,000–4,000,000R $1,116,000 [# 59][# 78]
She Done Him Wrong $3,000,000+R $274,076 [# 89][# 90][# 91]
1934 The Merry Widow $2,608,000R $1,605,000 [# 92][# 84]
It Happened One Night $1,000,000R ON $325,000 [# 93][# 94]
1935 Mutiny on the Bounty $4,460,000R $1,905,000 [# 84]
1936 San Francisco $6,044,000+R ($5,273,000)R $1,300,000 [# 92][# 84]
1937 Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs $418,000,000+S7 ($8,500,000)R $1,488,423 [# 95][# 96]
1938 You Can't Take It With You $5,000,000R $1,200,000 [# 97][# 98]
1939 Gone with the Wind $390,525,192–400,176,459
($32,000,000)R GW
$3,900,000–4,250,000 [# 99][# 100][# 101][# 102]
1940 Pinocchio $87,000,862* ($3,500,000)R $2,600,000 [# 103][# 96][# 104]
Boom Town $4,600,000*R $2,100,000 [# 105][# 106]
1941 Sergeant York $7,800,000R $1,600,000 [# 107][# 108]
1942 Bambi $267,997,843 ($3,449,353)R $1,700,000–2,000,000 [# 109][# 110][# 111]
Mrs. Miniver $8,878,000R $1,344,000 [# 112][# 113]
1943 For Whom the Bell Tolls $11,000,000R $2,681,298 [# 114][# 115][# 116]
This Is the Army $9,555,586.44*R $1,400,000 [# 117][# 118][# 116]
1944 Going My Way $6,500,000*R $1,000,000 [# 119][# 120][# 121]
1945 Mom and Dad $80,000,000MD/$22,000,000R $65,000 [# 122]
The Bells of St. Mary's $11,200,000R $1,600,000 [# 123]
1946 Song of the South $65,000,000* ($3,300,000)R $2,125,000 [# 124][# 125][# 126]
The Best Years of Our Lives $14,750,000R $2,100,000 [# 127][# 128]
Duel in the Sun $10,000,000*R $5,255,000 [# 119][# 129]
1947 Forever Amber $8,000,000R $6,375,000 [# 75][# 129]
Unconquered $7,500,000R UN $4,200,000 [# 130][# 131]
1948 Easter Parade $5,918,134R $2,500,000 [# 121][# 132]
The Red Shoes $5,000,000*R £505,581 (~$2,000,000) [# 119][# 133][# 134]
The Snake Pit $4,100,000*R TBA [# 135]
1949 Samson and Delilah $14,209,250R $3,097,563 [# 136][# 64]
1950 Cinderella $88,000,466*
($20,000,000/$7,800,000R)
$2,200,000 [# 137][# 138][# 139]
King Solomon's Mines $10,050,000R $2,258,000 [# 140]
1951 Quo Vadis $21,037,000–26,700,000R $7,623,000 [# 136][# 141][# 142]
1952 This Is Cinerama $50,000,000CI $1,000,000 [# 143][# 144]
The Greatest Show on Earth $18,350,000R GS $3,873,946 [# 145][# 146][# 64]
1953 Peter Pan $145,000,000 $3,000,000–4,000,000 [# 147]
The Robe $25,000,000–26,100,000R $4,100,000 [# 148][# 149][# 142]
1954 Rear Window $36,764,580* ($5,300,000)*R $1,000,000 [# 150][# 141]
White Christmas $26,000,050* ($12,000,000)*R $3,800,000 [# 151][# 152][# 153]
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea $25,000,134*
($6,800,000–8,000,000)*R
$4,500,000–9,000,000 [# 154][# 155][# 119][# 156]
1955 Lady and the Tramp $88,300,200* ($6,500,000)*R $4,000,000 [# 157][# 119][# 158]
Cinerama Holiday $21,000,000CI $2,000,000 [# 159][# 160]
Mister Roberts $9,900,000R $2,400,000 [# 161]
1956 The Ten Commandments $90,066,230R
($122,700,000/$55,200,000R)
$13,270,000 [# 64][# 162][# 163]
1957 The Bridge on the River Kwai $30,600,000R $2,840,000 [# 163]
1958 South Pacific $30,000,000R $5,610,000 [# 164]
1959 Ben-Hur $90,000,000R
($146,900,000/$66,100,000R)
$15,900,000 [# 165][# 166]
1960 Swiss Family Robinson $30,000,000R $4,000,000 [# 167]
Spartacus $60,000,000 ($22,105,225)R $10,284,014 [# 168][# 169]
Psycho $50,000,000+ ($14,000,000)R $800,000 [# 170]
1961 One Hundred and One Dalmatians $215,880,212 $3,600,000–4,000,000 [# 171][# 172][# 111]
West Side Story $105,000,000 ($31,800,000)R $7,000,000 [# 173][# 174]
1962 Lawrence of Arabia $75,500,852 ($69,995,385) $13,800,000 [# 175][# 176]
How the West Was Won $35,000,000R $14,483,000 [# 177]
The Longest Day $33,200,000R $8,600,000 [# 174][# 176]
1963 Cleopatra $40,300,000R $31,115,000 [# 174][# 176]
From Russia with Love $78,900,000/$29,400,000R
($12,500,000)R
$2,000,000 [# 178][# 179][# 180]
1964 My Fair Lady $55,000,000R $17,000,000 [# 181]
Goldfinger $124,900,000 ($46,000,000)R $3,000,000 [# 178][# 180]
Mary Poppins $44,000,000–$50,000,000R $5,200,000 [# 182][# 181]
1965 The Sound of Music $286,214,076 ($114,600,000)R $8,000,000 [# 183][# 174]
1966 The Bible: In the Beginning $25,300,000R $18,000,000 [# 169]
Hawaii $34,562,222* ($15,600,000)*R $15,000,000 [# 184][# 119]
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? $28,000,089* ($14,500,000)*R $7,613,000 [# 185][# 119][# 186]
1967 The Jungle Book $170,800,000–199,475,744 $3,900,000–4,000,000 [# 187][# 188][# 111]
The Graduate $85,000,000R $3,100,000 [# 189][# 190]
1968 2001: A Space Odyssey $138,000,000–190,000,000
($21,900,000)R
$10,300,000 [# 191][# 192][# 174]
Funny Girl $80,000,000–100,000,000 $8,800,000 [# 193][# 194]
1969 Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid $152,308,525 ($37,100,000)R $6,600,000 [# 195][# 174][# 190]
1970 Love Story $80,000,000R $2,260,000 [# 196][# 197]
Airport $75,000,000R $10,000,000 [# 198][# 199]
1971 The French Connection $75,000,000R $3,300,000 [# 75]
Fiddler on the Roof $49,400,000R
($100,000,000/$45,100,000R)
$9,000,000 [# 200][# 201]
Diamonds Are Forever $116,000,000 ($45,700,000)R $7,200,000 [# 178][# 179]
1972 The Godfather $245,066,411–286,000,000
($127,600,000–142,000,000)R
$6,200,000 [# 202][# 201][# 203][# 204]
1973 The Exorcist $413,071,011 ($110,000,000)R $10,000,000 [# 205][# 206]
The Sting $115,000,000R $5,500,000 [# 207][# 208]
1974 The Towering Inferno $88,650,000R $15,000,000 [# 209]
Blazing Saddles $80,000,000+R $2,600,000 [# 210][# 211]
1975 Jaws $470,653,000 ($193,700,000)R $9,000,000 [# 212][# 213][# 214]
1976 Rocky $225,000,000 ($77,100,000)R $1,075,000 [# 215][# 201][# 216]
1977 Star Wars $775,398,007
($530,000,000SW/$268,500,000R)
$11,293,151 [# 50][# 217][# 201][# 218]
1978 Grease $394,589,888 ($341,000,000) $6,000,000 [# 219][# 220][# 189]
1979 Moonraker $210,300,000 $31,000,000 [# 178][# 221]
Rocky II $200,182,289 $7,000,000 [# 222][# 223][# 221]
1980 The Empire Strikes Back $538,375,067 ($413,562,607)SW $23,000,000–32,000,000 [# 224][# 225]
1981 Raiders of the Lost Ark $389,925,971
($321,866,000–353,988,025)
$18,000,000–22,800,000 [# 226]
1982 E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial $792,910,554
($619,000,000–664,000,000)
$10,500,000–12,200,000 [# 46][# 217][# 227][# 228]
1983 Return of the Jedi $475,106,177 ($385,845,197)SW $32,500,000–42,700,000 [# 229][# 225]
1984 Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom $333,107,271 $27,000,000–28,200,000 [# 230][# 231][# 232]
1985 Back to the Future film currently playing $389,053,797 ($381,109,762) $19,000,000–22,000,000 [# 233][# 234]
1986 Top Gun $356,830,601 ($345,000,000) $14,000,000–19,000,000 [# 235][# 236][# 231]
1987 Fatal Attraction $320,145,905 $14,000,000 [# 237][# 231]
1988 Rain Man $354,825,476 $30,000,000 [# 238][# 239]
1989 Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade $474,171,806–494,000,000 $36,000,000–55,400,000 [# 240][# 231][# 241]
1990 Ghost $505,702,423 $22,000,000 [# 242][# 231]
1991 Terminator 2: Judgment Day $519,843,975 $94,000,000 [# 243][# 244]
1992 Aladdin $504,050,219 $28,000,000 [# 245][# 111]
1993 Jurassic Park $1,029,153,882 ($914,691,118) $63,000,000–70,000,000 [# 15]
1994 The Lion King $987,483,777 ($766,964,132) $45,000,000–79,300,000 [# 20]
1995 Die Hard with a Vengeance $366,101,666 $70,000,000 [# 246][# 247]
1996 Independence Day $817,400,891 $75,000,000 [# 43]
1997 Titanic $2,186,772,302 ($1,843,201,268) $200,000,000 [# 2]
1998 Armageddon $553,709,626 $140,000,000 [# 248][# 249]
1999 Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace $1,027,044,677 ($924,317,558) $115,000,000–127,500,000 [# 16][# 225]
2000 Mission: Impossible II $546,388,105 $100,000,000–125,000,000 [# 250][# 231]
2001 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone $974,755,371 $125,000,000 [# 21]
2002 The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers $926,047,111 ($921,780,457) $94,000,000 [# 29]
2003 The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King $1,119,929,521 ($1,119,110,941) $94,000,000 [# 8]
2004 Shrek 2 $919,838,758 $150,000,000 [# 30]
2005 Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire $896,911,078 $150,000,000 [# 31]
2006 Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest $1,066,179,725 $225,000,000 [# 12]
2007 Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End $963,420,425 $300,000,000 [# 23]
2008 The Dark Knight $1,004,558,444 ($997,039,412) $185,000,000 [# 19]
2009 Avatar $2,787,965,087 ($2,749,064,328) $237,000,000 [# 1][# 251]
2010 Toy Story 3 $1,063,171,911 $200,000,000 [# 13]
2011 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2 $1,341,511,219 $250,000,000HP [# 4][# 252]
2012 The Avengers $1,518,594,910 $220,000,000 [# 3]
2013 Frozen film currently playing $1,275,772,511 $150,000,000 [# 5]
2014 Transformers: Age of Extinction film currently playing $1,080,564,448 $210,000,000 [# 11]
  • ( ... ) Since grosses are not limited to original theatrical runs, a film's first-run gross is included in brackets after the total if known.
  • *Canada and U.S. gross only.
  • RDistributor rental.
  • TBATo be ascertained.
  • INNo contemporary sources provide figures for 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, although The Numbers provides a figure of $8,000,000 for the North American box office gross.[36] However, it is possible this figure has been mistaken for the gross of the 1954 remake which also earned $8,000,000 in North American rentals.[37]
  • FHSome sources such as The Numbers state that Aloma of the South Seas is the highest grossing film of the year, earning $3 million.[38] However, no contemporary sources provide figures for Aloma of the South Seas, so it is unclear what the $3 million figure relates to. If it were the rental gross then that would have made it not only the highest-grossing film of the year, but one of the highest-grossing films of the silent era, and if that is the case it would be unusual for both International Motion Picture Almanac and Variety to omit it from their lists.
  • SSIt is not clear if the figure for Sunny Side Up is for North America or worldwide. Other sources put its earnings at $2 million,[39] which may suggest the higher figure is the worldwide rental, given the confusion over international figures during this period.[40]
  • ONThe figure for It Happened One Night is not truly representative of its success: it was distributed as a package deal along with more than two dozen other Columbia films, and the total earnings were averaged out; the true gross would have been much higher.
  • S7Snow White's $418 million global cume omits earnings outside of North America from 1987 onwards.
  • GWIt is not absolutely clear how much Gone with the Wind earned from its initial release. Contemporary accounts often list it as earning $32 million in North American rentals and retrospective charts have often duplicated this claim; however, it is likely this was the worldwide rental figure. Trade journals would collate the data by either obtaining it from the distributors themselves, who were keen to promote a successful film, or by surveying theaters and constructing an estimate. Distributors would often report the worldwide rental since the higher figure made the film appear more successful, while estimates were limited to performance in North America; therefore it was not unusual for worldwide and North American rentals to be mixed up. Following the outbreak of World War II, many of the foreign markets were unavailable to Hollywood so it became standard practice to just report on North American box-office performance.[40] In keeping with this new approach, the North American rental for Gone with the Wind was revised to $21 million in 1947 ($11 million lower than the previous figure),[41] and as of 1953—following the 1947 re-release—Variety was reporting earnings of $26 million.[42] Through 1956, MGM reported cumulative North American earnings of $30,015,000 and foreign earnings of $18,964,000, from three releases.[43] Worldwide rentals of $32 million from the initial release is consistent with the revised figures and later reported worldwide figures: they indicate that the film earned $21 million in North America and $11 million overseas from the initial release, and added a further $9 million in North America and $8 million overseas from subsequent re-releases up to 1956.
  • MDMom and Dad does not generally feature in 'high-gross' lists such as those published by Variety due to its independent distribution. Essentially belonging to the exploitation genre, it was marketed as an educational sex hygiene film in an effort to circumvent censorship laws. Falling foul of the Motion Picture Production Code, Mom and Dad was prevented from obtaining mainstream distribution and restricted to independent and drive-in theaters. It was the biggest hit of its kind, and remained in continual distribution until the 1970s when hardcore pornography eventually took over. At the end of 1947 it had earned $2 million, and by 1949, $8 million; by 1956 it had earned $22 million in rentals, representing a gross of $80 million, and would have easily placed in the top ten films in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Estimates of its total earnings are as high as $100 million.
  • UNChopra-Gant stipulates that the figure given for Unconquered is for North American box-office, but as was common at the time, the chart confuses worldwide and North American grosses. Other sources state that the takings for Forever Amber ($8 million) and Life with Father ($6.5 million)[44] were in fact worldwide rental grosses, so it is possible this is also true of Unconquered.
  • CIThe Cinerama figures represent gross amounts. Since the Cinerama corporation owned the theaters there were no rental fees for the films, meaning the studio received 100% of the box-office gross, unlike the case with most other films where the distributor typically receives less than half the gross. Since Variety at the time ranked films by their US rental, they constructed a hypothetical rental figure for the Cinerama films to provide a basis for comparison to other films in their chart: in the case of This Is Cinerama, the $50 million worldwide gross was reconfigured as a $12.5 million US rental gross; this is exactly 25% of the amount reported by Cinerama, so Variety's formula seemingly halved the gross to obtain an estimate for the US share, and halved it again to simulate a rental fee. Variety's 'rental' amounts are often repeated, but have no basis in the reality of what the films actually earned—they are hypothetical figures conceived for comparative analysis.[45] All five Cinerama features collectively generated $120 million in worldwide box office receipts.[46]
  • GSVariety put the worldwide rental for The Greatest Show on Earth at around $18.35 million (with $12.8 million coming from the United States[37]) a year after its release; however, Birchard puts its earnings at just over $15 million up to 1962. It is likely that Birchard's figure is just the North American gross rental, and includes revenue from the 1954 and 1960 reissues.
  • SWThe 'first run' Star Wars grosses do not include revenue from the 1997 special edition releases; however, the figure does include revenue from the re-releases prior to the special editions.
  • HPProduction costs were shared with Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1.

Timeline of highest-grossing films

The theatrical poster for The Birth of a Nation depicting a hooded man carrying a burning cross on horse back.
The Birth of a Nation pioneered many of the techniques used in film-making today, becoming the most successful film ever made at the time of its release.

At least ten films have held the record of 'highest-grossing film' since The Birth of a Nation assumed the top spot in 1915. Both The Birth of a Nation and Gone with the Wind spent twenty-five consecutive years apiece as the highest-grosser, with films directed by Steven Spielberg holding the record on three occasions and James Cameron—the current holder—twice. Spielberg became the first director to break his own record when Jurassic Park overtook E.T., and Cameron emulated the feat when Avatar broke the record set by Titanic.

Some sources claim that The Big Parade superseded The Birth of a Nation as highest-grossing film, eventually being replaced by Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, which in turn was quickly usurped by Gone with the Wind.[47] Exact figures are not known for The Birth of a Nation, but contemporary records put its worldwide earnings at $5.2 million as of 1919.[48] Its international release was delayed by World War I, and it was not released in many foreign territories until the 1920s; coupled with further re-releases in the United States, its $10 million earnings as reported by Variety in 1932 are consistent with the earlier figure.[49] At this time, Variety still had The Birth of a Nation ahead of The Big Parade ($6,400,000) on distributor rentals and—if its estimate is correct—Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs ($8,500,000)[50] would not have earned enough on its first theatrical run to take the record;[51] although it would have been the highest-grossing 'talkie',[52] displacing The Singing Fool ($5,900,000).[53] Although received wisdom holds that it is unlikely The Birth of a Nation was ever overtaken by a silent-era film,[54] the record would fall to 1925's Ben-Hur ($9,386,000) if The Birth of a Nation earned significantly less than its estimated gross.[55] In addition to its gross rental earnings through public exhibition, The Birth of a Nation played at a large number of private, club and organizational engagements which figures are unavailable for.[56] It was hugely popular with the Ku Klux Klan who used it to drive recruitment,[57] and at one point Variety estimated its total earnings to stand at around $50 million.[58] Despite later retracting the claim, the sum has been widely reported even though it has never been substantiated.[48] While it is generally accepted that Gone with the Wind took over the record of highest-grossing film on its initial release—which is true in terms of public exhibition—it is likely it did not overtake The Birth of a Nation in total revenue until a much later date, with it still being reported as the highest earner up until the 1960s.[56] Gone with the Wind itself may have been briefly overtaken by The Ten Commandments (1956), which closed at the end of 1960 with worldwide rentals of $58–60 million[59][60] compared to Gone with the Wind's $59 million;[61] if it did claim the top spot its tenure there was short-lived, since Gone with the Wind was re-released the following year and increased its earnings to $67 million. Depending on how accurate the estimates are, the 1959 remake of Ben-Hur may also have captured the record from Gone with the Wind: as of the end of 1961 it had earned $47 million worldwide,[62] and by 1963 it was trailing Gone with the Wind by just $2 million with international takings of $65 million,[63] ultimately earning $66 million from its initial release.[64]

The 1972 pornographic film Deep Throat reportedly earned as much as $600 million, a figure that may have been inflated by gangsters in money laundering schemes.

Another film purported to have been the highest-grosser is the 1972 pornographic film, Deep Throat. In 1984, Linda Lovelace testified to a United States Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on juvenile justice that the film had earned $600 million;[65] this figure has been the subject of much speculation, since if it is accurate then the film would have made more money than Star Wars, and finished the 1970s as the highest-grossing film. The main argument against this figure is that it simply did not have a wide enough release to sustain the sort of sums that would be required for it to ultimately gross this amount.[66] Exact figures are not known, but testimony in a federal trial in 1976—about four years into the film's release—showed the film had grossed over $25 million.[67] Roger Ebert has reasoned it possibly did earn as much as $600 million on paper, since mobsters owned most of the adult movie theaters during this period and would launder income from drugs and prostitution through them, so probably inflated the box office receipts for the film.[68]

The Birth of a Nation, Gone with the Wind, The Godfather, Jaws, Star Wars, E.T. and Avatar all increased their record grosses with re-releases. The grosses from their original theatrical runs are included here along with totals from re-releases up to the point that they lost the record; therefore the total for The Birth of a Nation includes income from its reissues up to 1940; the total for Star Wars includes revenue from the late 1970s and early 1980s reissues but not from the 1997 Special Edition; the total for E.T. incorporates its gross from the 1985 reissue but not from 2002; the total for Avatar—as the current record-holder—includes all its earnings at the present time. Gone with the Wind is represented twice on the chart: the 1940 entry includes earnings from its staggered 1939–1942 release (roadshows/first-run engagements/general release)[69] along with all of its revenue up to the 1961 reissue prior to losing the record to The Sound of Music in 1966; its 1971 entry—after it took back the record—includes income from the 1967 and 1971 reissues but omitting later releases. The Godfather was re-released in 1973 after its success at the 45th Academy Awards, and Jaws was released again in 1976, and their grosses here most likely include earnings from those releases. The Sound of Music, The Godfather, Jaws, Jurassic Park and Titanic increased their earnings with further releases in 1973, 1997, 1979, 2013 and 2012 respectively, but they are not included in the totals here since they had already conceded the record prior to being re-released.

Timeline of the highest-grossing film record
Established Title Record setting gross Ref
1915[47] The Birth of a Nation $5,200,000R [# 52]
1940 $15,000,000R [# 253]
1940[22] Gone with the Wind $32,000,000R [# 254]
1963 $67,000,000R [# 255]
1966[47] The Sound of Music $114,600,000R [# 174]
1971[47] Gone with the Wind $116,000,000R [# 256]
1972[47] The Godfather $127,600,000–142,000,000R [# 201][# 257]
1976[70][71] Jaws $193,700,000R [# 213]
1978[72][73] Star Wars $410,000,000/$268,500,000R [# 258][# 201]
1982 $530,000,000 [# 217]
1983[74] E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial $619,000,000–664,000,000 [# 217][# 227]
1993 $701,000,000 [# 259]
1993[47] Jurassic Park $914,691,118 [# 15]
1998[75] Titanic $1,843,201,268 [# 2]
2010[76][77] Avatar $2,749,064,328 [# 1]
$2,787,965,087
  • RDistributor rental.
  • Includes re-releasesIncludes revenue from re-releases. If a film increased its gross through re-releases while holding the record, the year in which it recorded its highest gross is also noted in italics.

Highest-grossing franchises and film series

The figure of silhouetted man points a gun straight at the camera.
The James Bond series was the first to gross over $1 billion, and is still the highest-grossing after adjusting for inflation.

Prior to 2000, only seven film series had grossed over $1 billion at the box office: James Bond,[78] Star Wars,[79] Indiana Jones,[80] Rocky,[81][82][83] Batman,[84] Jurassic Park[85] and Star Trek.[86] Since the turn of the century that number has increased to over forty, excluding one-off hits such as Avatar, Titanic, Frozen and Alice in Wonderland.[87] This is partly due to inflation and market growth, but also to Hollywood's adoption of the franchise model: films that have built-in brand recognition, such as being based on a well known literary source (The Lord of the Rings) or an established character (Indiana Jones). The methodology is based on the concept that films associated with things audiences are already familiar with can be more effectively marketed to them, and as such are known as "pre-sold" films within the industry.[25]

The Harry Potter series has grossed the most, amassing nearly $8 billion over eight films at the box office, although the Eon James Bond series is the highest grossing when adjusted for inflation, with a total of over $13 billion at 2011/12 prices.[88] Harry Potter has also generated at least $3.5 billion in home video revenue,[89] taking total consumer spending on the films to over $11 billion. If ancillary income from merchandising is included, then Star Wars is the most lucrative franchise, earning more than $22 billion in total, with direct income from the films themselves accounting for just one third of overall revenues.[10][90] In nominal terms, Harry Potter is also the most consistent franchise, averaging at around $965 million with each film earning in excess of $790 million, while the most consistent series is Peter Jackson's Middle-earth adaptation, with the first five films averaging about $980 million and each film earning over $870 million; adjusted for inflation they have performed similarly to Star Wars, averaging over $1 billion per film.[25]

film currently playing indicates that at least one film in the series is playing in the week commencing 19 September 2014.
Highest-grossing franchises and film series[§] (The films in each franchise can be viewed by selecting "show")
Rank Series Total worldwide
box office
No. of films Average of films Highest-grossing film
  • *Canada and U.S. gross only.
  • RDistributor rental.
  • PAIndividual worldwide grosses are unknown for the original Planet of the Apes series.

References

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  31. ^ Balio, Tino (1987). United Artists: the Company that Changed the Film Industry. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 124–125. ISBN 978-0-299-11440-4. "To rekindle interest in the movies, Hollywood not only had to compete with television but also with other leisure-time activities...Movies made a comeback by 1955, but audiences had changed. Moviegoing became a special event for most people, creating the phenomenon of the big picture." 
  32. ^ Hall & Neale 2010, p. 179. "Later epics proved far more disastrous for the backers. Samuel Bronston's The Fall of the Roman Empire, filmed in Spain, cost $17,816,876 and grossed only $1.9 million in America. George Stevens's long-gestating life of Christ, The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965), which had been in planning since 1954 and in production since 1962, earned domestic rentals of $6,962,715 on a $21,481,745 negative cost, the largest amount yet spent on a production made entirely within the United States. The Bible—in the Beginning... (1966) was financed by the Italian producer Dino De Laurentiis from private investors and Swiss banks. He then sold distribution rights outside Italy jointly to Fox and Seven Arts for $15 million (70 percent of which came from Fox), thereby recouping the bulk of his $18 million investment. Although The Bible returned a respectable world rental of $25.3 million, Fox was still left with a net loss of just over $1.5 million. It was the last biblical epic to be released by any major Hollywood studio for nearly twenty years."
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  49. ^ "Biggest Money Pictures". Variety. June 21, 1932. p. 1.  Cited in "Biggest Money Pictures". Cinemaweb. Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved July 14, 2011. 
  50. ^ "'Peter Pan' flies again". Daily Record (Ellensburg, Washington). United Press International. July 21, 1989. p. 16. 
  51. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, p. 237. "By the end of 1938, it had grossed more than $8 million in worldwide rentals and was ranked at the time as the second-highest-grossing film after the 1925 epic Ben-Hur".
  52. ^ Finler 2003, p. 47. "Walt Disney took a big risk when he decided to invest $1.5 million in his first feature-length animated film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. It became the biggest hit of the sound era and the largest-grossing movie since The Birth of a Nation – until the release of independent producer David O. Selznick's Gone with the Wind just two years later."
  53. ^ Barrios, Richard (1995). A Song in the Dark: The Birth of the Musical Film. Oxford University Press. p. 49. ISBN 9780195088113. "Since it's rarely seen today, The Singing Fool is frequently confused with The Jazz Singer; although besides Jolson and a pervasively maudlin air the two have little in common. In the earlier film Jolson was inordinately attached to his mother and sang "Mammy"; here the fixation was on his young son, and "Sonny Boy" became an enormous hit. So did the film, which amassed a stunning world-wide gross of $5.9 million...Some sources give it as the highest gross of any film in its initial release prior to Gone with the Wind. This is probably overstating it—MGM's records show that Ben-Hur and The Big Parade grossed more, and no one knows just how much The Birth of a Nation brought in. Still, by the standards of the time it's an amazing amount." 
  54. ^ Everson, William K. (1998) [First published 1978]. American silent film. Da Capo Press. p. 374. ISBN 978-0-306-80876-0. "Putting The Birth of a Nation in fifth place is open to question, since it is generally conceded to be the top-grossing film of all time. However, it has always been difficult to obtain reliable box-office figures for this film, and it may have been even more difficult in the mid-1930's. After listing it until the mid-1970's as the top-grosser, though finding it impossible to quote exact figures, Variety, the trade journal, suddenly repudiated the claim but without giving specific details or reasons. On the basis of the number of paid admissions, and continuous exhibition, its number one position seems justified." 
  55. ^ Hall & Neale 2010, p. 163. "MGM's silent Ben-Hur, which opened at the end of 1925, had out-grossed all the other pictures released by the company in 1926 combined. With worldwide rentals of $9,386,000 on first release it was, with the sole possible exception of The Birth of a Nation, the highest-earning film of the entire silent era."
  56. ^ a b du Brow, Rick (September 22, 1965). "Documentary On The Klan Made Quite An Impact On Du Brow". The Columbus Dispatch. p. 12. 
  57. ^ Hodgkinson, Will (April 12, 2004). "Culture quake: The Birth of a Nation". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved January 31, 2012. 
  58. ^ Thomas, Bob (January 18, 1963). "'West Side Story' Earned $19 Million Last Year". Reading Eagle. Associated Press. p. 20. 
  59. ^ Klopsch, Louis; Sandison, George Henry; Talmage, Thomas De Witt (1965). Christian Herald 88. p. 68. "Yet "The Ten Commandments" has earned 58 million dollars in film rentals and is expected to bring in 10 to 15 million each year it is reissued." 
  60. ^ Hall & Neale 2010, pp. 160–161. "General release began at normal prices in 1959 and continued until the end of the following year, when the film was temporarily withdrawn (the first of several reissues came in 1966). The worldwide rental by this time was around $60 million. In the domestic market it dislodged Gone with the Wind from the number one position on Variety's list of All-Time Rentals Champs. GWTW had hitherto maintained its lead through several reissues (and was soon to regain it through another in 1961)."
  61. ^ Oviatt, Ray (April 16, 1961). "The Memory Isn't Gone With The Wind". Toledo Blade. p. 67–68. 
  62. ^ "Ben-Hur (1959) – Notes". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved November 17, 2012. 
  63. ^ Thomas, Bob (August 1, 1963). "Movie Finances Are No Longer Hidden From Scrutiny". The Robesonian. Associated Press. p. 10. 
  64. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, p. 324. "Worldwide rentals: $66.1 million (initial release)"
  65. ^ Washington (AP) (September 13, 1984). "'Deep Throat' star against pornography". The Free Lance–Star. p. 12. 
  66. ^ Hiltzik, Michael (February 24, 2005). "'Deep Throat' Numbers Just Don't Add Up". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 2, 2012. 
  67. ^ Memphis (UPI) (May 1, 1976). "'Deep Throat' Defendant Found Guilty of Conspiring". The Palm Beach Post. p. A2. 
  68. ^ Ebert, Roger (February 11, 2005). "Inside Deep Throat". rogerebert.com. Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved February 2, 2012. 
  69. ^ Schatz, Thomas (1999) [1st. pub. 1997]. Boom and Bust: American Cinema in the 1940s. Volume 6 of History of the American Cinema. University of California Press. pp. 6566. ISBN 9780520221307. "By July 1940, Wind reached saturation as a roadshow, and MGM revised its terms: the picture was sold on a 50–50 basis (i.e. 50 percent of the exhibitor's receipts would be returned to MGM) at prices of 40¢ in the afternoon and 50¢ in the evening; reserved seating was recommended but not contractually required. By April 1941, with its roadshow and first-run engagements finally played out, Wind had grossed $31 million and played to an estimated audience of 45 million in 8,500 theaters, with another 3,000 bookings still to be played as the film finally went into general release at "popular prices"." 
  70. ^ Dick, Bernard F. (1997). City of Dreams: The Making and Remaking of Universal Pictures. University Press of Kentucky. p. 168. ISBN 9780813120164. "Jaws (1975) saved the day, grossing $104 million domestically and $132 million worldwide by January 1976." 
  71. ^ Kilday, Gregg (July 5, 1977). "Director of 'Jaws II' Abandons His 'Ship'". The Victoria Advocate. p. 6B. 
  72. ^ New York (AP) (May 26, 1978). "Scariness of Jaws 2 unknown quantity". The StarPhoenix. p. 21. 
  73. ^ Fenner, Pat C. (January 16, 1978). "Independent Action". Evening Independent. p. 11-A. 
  74. ^ Cook, David A. (2002). Lost Illusions: American Cinema in the Shadow of Watergate and Vietnam, 1970–1979. Volume 9 of History of the American Cinema, Charles Harpole. University of California Press. p. 50. ISBN 9780520232655. "The industry was stunned when Star Wars earned nearly $3 million in its first week and by the end of August had grossed $100 million; it played continuously throughout 1977–1978, and was officially re-released in 1978 and 1979, by the end of which it had earned $262 million in rentals worldwide to become the top- grossing film of all time – a position it would maintain until surpassed by Universal's E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial in January 1983." 
  75. ^ "Titanic sinks competitors without a trace". BBC News (BBC). February 25, 1998. Retrieved August 13, 2010. 
  76. ^ Cieply, Michael (January 26, 2010). "He Doth Surpass Himself: ‘Avatar’ Outperforms ‘Titanic’". The New York Times. Retrieved January 27, 2010. 
  77. ^ Segers, Frank (January 25, 2010). "'Avatar' breaks 'Titanic' worldwide record". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 4, 2010. 
  78. ^ "Box Office History for James Bond Movies". The Numbers. Nash Information Services. Retrieved January 4, 2012. 
  79. ^ "Box Office History for Star Wars Movies". The Numbers. Nash Information Services. Retrieved January 4, 2012. 
  80. ^ "Indiana Jones – Worldwide (Unadjusted)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 6, 2012. 
  81. ^ Anderson, Dave (November 16, 2003). "Bayonne Bleeder Throws a Punch at the Italian Stallion". The New York Times. Retrieved January 4, 2012. 
  82. ^ Schneiderman, R. M. (August 10, 2006). "Stallone Settles With The 'Real' Rocky". Forbes. Retrieved January 4, 2012. 
  83. ^ Poller, Kenneth G. (November 12, 2003). "Charles Wepner v. Sylvester Stallone" (PDF). Mango & Iacoviello. Retrieved January 4, 2012. 
  84. ^ "Batman – Worldwide (Unadjusted) & Batman: Mask of the Phantasm". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 6, 2012. 
  85. ^ "Jurassic Park – Worldwide (Unadjusted)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 6, 2012. 
  86. ^ "Box Office History for Star Trek Movies". The Numbers. Nash Information Services. Retrieved January 4, 2012. 
  87. ^ "Movie Franchises". The Numbers. Nash Information Services. Retrieved September 24, 2011. 
  88. ^ Prior to the release of Skyfall in 2012, the James Bond series had grossed approximately $12.5 billion at 2011 prices;[25] after factoring in earnings of over $1 billion from Skyfall, the series has earned at least $13 billion at 2011/12 prices.
  89. ^ Nash, Bruce (July 21, 2011). "Analysis: Harry Potter and the Big Pile of Money". The Numbers. Nash Information Services. Retrieved September 7, 2013. 
  90. ^ Greenberg, Andy (May 24, 2007). "Star Wars' Galactic Dollars". Forbes. Retrieved April 12, 2012. 
Box-office sources
  1. ^ a b c Avatar
  2. ^ a b c Titanic
  3. ^ a b "The Avengers (2012)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved October 7, 2012. 
  4. ^ a b "Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 2 (2011)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved October 7, 2011. 
  5. ^ a b Frozen
    Total as of August 3, 2014: $247,650,477
    Total as of August 31, 2014: $249,036,646
    Total as of August 17, 2014: $167,333
  6. ^ "Iron Man 3". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved October 28, 2013. 
  7. ^ "Transformers: Dark of the Moon (2011)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 18, 2014. 
  8. ^ a b The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King
  9. ^ "Skyfall (2012)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved April 1, 2013. 
  10. ^ "The Dark Knight Rises (2012)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 14, 2012. 
  11. ^ a b "Transformers: Age of Extinction". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved September 16, 2014. 
  12. ^ a b "Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest (2006)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 11, 2010. 
  13. ^ a b "Toy Story 3 (2010)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 17, 2010. 
  14. ^ "Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 22, 2011. 
  15. ^ a b c Jurassic Park
    • Total: "Jurassic Park (1993)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved September 15, 2013. "Worldwide: $1,029,153,882; Production Budget: $63 million" 
    • Original release: "Jurassic Park (1993)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved April 5, 2013. "$914,691,118" 
    • As of 2010: Block & Wilson 2010, pp. 756–757. "Production Cost: $70.0 (Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s) ... Jurassic Park was a smash at the box office, bringing in $920 million in worldwide box office and spawning two sequels."
  16. ^ a b Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace
  17. ^ "Alice in Wonderland (2010)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 17, 2011. 
  18. ^ "The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey (2012)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved April 22, 2013. 
  19. ^ a b The Dark Knight
    • Total: "The Dark Knight (2008)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved October 28, 2012. "Total: $1,004,558,444" 
    • Original release (excluding 2009 IMAX reissue): "The Dark Knight". The Numbers. Nash Information Services. Archived from the original on February 8, 2009. Retrieved October 28, 2012. "North America: $531,039,412 (as of January 22, 2009); Overseas: $466,000,000; IMAX re-release: January 23, 2009" 
    • 2009 IMAX re-release: "The Dark Knight Re-Release IMAX Locations". ComingSoon.net. CraveOnline. January 22, 2009. Retrieved October 28, 2012. "IMAX Corporation and Warner Bros. Pictures today announced that the box office smash hit The Dark Knight, which has grossed more than $997 million at the worldwide box office since its release on July 18th, 2008, will return to IMAX® theatres for an encore presentation. Starting January 23rd, the film will open in 143 IMAX screens domestically, and 29 screens internationally." 
    • First-run gross and IMAX reissue: Gray, Brandon (February 20, 2009). "Billion Dollar Batman". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved June 7, 2014. "The Dark Knight had been hovering just shy of $1 billion for several months and reportedly sat at $997 million when Warner Bros. modestly relaunched it on Jan. 23, timed to take advantage of the announcement of the Academy Awards nominations on Jan. 22." 
  20. ^ a b The Lion King
  21. ^ a b "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (2001)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 5, 2009. 
  22. ^ "Despicable Me 2 (2013)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  23. ^ a b "Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End (2007)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved June 15, 2011. 
  24. ^ "Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 1 (2010)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 17, 2011. 
  25. ^ "The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug (2013)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved June 21, 2014. 
  26. ^ "Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (2793007)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 5, 2009. 
  27. ^ "Finding Nemo (2003)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 18, 2013. 
  28. ^ "Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (2009)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  29. ^ a b The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers
  30. ^ a b "Shrek 2 (2002)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 5, 2009. 
  31. ^ a b "Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (2005)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 13, 2010. 
  32. ^ "Spider-Man 3 (2007)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 13, 2010. 
  33. ^ "Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs (2009)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 13, 2010. 
  34. ^ "Harry Potter and Chamber of Secrets (2002)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 5, 2009. 
  35. ^ "Ice Age: Continental Drift". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 18, 2012. 
  36. ^ "The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 5, 2009. 
  37. ^ "The Hunger Games: Catching Fire (2013)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 31, 2014. 
  38. ^ "Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith (2005)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 5, 2009. 
  39. ^ "Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen (2009)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved October 15, 2009. 
  40. ^ "The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn – Part 2 (2012)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 1, 2013. 
  41. ^ "Inception (2010)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved October 31, 2010. 
  42. ^ "Spider-Man (2002)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 5, 2009. 
  43. ^ a b "Independence Day (1996)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved September 13, 2009. 
  44. ^ "Shrek the Third (2007)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 5, 2009. 
  45. ^ "Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (2004)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 5, 2009. 
  46. ^ a b "E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial (1982)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 10, 2012. 
  47. ^ "Fast & Furious 6 (2013)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved September 15, 2013. 
  48. ^ "Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 5, 2009. 
  49. ^ "Spider-Man 2 (2004)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 5, 2009. 
  50. ^ a b "Star Wars (1977)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 10, 2012. 
  51. ^ Monaco, James (2009). How to Read a Film:Movies, Media, and Beyond. Oxford University Press. p. 262. ISBN 9780199755790. "The Birth of a Nation, costing an unprecedented and, many believed, thoroughly foolhardy $110,000, eventually returned $20 million and more. The actual figure is hard to calculate because the film was distributed on a "states' rights" basis in which licenses to show the film were sold outright. The actual cash generated by The Birth of a Nation may have been as much as $50 million to $100 million, an almost inconceivable amount for such an early film." 
  52. ^ a b Wasko, Janet (1986). "D.W. Griffiths and the banks: a case study in film financing". In Kerr, Paul. The Hollywood Film Industry: A Reader. Routledge. p. 34. ISBN 9780710097309. "Various accounts have cited $15 to $18 million profits during the first few years of release, while in a letter to a potential investor in the proposed sound version, Aitken noted that a $15 to $18 million box-office gross was a 'conservative estimate'. For years Variety has listed The Birth of a Nation's total rental at $50 million. (This reflects the total amount paid to the distributor, not box-office gross.) This 'trade legend' has finally been acknowledged by Variety as a 'whopper myth', and the amount has been revised to $5 million. That figure seems far more feasible, as reports of earnings in the Griffith collection list gross receipts for 1915–1919 at slightly more than $5.2 million (including foreign distribution) and total earnings after deducting general office expenses, but not royalties, at about $2 million." 
  53. ^ Lang, Robert, ed. (1994). The Birth of a nation: D.W. Griffith, director. Rutgers University Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-8135-2027-8. "The film eventually cost $110,000 and was twelve reels long." 
  54. ^ a b Block & Wilson 2010, p. 26.
    • Intolerance: "Domestic Rentals: $1.0 (Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
    • Cleopatra: "Domestic Rentals: $0.5; Production Cost: $0.3 (Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
  55. ^ Birchard, Robert S. (2010), Intolerance, p. 45, "Intolerance was the most expensive American film made up until that point, costing a total of $489,653, and its performance at the box ... but it did recoup its cost and end with respectable overall numbers."  In: Block & Wilson 2010.
  56. ^ Coons, Robin (June 30, 1939). "Hollywood Chatter". The Daytona Beach News-Journal. p. 6. 
  57. ^ Shipman, David (1970). The great movie stars: the golden years. Crown Publishing Group. p. 98. "It was a low budgeter—$120,000—but it grossed world-wide over $3 million and made stars of Chaney and his fellow-players, Betty Compson and Thomas Meighan." 
  58. ^ a b c d "Biggest Money Pictures". Variety. June 21, 1932. p. 1.  Cited in "Biggest Money Pictures". Cinemaweb. Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved July 14, 2011. 
  59. ^ a b Solomon, Aubrey (2011). The Fox Film Corporation, 1915–1935: A History and Filmography. McFarland & Company. ISBN 9780786462865. 
    • Way Down East: p. 52. "D.W. Griffith's Way Down East (1920) was projected to return rentals of $4,000,000 on an $800,000 negative. This figure was based on the amounts earned from its roadshow run, coupled with its playoff in the rest of the country's theaters. Griffith had originally placed the potential film rental at $3,000,000 but, because of the success of the various roadshows that were running the $4,000,000 total was expected. The film showed a profit of $615,736 after just 23 weeks of release on a gross of $2,179,613."
    • What Price Glory?: p. 112. "What Price Glory hit the jackpot with massive world rentals of $2,429,000, the highest figure in the history of the company. Since it was also the most expensive production of the year at $817,000 the profit was still a healthy $796,000..."
    • Cavalcade: p. 170. "The actual cost of Cavalcade was $1,116,000 and it was most definitely not guaranteed a success. In fact, if its foreign grosses followed the usual 40 percent of domestic returns, the film would have lost money. In a turnaround, the foreign gross was almost double the $1,000,000 domestic take to reach total world rentals of $3,000,000 and Fox's largest profit of the year at $664,000."
    • State Fair: p. 170. "State Fair did turn out to be a substantial hit with the help of Janet Gaynor boosting Will Rogers back to the level of money-making star. Its prestige engagements helped raked in a total $1,208,000 in domestic rentals. Surprisingly, in foreign countries unfamiliar with state fairs, it still earned a respectable $429,000. With its total rentals, the film ended up showing a $398,000 profit."
  60. ^ Hall & Neale 2010, p. 53. "The Four Forsemen of the Apocalypse was to become Metro's most expensive production and one of the decade's biggest box-office hits. Its production costs have been estimated at "something between $600,000 and $800,000." Variety estimated its worldwide gross at $4 million in 1925 and at $5 million in 1944; in 1991, it estimated its cumulative domestic rentals at $3,800,000."
  61. ^ Brownlow, Kevin (1968). The parade's gone by ... University of California Press. p. 255. ISBN 978-0-520-03068-8. "The negative cost was about $986,000, which did not include Fairbanks' own salary. Once the exploitation and release prints were taken into account, Robin Hood cost about $1,400,000—exceeding both Intolerance ($700,000) and the celebrated "million dollar movie" Foolish Wives. But it earned $2,500,000." 
  62. ^ Vance, Jeffrey (2008). Douglas Fairbanks. University of California Press. p. 146. ISBN 9780520256675. "The film had a production cost of $930,042.78—more than the cost of D.W. Griffith's Intolerance and nearly as much as Erich von Stroheim's Foolish Wives (1922)." 
  63. ^ a b "Business: Film Exports". Time. July 6, 1925. Archived from the original on November 5, 2010. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  64. ^ a b c d e Birchard, Robert S. (2009). Cecil B. DeMille's Hollywood. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 9780813138299. 
  65. ^ May, Richard P. (Fall 2005), "Restoring The Big Parade", The Moving Image 5 (2): 140–146, doi:10.1353/mov.2005.0033, ISSN 1532-3978, "...earning somewhere between $18 and $22 million, depending on the figures consulted" 
  66. ^ Robertson, Patrick (1991). Guinness Book of Movie Facts and Feats (4 ed.). Abbeville Publishing Group. p. 30. ISBN 9781558592360. "The top grossing silent film was King Vidor's The Big Parade (US 25), with worldwide rentals of $22 million." 
  67. ^ Hall & Neale 2010, pp. 58–59. "Even then, at a time when the budget for a feature averaged at around $300,000, no more than $382,000 was spent on production...According to the Eddie Mannix Ledger at MGM, it grossed $4,990,000 domestically and $1,141,000 abroad."
  68. ^ Hall & Neale 2010, p. 163. "MGM's silent Ben-Hur, which opened at the end of 1925, had out-grossed all the other pictures released by the company in 1926 combined. With worldwide rentals of $9,386,000 on first release it was, with the sole possible exception of The Birth of a Nation, the highest-earning film of the entire silent era. (At a negative cost of $3,967,000, it was also the most expensive.)"
  69. ^ Miller, Frank. "For Heaven's Sake (1926) – Articles". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved January 15, 2012. 
  70. ^ Finler 2003, p. 188. "At a cost of $2 million Wings was the studio's most expensive movie of the decade, and though it did well it was not good enough to earn a profit."
  71. ^ a b The Jazz Singer and The Singing Fool
    • Block, Hayley Taylor (2010), The Jazz Singer, p. 113, "The film brought in $2.6 million in worldwide rentals and made a net profit of $1,196,750. Jolson's follow-up Warner Bros. film, The Singing Fool (1928), brought in over two times as much, with $5.9 in worldwide rentals and a profit of $3,649,000, making them two of the most profitable films in the 1920s."  In: Block & Wilson 2010.
  72. ^ Crafton, Donald (1999). The Talkies: American Cinema's Transition to Sound, 1926–1931. University of California Press. pp. 549–552. ISBN 9780520221284. "The Singing Fool: Negative Cost ($1000s): 388" 
  73. ^ Birchard, Robert S. (2010), The Broadway Melody, p. 121, "It earned $4.4 million in worldwide rentals and was the first movie to spawn sequels (there were several until 1940)."  In: Block & Wilson 2010.
  74. ^ Bradley, Edwin M. (2004) [1st. pub. 1996]. The First Hollywood Musicals: A Critical Filmography of 171 Features, 1927 Through 1932. McFarland & Company. ISBN 9780786420292. 
    • The Singing Fool: p. 12. "Ego aside, Jolson was at the top of his powers in The Singing Fool. The $150,000 Warner Bros. paid him to make it, and the $388,000 it took to produce the film, were drops in the hat next to the film's world gross of $5.9 million. Its $3.8-million gross in this country set a box-office record that would not be surpassed until Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937)."
    • The Broadway Melody: p. 24. "The Broadway Melody with a negative cost of $379,000, grossed $2.8 million in the United States, $4.8 million worldwide, and made a recorded profit of $1.6 million for MGM."
    • Gold Diggers of Broadway: p. 58. "It grossed an impressive $2.5 million domestically and nearly $4 million worldwide."
  75. ^ a b c Solomon, Aubrey (2002) [First published 1988]. Twentieth Century-Fox: a corporate and financial history. Filmmakers series 20. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780810842441. 
    • Sunny Side Up: p. 10. "Sunny Side Up, a musical starring Janet Gaynor and Charles Farrell, showed domestic rentals of $3.5 million, a record for the company."
    • Forever Amber: p. 66. "On the surface, with world rentals of $8 million, Forever Amber was considered a hit at distribution level."
    • The French Connection
    p. 167. "The Planet of the Apes motion pictures were all moneymakers and Zanuck's record would have immediately improved had he stayed through the release of The French Connection, which took in rentals of approximately $75 million worldwide."
    p. 256. "$3,300,00".
  76. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, p. 46. "Production Cost: $0.6 (Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
  77. ^ Cormack, Mike (1993). Ideology and Cinematography in Hollywood, 1930–1939. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 28. ISBN 9780312100674. "Although costing $1250000—a huge sum for any studio in 1929—the film was a financial success. Karl Thiede gives the domestic box-office at $1500000, and the same figure for the foreign gross." 
  78. ^ a b Balio, Tino (1996). Grand Design: Hollywood as a Modern Business Enterprise, 1930–1939. Volume 5 of History of the American Cinema. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520203341. 
    • Cavalcade: p. 182. "Produced by Winfield Sheehan at a cost of $1.25 million, Cavalcade won Academy Awards for best picture, director, art direction and grossed close to $4 million during its first release, much of which came from Great Britain and the Empire."
    • Whoopee: p. 212. "Produced by Sam Goldwyn at a cost of $1 million, the picture was an adaptation of a smash musical comedy built around Eddie Cantor...A personality-centered musical, Whoopee! made little attempt to integrate the comedy routines, songs, and story. Nonetheless, Cantor's feature-film debut grossed over $2.6 million worldwide and started a popular series that included Palmy Days (1931), The Kid from Spain (1932), and Roman Scandals (1933)."
  79. ^ Hell's Angels
    • Balio, Tino (1976). United Artists: The Company Built by the Stars. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 110. "Hughes did not have the "Midas touch" the trade press so often attributed to him. Variety, for example, reported that Hell's Angels cost $3.2 million to make, and by July, 1931, eight months after its release, the production cost had nearly been paid off. Keats claimed the picture cost $4 million to make and that it earned twice that much within twenty years. The production cost estimate is probably correct. Hughes worked on the picture for over two years, shooting it first as a silent and then as a talkie. Lewis Milestone said that in between Hughes experimented with shooting it in color as well. But Variety's earnings report must be the fabrication of a delirious publicity agent, and Keats' the working of a myth maker. During the seven years it was in United Artists distribution, Hell's Angels grossed $1.6 million in the domestic market, of which Hughes' share was $1.2 million. Whatever the foreign gross was, it seems unlikely that it was great enough to earn a profit for the picture." 
  80. ^ Feaster, Felicia. "Frankenstein (1931)". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved July 4, 2011. 
  81. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, p. 163. "It drew $1.4 million in worldwide rentals in its first run versus $1.2 million for Dracula, which had opened in February 1931."
  82. ^ Vance, Jeffrey (2003). Chaplin: genius of the cinema. Abrams Books. p. 208. "Chaplin's negative cost for City Lights was $1,607,351. The film eventually earned him a worldwide profit of $5 million ($2 million domestically and $3 million in foreign distribution), an enormous sum of money for the time." 
  83. ^ Ramsaye, Terry, ed. (1937). "The All-Time Best Sellers – Motion Pictures". International Motion Picture Almanac 1937–38 (New York: The Quigley Publishing Company): 942–943. "Kid from Spain: $2,621,000 (data supplied by Eddie Cantor)" 
  84. ^ a b c d Sedgwick, John (2000). Popular Filmgoing In 1930s Britain: A Choice of Pleasures. University of Exeter Press. pp. 146–148. ISBN 9780859896603. "Sources: Eddie Mannix Ledger, made available to the author by Mark Glancy..." 
    • Grand Hotel: Production Cost $000s: 700; Distribution Cost $000s: 947; US box-office $000s: 1,235; Foreign box-office $000s: 1,359; Total box-office $000s: 2,594; Profit $000s: 947.
    • The Merry Widow: Production Cost $000s: 1,605; Distribution Cost $000s: 1,116; US box-office $000s: 861; Foreign box-office $000s: 1,747; Total box-office $000s: 2,608; Profit $000s: -113.
    • Viva Villa: Production Cost $000s: 1,022; Distribution Cost $000s: 766; US box-office $000s: 941; Foreign box-office $000s: 934; Total box-office $000s: 1,875; Profit $000s: 87.
    • Mutiny on the Bounty: Production Cost $000s: 1,905; Distribution Cost $000s: 1,646; US box-office $000s: 2,250; Foreign box-office $000s: 2,210; Total box-office $000s: 4,460; Profit $000s: 909.
    • San Francisco: Production Cost $000s: 1,300; Distribution Cost $000s: 1,736; US box-office $000s: 2,868; Foreign box-office $000s: 2,405; Total box-office $000s: 5,273; Profit $000s: 2,237.
  85. ^ Shanghai Express
    • Block & Wilson 2010, p. 165. "Shanghai Express was Dietrich's biggest hit in America, bringing in $1.5 million in worldwide rentals."
  86. ^ King Kong
    • Jewel, Richard (1994). "RKO Film Grosses: 1931–1951". Historical Journal of Film Radio and Television 14 (1): 39. "1933 release: $1,856,000; 1938 release: $306,000; 1944 release: $685,000" 
    • "King Kong (1933) – Notes". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved January 7, 2012. "1952 release: $2,500,000; budget: $672,254.75" 
  87. ^ "I'm No Angel (1933) – Notes". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved January 7, 2012. "According to a modern source, it had a gross earning of $2,250,000 on the North American continent, with over a million more earned internationally." 
  88. ^ Finler 2003, p. 188. "The studio released its most profitable pictures of the decade in 1933, She Done Him Wrong and I'm No Angel, written by and starring Mae West. Produced at a rock-bottom cost of $200,000 each, they undoubtedly helped Paramount through the worst patch in its history..."
  89. ^ Block, Alex Ben (2010), She Done Him Wrong, p. 173, "The worldwide rentals of over $3 million keep the lights on at Paramount, which did not shy away from selling the movie's sex appeal."  In: Block & Wilson 2010.
  90. ^ Phillips, Kendall R. (2008). Controversial Cinema: The Films That Outraged America. ABC-CLIO. p. 26. ISBN 9781567207248. "The reaction to West's first major film, however, was not exclusively negative. Made for a mere $200,000, the film would rake in a healthy $2 million in the United States and an additional million in overseas markets." 
  91. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, p. 135. "Total production cost: $274,076 (Unadjusted $s)."
  92. ^ a b Turk, Edward Baron (2000) [1st. pub. 1998]. Hollywood Diva: A Biography of Jeanette MacDonald. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520222533. 
    • The Merry Widow: p. 361 Cost: $1,605,000. Earnings: domestic $861,000; foreign $1,747,000; total $2,608,000. Loss: $113,000.
    • San Francisco: p. 364 Cost: $1,300,000. Earnings: domestic $2,868,000; foreign $2,405,000; total $5,273,000. Profit: $2,237,000. [Reissues in 1938–39 and 1948–49 brought profits of $124,000 and $647,000 respectively.]
  93. ^ McBride, Joseph (2011). Frank Capra: The Catastrophe of Success. University Press of Mississippi. p. 309. ISBN 9781604738384. "According to the studio's books It Happened One Night brought in $1 million in film rentals during its initial release, but as Joe Walker pointed out, the figure would have been much larger if the film had not been sold to theaters on a block-booking basis in a package with more that two dozen lesser Columbia films, and the total rentals of the package spread among them all, as was customary in that era, since it minimized the risk and allowed the major studios to dominate the marketplace." 
  94. ^ Dick, Bernard F. (2008). Claudette Colbert: She Walked in Beauty. University Press of Mississippi. p. 79. ISBN 9781604730876. "Although Columbia's president, Harry Cohn, had strong reservations about It Happened One Night, he also knew that it would not bankrupt the studio; the rights were only $5,000, and the budget was set at $325,000, including the performers' salaries." 
  95. ^ Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
    • Monaco, Paul (2010). A History of American Movies: A Film-By-Film Look at the Art, Craft, and Business of Cinema. Scarecrow Press. p. 54. ISBN 9780810874343. "Considered a highly risky gamble when the movie was in production in the mid-1930s, by the fiftieth anniversary of its 1937 premiere Snow White's earnings exceeded $330 million." 
    • Wilhelm, Henry Gilmer; Brower, Carol (1993). The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs: Traditional and Digital Color Prints, Color Negatives, Slides, and Motion Pictures. Preservation Pub. p. 359. ISBN 978-0911515008. "In only 2 months after the 1987 re-release, the film grossed another $45 million—giving it a total gross to date of about $375 million!" 
    • "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1987 Re-issue)". Boxoffice. Retrieved June 29, 2014. "North American box-office: $46,594,719" 
    • "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1993 Re-issue)". Boxoffice. Retrieved June 29, 2014. "North American box-office: $41,634,791" 
  96. ^ a b Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and Pinocchio
    p. 207. "When the budget rose from $250,000 to $1,488,423 he even mortgaged his own home and automobile. Disney had bet more than his company on the success of Snow White."
    p. 237. "By the end of 1938, it had grossed more than $8 million in worldwide rentals and was ranked at the time as the second-highest-grossing film after the 1925 epic Ben-Hur".
    p. 255. "On its initial release Pinocchio brought in only $1.6 million in domestic rentals (compared with Snow White's $4.2 million) and $1.9 million in foreign rentals (compared with Snow White's $4.3 million)."
  97. ^ 1938
    • You Can't Take It With You:"You Can't Take It With You Premieres". Focus Features. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2012. "You Can't Take It With You received excellent reviews, won Best Picture and Best Director at the 1938 Academy Awards, and earned over $5 million worldwide." 
    • Boys Town: Block, Alex Ben (2010), Boys Town, p. 215, "The film quickly became a smash nationwide, making a profit of over $2 million on worldwide rentals of $4 million."  In: Block & Wilson 2010.
    • The Adventures of Robin Hood: Glancy, H. Mark (1995). "Warner Bros Film Grosses, 1921–51: the William Schaefer ledger". Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 1 (15): 55–60. doi:10.1080/01439689500260031. "$3.981 million." 
    • Alexander's Ragtime Band: Block, Hayley Taylor (2010), Alexander's Ragtime Band, p. 213, "Once the confusion cleared, however, the film blossomed into a commercial success, with a profit of $978,000 on worldwide rentals of $3.6 million."  In: Block & Wilson 2010.
  98. ^ Chartier, Roy (September 6, 1938). "You Can't Take It With You". Variety. Retrieved September 13, 2011. 
  99. ^ "Gone with the Wind". The Numbers. Nash Information Services. Retrieved February 8, 2013. 
  100. ^ "Gone with the Wind". Boxoffice. Retrieved June 23, 2013. 
  101. ^ Jones, Lon (March 4, 1944). "Which Cinema Films Have Earned The Most Money Since 1914?". The Argus (Melbourne). p. 3 Supplement: The Argus Weekend magazine. 
  102. ^ Hall & Neale 2010, p. 283 ."The final negative cost of Gone with the Wind (GWTW) has been variously reported between $3.9 million and $4.25 million."
  103. ^ "Pinocchio (1940)". Boxoffice. Retrieved June 22, 2013. 
  104. ^ Barrier, Michael (2003). Hollywood Cartoons: American Animation in Its Golden Age. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 266. ISBN 9780199839223. "The film's negative cost was $2.6 million, more than $1 million higher than Snow White's." 
  105. ^ Schatz, Thomas (1999) [1st. pub. 1997]. Boom and Bust: American Cinema in the 1940s. Volume 6 of History of the American Cinema. University of California Press. p. 466. ISBN 9780520221307. "Boom Town ($4.6 million)." 
  106. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, pp. 258259. "Production Cost: $2.1 (Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s) ... Boom Town was the biggest moneymaker of 1940 and one of the top films of the decade."
  107. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, p. 267. "With worldwide rentals of $7.8 million in its initial release, the movie made a net profit of over $3 million."
  108. ^ Finler 2003, p. 301. "The studio did particularly well with its war-related pictures, such as Sergeant York (1941), which cost $1.6 million but was the studio's biggest hit of the decade aside from This is the Army (1943), the Irving Berlin musical for which the profits were donated to the Army Emergency Relief fund."
  109. ^ "Bambi". Boxoffice. Retrieved June 22, 2013. 
  110. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, p. 281. "Worldwide rentals of $3,449,353 barely recouped the film's nearly $2 million production cost."
  111. ^ a b c d Block & Wilson 2010, pp. 712–713.
    • Bambi: "Worldwide Box Office: $266.8; Production Cost: $1.7 (Millions of $s)"
    • 101 Dalmatians: "Worldwide Box Office: $215.0; Production Cost: $3.6 (Millions of $s)"
    • The Jungle Book: "Worldwide Box Office: $170.8"; Production Cost: $3.9 (Millions of $s)"
    • Aladdin: "Worldwide Box Office: $505.1"; Production Cost: $28.0 (Millions of $s)"
  112. ^ Glancy, Mark (1999). When Hollywood Loved Britain: The Hollywood 'British' Film 1939–1945. Manchester University Press. pp. 9495. ISBN 9780719048531. "Mrs Miniver was a phenomenon. It was the most popular film of the year (from any studio) in both North America and Britain, and its foreign earnings were three times higher than those of any other MGM film released in the 1941–42 season. The production cost ($1,344,000) was one of the highest of the season, indicating the studio never thought of the film as a potential loss-maker. When the film earned a worldwide gross of $8,878,000, MGM had the highest profit ($4,831,000) in its history. Random Harvest nearly matched the success of Mrs Miniver with worldwide earnings of $8,147,000 yielding the second-highest profit in MGM's history ($4,384,000). Random Harvest was also the most popular film of the year in Britain, where it proved to be even more popular than Britain's most acclaimed war film, In Which We Serve." 
  113. ^ Block & Wilson 2010
    • Mrs. Miniver: Burns, Douglas (2010), Mrs. Miniver, p. 279, "Mrs. Miniver's galvanizing effect on Americans spawned a record-breaking ten-week run at Radio City Music Hall and garnered a $5.4 million take in domestic rentals (making Mrs. Miniver 1942's top grosser), with a $4.8 million profit on worldwide rentals of $8.9 million." 
    • Yankee Doodle Dandy: p. 275. "It became the second biggest box-office hit of 1942 (after Mrs. Miniver) and was praised by critics, making a profit of $3.4 million on worldwide rentals of $6.5 million."
  114. ^ McAdams, Frank (2010), For Whom the Bell Tolls, p. 287, "Despite the early furor over the novel being “pro-red and immoral,” the film opened to strong and favorable reviews and brought in $11 million in worldwide rentals in its initial release."  In: Block & Wilson 2010.
  115. ^ "For Whom the Bell Tolls (1943) – Notes". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved June 24, 2012. 
  116. ^ a b "A Guy Named Joe (1944) – Notes". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved August 29, 2012. "According to M-G-M studio records at the AMPAS Library, the film had a negative cost of $2,627,000 and took in $5,363,000 at the box office. When the picture was re-issued for the 1955–56 season, it took in an additional $150,000." 
  117. ^ Bergreen, Laurence (Summer 1996). "Irving Berlin: This Is the Army". Prologue 28 (2). Part 3. Retrieved August 22, 2012. 
  118. ^ "This Is the Army (1943) – Notes". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved July 9, 2011. 
  119. ^ a b c d e f g Finler 2003, pp. 356–363
  120. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, p. 420. "(Unadjusted $s) in Millions of $s – Production Cost: $1.0"
  121. ^ a b Block & Wilson 2010, p. 232.
    • Mrs. Miniver: "Domestic Rentals: $5,358,000; Foreign Rentals: $3,520,000 (Unadjusted $s)"
    • Meet Me in St. Louis: "Domestic Rentals: $5,016,000; Foreign Rentals: $1,623,630 (Unadjusted $s)"
    • Easter Parade: "Domestic Rentals: $4,144,000; Foreign Rentals: $1,774,134 (Unadjusted $s)"
  122. ^ Schaefer, Eric (1999). "Bold! Daring! Shocking! True!": A History of Exploitation Films, 1919–1959. Duke University Press. pp. 197–199. ISBN 9780822323747. "Leading the pack of postwar sex hygiene films was Mom and Dad (1944), which would become not only the most successful sex hygiene film in history but the biggest pre-1960 exploitation film of any kind. At the end of 1947, the Los Angeles Times reported that Mom and Dad had grossed $2 million. By 1949 Time had estimated that Mom and Dad had taken in $8 million from twenty million moviegoers. And publicity issuing from Mom and Dad's production company indicated that by the end of 1956 it had grossed over $80 million worldwide. Net rentals of around $22 million by 1956 would easily place it in the top ten films of the late 1940s and early 1950s had it appeared on conventional lists. Some estimates have placed its total gross over the years at up to $100 million, and it was still playing drive-in dates into 1975...The film was made for around $65,000 with a crew of Hollywood veterans including director William "One Shot" Beaudine, cinematographer Marcel LePicard, and a cast that sported old stalwarts Hardie Albright, Francis Ford, and John Hamilton." 
  123. ^ Block & Wilson 2010
    • p. 296. "Production Cost: $1.6 (Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)"
    • Wasson, Sam (2010), The Bells of St. Mary's, p. 297, "This was that rare sequel that did even better at the box office than the original, bringing in a $3.7 million profit on $11.2 million in worldwide rentals." 
  124. ^ "Song of the South". The Numbers. Nash Information Services. Retrieved July 10, 2011. 
  125. ^ Gabler, Neal (2007). Walt Disney: the biography. Aurum Press. pp. 438. "Still, the film wound up grossing $3.3 million..." 
  126. ^ "Song of the South (1946) – Notes". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved July 25, 2012. 
  127. ^ Hall & Neale 2010
    • p. 132."Best Years was considerably cheaper, costing only $2.1 million, and therefore vastly more profitable."
    • p. 286 (note 6.70). "Worldwide rentals for The Best Years of Our Lives amounted to $14,750,000."
  128. ^ Burns, Douglas (2010), The Best years of Our Lives, p. 301, "The film made a $5 million profit on worldwide rentals of $14.8 million."  In: Block & Wilson 2010.
  129. ^ a b Hall & Neale 2010, p. 285 (note 6.56). "The cost of Duel in the Sun has been reported as both $5,255,000 (Haver, David O'Selznick's Hollywood, 361) and $6,480,000 (Thomson, Showman: The Life of David O'Selznick, 472); the latter figure may include distribution expenses. Forever Amber cost $6,375,000 (Solomon, Twentieth Century-Fox: A Corporate and Financial History, 243)."
  130. ^ Chopra-Gant, Mike (2006). Hollywood Genres and Post-war America: Masculinity, Family and Nation in Popular Movies and Film Noir. I.B. Tauris. p. 18. ISBN 9781850438151. "Forever Amber: $8 million; Unconquered: $7.5 million; Life with Father: $6.25 million" 
  131. ^ "Unconquered (1947) – Notes". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved January 10, 2012. 
  132. ^ Miller, Frank. "Easter Parade (1948) – Articles". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved July 19, 2012. 
  133. ^ Street, Sarah (2002). Transatlantic Crossings: British Feature Films in the United States. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 110. ISBN 9780826413956. "Although both films had higher than average budgets (The Red Shoes cost £505,581 and Hamlet cost £572,530, while the average cost of the other thirty films for which Rank supplied information was £233,000), they resulted in high takings at home and abroad." 
  134. ^ Officer, Lawrence H. (2011). "Dollar-Pound Exchange Rate From 1791". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved November 18, 2012. "1947–1948: $4.03 (per British pound)" 
  135. ^ "The Snake Pit". The Numbers. Nash Information Services. Archived from the original on January 13, 2012. 
  136. ^ a b Hall & Neale 2010, p. 136–139
    • Samson and Delilah: "...the film became the highest grosser in the studio's history to date, with domestic rentals of $7,976,730 by 1955 and a further $6,232,520 overseas...For all their spectacle, Samson and David were quite economically produced, costing $3,097,563 and $2,170,000 respectively."
    • Quo Vadis: "Production costs totaled a record $7,623,000...Worldwide rentals totaled $21,037,000, almost half of which came from the foreign market."
  137. ^ "Cinderella". Boxoffice. Retrieved June 22, 2013. 
  138. ^ Eisner, Michael D.; Schwartz, Tony (2009). Work in Progress. Pennsylvania State University. p. 178. ISBN 9780786885077. "Cinderella revived its fortunes. Re-released in February 1950, it cost nearly $3 million to make but earned more than $20 million worldwide." 
  139. ^ Barrier, Michael (2003). Hollywood Cartoons: American Animation in Its Golden Age. Oxford University Press. p. 401. ISBN 9780195167290. "It cost around $2.2 million, little more than each of the two package features, Melody Time and The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad (as Tluo Fabulous Characters had ultimately been named), that just preceded it, but its gross rentals—an amount shared by Disney and RKO—were $7.8 million, almost twice as much as the two package features combined." 
  140. ^ The E. J. Mannix ledger. Margaret Herrick Library, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences: Howard Strickling Collection. 1962. 
  141. ^ a b Lev, Peter (2006). Transforming the Screen, 1950–1959. Volume 7 of History of the American Cinema. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520249660. 
    • Quo Vadis: p. 15. "MGM's most expensive film of the period, Quo Vadis (1951) also did extremely well. The cost was $7,623,000, earnings were an estimated $21.2 million (with foreign earnings almost 50 percent of this total), and profit was estimated at $5,562,000."
    • Rear Window: pp. 203204. "Rear Window (1954) was an excellent commercial success, with a cost of $1 million and North American rentals of $5.3 million."
  142. ^ a b Block & Wilson 2010, p. 335.
    • The Robe: "Domestic Rentals: $16.7; Foreign Rentals: $9.4; Production Cost: $4.1 (Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
    • Quo Vadis: "Domestic Rentals: $11.1; Foreign Rentals: $15.6; Production Cost: $7.5 (Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
  143. ^ Mulligan, Hugh A. (September 23, 1956). "Cinerama Pushing Ahead As Biggest Money-Maker". The Register-Guard (Eugene, Oregon). Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  144. ^ Zone, Ray (2012). 3-D Revolution: The History of Modern Stereoscopic Cinema. University Press of Kentucky. p. 71. ISBN 9780813136110. "Produced at a cost of $1 million, This is Cinerama ran 122 weeks, earning $4.7 million in its initial New York run alone and eventually grossed over $32 million. It was obvious to Hollywood that the public was ready for a new form of motion picture entertainment. The first five Cinerama feature-length travelogues, though they only played in twenty-two theaters, pulled in a combined gross of $82 million." 
  145. ^ Burns, Douglas (2010), The Greatest Show on Earth, pp. 354–355, "By May 1953, Variety was reporting that the Best Picture winner had amassed $18.35 million in worldwide rentals."  In: Block & Wilson 2010.
  146. ^ "The Greatest Show on Earth (1952) – Notes". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved January 8, 2012. 
  147. ^ "Peter Pan (1953) – Notes". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved July 24, 2011. 
  148. ^ Hall & Neale 2010, p. 147148. "To take full advantage of CinemaScope's panoramic possibilities, shooting was delayed for the sets to be redesigned and rebuilt, adding $500,000 to the eventual $4.1 million budget...It ultimately returned domestic rentals of $17.5 million and $25 million worldwide, placing it second only to Gone with the Wind in Variety's annually updated chart."
  149. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, p. 367. "It brought in $16.7 million in domestic rentals, $9.4 million in foreign rentals, and made a net profit of $8.1 million."
  150. ^ "Rear Window". Boxoffice. Retrieved June 22, 2013. 
  151. ^ "White Christmas". Boxoffice. Retrieved June 23, 2013. 
  152. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, p. 420. "Domestic Box Office: $19.6 million; Production Cost: $3.8 million."
  153. ^ Hall & Neale 2010, p. 149. "VistaVision was first used for the musical White Christmas (1954), which Variety named the top grosser of its year with anticipated domestic rentals of $12 million."
  154. ^ "20000 Leagues Under The Sea". Boxoffice. Retrieved June 23, 2013. 
  155. ^ Miller, John M. "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954) – Articles". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved January 9, 2012. 
  156. ^ Finler 2003, p. 320. "It was up and running in time to handle Disney's most elaborate expensive feature, 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, based on the book by Jules Verne, starring James Mason and Kirk Douglas and directed by Richard Fleischer at a cost of $4.5 million."
  157. ^ "Lady and the Tramp". Boxoffice. Retrieved June 23, 2013. 
  158. ^ "Lady and the Tramp (1955) – Notes". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved July 27, 2011. 
  159. ^ Minego, Pete (May 21, 1956). "Pete's Pungent Patter". Portsmouth Daily Times (Portsmouth, Ohio). p. 19. 
  160. ^ "Cinerama Holiday (1955) – Notes". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  161. ^ Block & Wilson 2010
    • p. 382. "Production Cost: $2.4 (Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)"
    • Burns, Douglas (2010), Mister Roberts, p. 383, "Mister Roberts sailed onto movie screens buoyed by enthusiastic reviews and receptive audiences. For pr, Fonda, Cagney, and lemmon reenacted several scenes on ed sullivan's popular Toast of the Town television variety show. It returned a net profit of $4.5 million on worldwide rentals of $9.9 million, putting it in the top 5 domestic films of 1955." 
  162. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, p. 327. "Production cost: $13.3 million; Domestic Film Rental: $31.3; Foreign Film Rental: $23.9; Worldwide Box office (estimated): $122.7 (Initial Release – Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
  163. ^ a b Hall & Neale 2010, pp. 159–161
    • The Ten Commandments: "No film did more to entrench roadshow policy than The Ten Commandments. While the success of This Is Cinerama, The Robe, and even Eighty Days could be attributed, at least in part, to their respective photographic and projection formats, that of DeMille's film (which cost a record $13,266,491) could not...General release began at normal prices in 1959 and continued until the end of the following year, when the film was temporarily withdrawn (the first of several reissues came in 1966). The worldwide rental by this time was around $60 million. In the domestic market it dislodged Gone with the Wind from the number one position on Variety's list of All-Time Rentals Champs. GWTW had hitherto maintained its lead through several reissues (and was soon to regain it through another in 1961)."
    • The Bridge on the River Kwai: Columbia's Anglo-American war film The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957) opened on a roadshow basis in selected U.S. cities (including New York, Chicago, Boston, and Los Angeles) and in London. Costing only $2,840,000 to produce, it grossed $30.6 million worldwide on first release."
  164. ^ Hall & Neale 2010, p. 153. "South Pacific also became for a time the most successful film ever released in the United Kingdom, where it earned a box-office gross three times its negative cost of $5,610,000. Anticipated global rentals after three years were $30 million."
  165. ^ Ross, Steven J. (2011). Hollywood Left and Right: How Movie Stars Shaped American Politics. Oxford University Press. pp. 278–279. ISBN 9780195181722. "Costing $15 million to produce, the film earned $47 million by the end of 1961 and $90 million worldwide by January 1989." 
  166. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, p. 324. "Worldwide box office: $146.9 million; Worldwide rentals: $66.1 million; Production cost: $15.9 million. (Initial Release – Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)"
  167. ^ Reid, John Howard (2006). America's Best, Britain's Finest: A Survey of Mixed Movies. Volume 14 of Hollywood classics. Lulu. p. 243–245. ISBN 9781411678774. "Negative cost: around $4 million; Worldwide film rentals gross (including 1968 American reissue) to 1970: $30 million." 
  168. ^ Webster, Patrick (2010). Love and Death in Kubrick: A Critical Study of the Films from Lolita Through Eyes Wide Shut. McFarland & Company. pp. 298 (note 2.23). ISBN 9780786459162. "Spartacus cost $12 million and grossed some $60 million at the box office, figures Kubrick rarely again matched." 
  169. ^ a b Hall & Neale 2010, p. 179.
    • Spartacus: "In the case of Spartacus, overseas earnings to 1969 amounted to $12,462,044, while U.S. and Canadian rentals (even including a million-dollar TV sale) were only $10,643,181. But the film failed to show a profit on production costs of $10,284,014 because of the distribution charges and expenses amounting to an additional $15,308,083."
    • The Bible: "The Bible—In the Beginning... (1966) was financed by the Italian producer Dino De Laurentiis from private investors and Swiss banks. He then sold distribution rights outside Italy jointly to Fox and Seven Arts for $15 million (70 percent of which came from Fox), thereby recouping the bulk of his $18 million investment. Although The Bible returned a respectable world rental of $25.3 million, Fox was still left with a net loss of just over $1.5 million. It was the last biblical epic to be released by any major Hollywood studio for nearly twenty years."
  170. ^ Nixon, Rob. "Psycho (1960) – Articles". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved January 9, 2012. 
  171. ^ "101 Dalmatians (1961)". Boxoffice. Retrieved June 23, 2013. 
  172. ^ "One Hundred and One Dalmatians". Variety. December 31, 1960. Retrieved August 23, 2011. 
  173. ^ Block, Hayley Taylor (2010), West Side Story, p. 449, "With its three rereleases, it took in over $105 million in worldwide box office ($720 million in 2005 dollars)."  In: Block & Wilson 2010.
  174. ^ a b c d e f g Block & Wilson 2010, p. 434.
    • The Sound of Music: "Domestic Rentals: $68.4; Foreign Rentals: $46.2; Production Cost: $8.0 (Initial Release – Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
    • The Dirty Dozen: "Domestic Rentals: $20.1; Foreign Rentals: $11.2; Production Cost: $5.4 (Initial Release – Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
    • 2001: A Space Odyssey: "Domestic Rentals: $16.4; Foreign Rentals: $5.5; Production Cost: $10.3 (Initial Release – Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
    • Cleopatra: "Domestic Rentals: $22.1; Foreign Rentals: $18.2; Production Cost: $44.0 (Initial Release – Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
    • West Side Story: "Domestic Rentals: $16.2; Foreign Rentals: $15.6; Production Cost: $7.0 (Initial Release – Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
    • The Longest Day: "Domestic Rentals: $13.9; Foreign Rentals: $19.3; Production Cost: $8.6 (Initial Release – Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
    • Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid: "Domestic Rentals: $29.2; Foreign Rentals: $7.9; Production Cost: $6.6 (Initial Release – Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
  175. ^ Lawrence of Arabia
    • 1962 release: "Lawrence of Arabia". The Numbers. Nash Information Services. Retrieved August 15, 2011. "Worldwide Box Office: $69,995,385; International Box Office: $32,500,000" 
    • US total (including reissues): "Lawrence of Arabia". Boxoffice. Retrieved June 22, 2013. "$43,000,852" 
  176. ^ a b c Hall & Neale 2010, p. 165166
    • Lawrence of Arabia: Columbia released the $13.8 million Lawrence of Arabia (1962), filmed in Super Panavision 70, exclusively on a hard-ticket basis, but opened Barabbas (1962), The Cardinal (1963), and the $12 million Joseph Conrad adaptation Lord Jim (1965) as 70mm roadshows in selected territories only."
    • The Longest Day: "Darryl's most ambitious independent production was The Longest Day (1962), a three-hour reconstruction of D-Day filmed in black-and-white CinemaScope at a cost of $8 million. It grossed over $30 million worldwide as a roadshow followed by general release, thereby helping the studio regain stability during its period of reorganization."
    • Cleopatra: "With top tickets set at an all-time high of $5.50,Cleopatra had amassed as much as $20 million in such guarantees from exhibitors even before its premiere. Fox claimed the film had cost in total $44 million, of which $31,115,000 represented the direct negative cost and the rest distribution, print and advertising expenses. (These figures excluded the more than $5 million spent on the production's abortive British shoot in 1960–61, prior to its relocation to Italy.) By 1966 worldwide rentals had reached $38,042,000 including $23.5 million from the United States."
  177. ^ Hall & Neale 2010, p. 164. "West cost $14,483,000; although it earned $35 million worldwide in just under three years, with ultimate domestic rentals totaling $20,932,883, high distribution costs severely limited its profitability."
  178. ^ a b c d Block & Wilson 2010, pp. 428–429
    • From Russia With Love: "Worldwide Box Office: 78.9; Production Cost: 2.0 (in millions of $s)"
    • Goldfinger: "Worldwide Box Office: 124.9; Production Cost: 3.0 (in millions of $s)"
    • Diamonds Are Forever: "Worldwide Box Office: 116; Production Cost: 7.2 (in millions of $s)"
    • Moonraker: "Worldwide Box Office: 210.3; Production Cost: 34.0 (in millions of $s)"
  179. ^ a b Chapman, James (2007). Licence to thrill: a cultural history of the James Bond films. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-515-9. 
    • From Russia With Love: "The American release of From Russia With Love again followed on some six months after it had been shown in Britain. North American rentals of $9.9 million were an improvement on its predecessor, helped by a slightly wider release, though they were still only half the $19.5 million of foreign rentals... (Online copy at Google Books)"
    • Diamonds Are Forever: "Diamonds Are Forever marked a return to the box-office heights of the Bond films of the mid-1960s. Its worldwide rentals were $45.7 million... (Online copy at Google Books)"
    • Moonraker: "These figures were surpassed by Moonraker, which earned total worldwide rentals of $87.7 million, of which $33 million came from North America. (Online copy at Google Books)"
  180. ^ a b Balio, Tino (2009). United Artists, Volume 2, 1951–1978: the Company that Changed the Film Industry. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 261. ISBN 978-0-299-23014-2. 
    • From Russia With Love: "The picture grossed twice as much as Dr. No, both domestic and foreign—$12.5 million worldwide (Online copy at Google Books)"
    • Goldfinger: "Produced on a budget of around $3 million, Goldfinger grossed a phenomenal $46 million worldwide the first time around. (Online copy at Google Books)"
  181. ^ a b Hall & Neale 2010, p. 184
    • My Fair Lady: "My Fair Lady (1964) cost Warners $17 million to make, including a record $5.5 million just for the film rights to the Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe stage show and a million-dollar fee for star Audrey Hepburn. By 1967 it was reported to have grossed $55 million from roadshowing worldwide."
    • Mary Poppins: "Mary Poppins (1964), which cost $5.2 million, was neither a stage adaptation nor a roadshow. But by the end of its first release, it had grossed nearly $50 million worldwide."
  182. ^ Burns, Douglas (2010), Mary Poppins, p. 469, "In its initial run, Poppins garnered an astounding $44 million in worldwide rentals and became the company's first Best Picture Oscar contender."  In: Block & Wilson 2010.
  183. ^ "The Sound of Music". Boxoffice. Retrieved June 23, 2013. 
  184. ^ "Hawaii". The Numbers. Nash Information Services. Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  185. ^ "Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?". Boxoffice. Retrieved June 23, 2013. 
  186. ^ Hall & Neale 2010, p. 188. "The negative cost of Warners' adaptation of Edward Albee's play Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966)—filmed in widescreen and black-and-white, largely set in domestic interiors and with a cast of only four principal actors—amounted to $7,613,000, in part because stars Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton received up-front fees of $1 million and $750,000 respectively, against 10 percent of the gross apiece. (Their participation was presumably added to the budget)."
  187. ^ "The Jungle Book (1967)". Boxoffice. Retrieved June 23, 2013. 
  188. ^ "The Jungle Book". Variety. December 31, 1966. Retrieved August 23, 2011. 
  189. ^ a b Denisoff, R. Serge; Romanowski, William D. (1991). Risky Business: Rock in Film. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 9780887388439. 
    • The Graduate: p. 167. "World net rental was estimated at more than $85 million by January 1971."
    • Grease: p. 236. "The film was produced for $6 million and Paramount reportedly spent another $3 million on promotion."
  190. ^ a b Hall & Neale 2010, p. 191–192
    • The Graduate: "The Graduate eventually earned U.S. rentals of $44,090,729 on a production cost of $3.1 million to become the most lucrative non-roadshow picture (and independent release) to date."
    • Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid: "None of these films was roadshown in the United States; most were set in contemporary America or had a contemporary "take" on the past (the casting of genuine teenagers to play Romeo and Juliet, the urbane sophistication of the dialogue in Butch Cassidy, the antiauthoritarianism of Bonnie and Clyde and MASH); most were produced on modest or medium-sized budgets (as low as $450,000 for Easy Rider and no higher than $6,825,000 for Butch Cassidy); and all grossed upward of $10 million domestically."
  191. ^ Palmer, R. Barton (2006). "2001: The Critical Reception and the Generation Gap". In Kolker, Robert Phillip. Stanley Kubrick's 2001: a Space Odyssey: New Essays. Oxford University Press. p. 16. ISBN 9780195174526. "With its initial and subsequent releases, domestic and worldwide, Kubrick's arty, intellectual film earned nearly $138 million, which was, at that time, an astounding figure." 
  192. ^ Miller, Frank. "2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) – Articles". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved August 24, 2011. 
  193. ^ Haber, Joyces (March 27, 1969). "'Funny Girl' a Box Office Winner". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 29, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2012. "..."Funny Girl" will gross an estimated $80 to $100 million worldwide." 
  194. ^ Welles, Chris (September 7, 1970). "Behind the Silence at Columbia Pictures—No Moguls, No Minions, Just Profits". New York 3 (36) (New York Media). pp. 42–47. "While Columbia, battling Ray Stark over every dollar, did Funny Girl for around $8.8 million, a million or so over budget, Fox spent nearly $24 million on Hello, Dolly!, more than twice the initial budget, and the film will thus have to gross three times as much to break even." 
  195. ^ Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid
    • United States and Canada: "Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid". Boxoffice. Retrieved June 19, 2014. "$102,308,525" 
    • Outside North America: Vanity Fair (577–578): 388. 2008. "Butch Cassidy went on to be a huge hit—by the spring of 1970 it had taken in $46 million in North America and grossed another $50 million abroad." 
  196. ^ "'Love Story' II: Ryan Redux?". New York 9 (New York Media). 1976. p. 389. "Bring those handkerchiefs out of retirement. ... After all, the first movie made around $80 million worldwide." 
  197. ^ Block, Hayley Taylor (2010), Love Story, p. 545, "The final cost came in at $2,260,000."  In: Block & Wilson 2010.
  198. ^ Scott, Vernon (June 30, 1979). ""Airports" Flourish". The Bryan Times. United Press International. p. 10. 
  199. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, p. 541. "Screenwriter and director George Seaton was given a then-whopping production budget of $10 million to make what would be his last big movie after a long career as an actor in radio, a screenwriter, and a director."
  200. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, p. 549. "Fiddler had the highest domestic box office of 1971 (it was second in worldwide box office after Diamonds Are Forever), with more than $100 million in unadjusted worldwide box office on its initial release. The soundtrack album was also a huge seller. The 1979 rerelease was not as successful, with the $3.8 million print and ad costs almost as high as the $4.3 million in worldwide rentals."
  201. ^ a b c d e f Block & Wilson 2010, p. 527.
    • Star Wars: Ep IV A New Hope: "Domestic Rentals: $127.0; Foreign Rentals: $141.5; Production Cost: $13.0 (Initial Release – Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
    • The Godfather: "Domestic Rentals: $85.6; Foreign Rentals: $42.0; Production Cost: $7.2 (Initial Release – Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
    • Fiddler on the Roof: "Domestic Rentals: $34.0; Foreign Rentals: $11.1; Production Cost: $9.0 (Initial Release – Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
    • Rocky: "Domestic Rentals: $56.0; Foreign Rentals: $21.1; Production Cost: $1.6 (Initial Release – Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
  202. ^ The Godfather
    • 1974: Newsweek 84 (19–27): 74. 1974. "The original Godfather has grossed a mind-boggling $285 million..." 
    • 1991: Von Gunden, Kenneth (1991). Postmodern auteurs: Coppola, Lucas, De Palma, Spielberg, and Scorsese. McFarland & Company. p. 36. ISBN 9780899506180. "Since The Godfather had earned over $85 million in U.S.-Canada rentals (the worldwide box-office gross was $285 million), a sequel, according to the usual formula, could be expected to earn approximately two-thirds of the original's box-office take (ultimately Godfather II had rentals of $30 million)." 
    • 1997 re-release: "The Godfather (Re-issue)". Boxoffice. Retrieved June 23, 2013. "North America: $1,267,249" 
    • As of 2010: Block & Wilson 2010, p. 246. "Domestic Box Office: $135.0; Foreign Box Office: $110.1 (Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
    • Total: "The Godfather". Boxoffice. Retrieved June 23, 2013. "Worldwide Gross: $245,066,411" 
  203. ^ Jacobs, Diane (1980). Hollywood Renaissance. Dell Publishing. p. 115. ISBN 9780440533825. "The Godfather catapulted Coppola to overnight celebrity, earning three Academy Awards and a then record-breaking $142 million in worldwide sales." 
  204. ^ "The Godfather (1972) – Notes". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved January 9, 2012. 
  205. ^ "The Exorcist". Boxoffice. Retrieved June 23, 2013. 
  206. ^ Stanley, Robert Henry; Steinberg, Charles Side (1976). The media environment: mass communications in American society. Hastings House. p. 76. ISBN 9780803846814. "...further reflected by the phenomenal successes of The Sting, Chinatown and The Exorcist. The latter film, which cost about $10 million to produce, has grossed over $110 million worldwide." 
  207. ^ New York (New York Media) 8, 1975, "...Jaws should outstrip another MCA hit, The Sting, which had world-wide revenues of $115 million. (Online copy at Google Books)" 
  208. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, p. 560. "Production Cost: $5.5 (Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
  209. ^ Hall & Neale 2010, pp. 206–208. "The most successful entry in the disaster cycle was the $15 million The Towering Inferno which earned over $48,650,000 in domestic rentals and about $40 million foreign."
  210. ^ Brooks, Mel (2004). "My Movies: The Collisions of Art and Money". In Squire, Jason E. The movie business book (3 ed.). Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-1937-2. "To their credit, Blazing saddles, opened wide in June to tremendous business around the country. It's done over $80 million in rentals worldwide in 1974 dollars. (Online copy at Google Books)" 
  211. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, p. 564. "Production Cost: $2.6 (Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
  212. ^ "Jaws". Boxoffice. Retrieved June 23, 2013. 
  213. ^ a b Kilday, Gregg (July 5, 1977). "Director of 'Jaws II' Abandons His 'Ship'". The Victoria Advocate. p. 6B. 
  214. ^ Priggé, Steven (2004). Movie Moguls Speak: Interviews With Top Film Producers. McFarland & Company. p. 8. ISBN 9780786419296. "The budget for the first Jaws was $4 million and the picture wound up costing $9 million." 
  215. ^ Hall & Neale 2010, p. 214. "Rocky was the "sleeper of the decade". Produced by UA and costing just under $1 million, it went on to earn a box-office gross of $117,235,247 in the United States and $225 million worldwide."
  216. ^ Block, Alex Ben (2010), Rocky, p. 583, "The budget was $1,075,000 plus producer's fees of $100,000."  In: Block & Wilson 2010.
  217. ^ a b c d Wuntch, Philip (July 19, 1985). "Return of E.T.". The Dallas Morning News. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved March 6, 2012. "Its worldwide box-office gross was $619 million, toppling the record of $530 million set by Star Wars." 
  218. ^ Hall & Neale 2010, p. 218. "Eventually costing $11,293,151, Star Wars was previewed at the Northpoint Theatre in San Francisco on May 1, 1977."
  219. ^ "Grease". Boxoffice. Retrieved June 24, 2013. 
  220. ^ Hofler, Robert (2010). Party Animals: A Hollywood Tale of Sex, Drugs, and Rock 'N' Roll Starring the Fabulous Allan Carr. ReadHowYouWant.com. p. 145. ISBN 9781459600072. "Despite the fact that Grease was well on its way to becoming the highest-grossing movie musical in the world, and eventually grossed over $341 million..." 
  221. ^ a b Kramer vs. Kramer
    • United & Babson Investment Report (Babson-United, Inc.) 72: 262. 1980. "Columbia Pictures Industries is continuing to rake in the box office dollars from its Oscar-winning Kramer vs. Kramer, which has topped $100 million in domestic grosses and $70 million overseas. Kramer, which cost less than $8 million to make, is now the second..." 
    • Prince, Stephen (2002). A New Pot of Gold: Hollywood Under the Electronic Rainbow, 1980–1989. University of California Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-520-23266-2. "Much of this was attributable to the performance of its hit film, Kramer vs. Kramer ($94 million worldwide and the number two film in the domestic market)." 
  222. ^ "Rocky II". Boxoffice. Retrieved June 24, 2013. 
  223. ^ Kilday, Greg (May 22, 1992). "Rules of the Game". Entertainment Weekly (119). Retrieved July 4, 2012. 
  224. ^ The Empire Strikes Back
  225. ^ a b c Block & Wilson 2010, p. 519.
    • The Empire Strikes Back: "Production Cost: $32.0 (Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
    • Return of the Jedi: "Production Cost: $42.7 (Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
    • The Phantom Menace: "Production Cost: $127.5 (Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
  226. ^ Raiders of the Lost Ark
  227. ^ a b Block & Wilson 2010, p. 609. "Steven Spielberg, by far the most successful director of the decade, had the highest-grossing movie with 1982's E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial, which grossed over $664 million in worldwide box office on initial release."
  228. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, p. 652. "Production Cost: $12.2 (Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
  229. ^ Return of the Jedi
  230. ^ "Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 12, 2013. 
  231. ^ a b c d e f Finler 2003, pp. 190–191.
  232. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, p. 664. "Production Cost: $28.2 (Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
  233. ^ Back to the Future
  234. ^ Finler 2003, p. 268. "The studio had a record operating income of $212 million in 1982, the year of Spielberg's E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial (which had cost only slightly over $10 million) and $150 million in 1985, mainly due to another Spielberg production, the $22 million Back to the Future, which became the top box office hit of the year."
  235. ^ "Top Gun". Boxoffice. Retrieved September 15, 2013. 
  236. ^ McAdams, Frank (2010), Top Gun, pp. 678–679, "Production Cost: $19.0 (Millions of $s) ... Despite mixed reviews, it played in the top 10 for an extended period and was a huge hit, grossing almost $345 million in worldwide box office."  In: Block & Wilson 2010.
  237. ^ Fatal Attraction
    • "Fatal Attraction". Boxoffice. Retrieved September 15, 2013. 
    • Scott, Vernon (June 15, 1990). "'Three Men and Baby' Sequel Adds Cazenove to Original Cast". The Daily Gazette (New York). Hollywood (UPI). p. 9 (TV Plus – The Daily Gazette Supplement). "That legacy is the $167,780,960 domestic box-office and $75 million foreign gross achieved by the original..." 
  238. ^ "Rain Man". Boxoffice. Retrieved September 15, 2013. 
  239. ^ Finler 2003, p. 244. "Rain Man: 30.0 (cost in million $s)"
  240. ^ "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved September 15, 2013. 
  241. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, pp. 694–695. "Production Cost: $55.4 (Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s) ... The film went on to haul in over $494 million worldwide."
  242. ^ "Ghost". Boxoffice. Retrieved September 19, 2013. 
  243. ^ "Terminator 2: Judgment Day". Boxoffice. Retrieved September 19, 2013. 
  244. ^ Ansen, David (8 July 1991). "Conan The Humanitarian". Newsweek. Retrieved September 19, 2013. 
  245. ^ "Aladdin". Boxoffice. Retrieved September 20, 2013. 
  246. ^ "Die Hard: With A Vengeance". Boxoffice. Retrieved September 20, 2013. 
  247. ^ Finler 2003, p. 123.
  248. ^ "Armageddon". Boxoffice. Retrieved September 20, 2013. 
  249. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, p. 509. "Production Cost: $140.0 (Unadjusted $s in Millions of $s)."
  250. ^ "Mission: Impossible II". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 6, 2012. 
  251. ^ Patten, D. (December 3, 2009). "'Avatar's' True Cost – and Consequences". The Wrap. Archived from the original on December 16, 2009. Retrieved December 12, 2009. 
  252. ^ Frankel, Daniel (17 November 2010). "Get Ready for the Biggest 'Potter' Opening Yet". The Wrap. Retrieved August 27, 2011. 
  253. ^ "Show Business: Record Wind". Time. February 19, 1940. Archived from the original on February 2, 2010. Retrieved January 19, 2013. 
  254. ^ Miller, Frank; Stafford, Jeff (January 5, 2007). "Gone With the Wind (1939) – Articles". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved January 15, 2012. 
  255. ^ Thomas, Bob (August 1, 1963). "Movie Finances Are No Longer Hidden From Scrutiny". The Robesonian. Associated Press. p. 10. 
  256. ^ The Atlantic Monthly 231. 1973. p. 2. "As of the end of 1971, GWTW stood as the all-time money-drawing movie, with a take of $116 million, and, with this year's reissues, it should continue to run ahead of the second place contender and all-time kaffee-mit-schlag spectacle." 
  257. ^ New Times 2. 1974. "Coppola is King Midas, the most individually powerful U.S. filmmaker ." His credits include directing the first Godfather (worldwide earnings: $142 million, ahead of Gone with the Wind, The Sound of Music and The Exorcist)...(Online copy at Google Books)" 
  258. ^ Harmetz, Aljean (May 18, 1980). "The Saga Beyond 'Star Wars'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 31, 2012. Retrieved January 30, 2012. ""Star Wars" has brought 20th Century-Fox approximately $250 million in film rentals ... "Star Wars" grossed $410 million, and his share was enough to allow him to finance its sequel, "The Empire Strikes Back," himself." 
  259. ^ "Jurassic Park (1993) – Miscellaneous notes". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved July 9, 2011. 
§ Franchise and series sources
Bibliography

External links