Khakassia

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Republic of Khakassia
Республика Хакасия (Russian)
Хакас Республиказы (Khakas)
—  Republic  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Anthem: none
Coordinates: 53°30′N 90°00′E / 53.500°N 90.000°E / 53.500; 90.000Coordinates: 53°30′N 90°00′E / 53.500°N 90.000°E / 53.500; 90.000
Political status
Country  Russia
Federal district Siberian[1]
Economic region East Siberian[2]
Established October 20, 1930
Capital Abakan
Government (as of August 2010)
 - Head[4] Viktor Zimin[3]
 - Legislature Supreme Council[5]
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[6]
 - Total 61,900 km2 (23,900 sq mi)
Area rank 46th
Population (2010 Census)[7]
 - Total 532,403
 - Rank 70th
 - Density[8] 8.6 /km2 (22 /sq mi)
 - Urban 67.3%
 - Rural 32.7%
Time zone(s) KRAT (UTC+08:00)[9]
ISO 3166-2 RU-KK
License plates 19
Official languages Russian;[10] Khakas[11]
Official website

The Republic of Khakassia (Russian: Респу́блика Хака́сия, Respublika Khakasiya; Khakass: Хакас Республиказы[12]) or Khakasiya (Хака́сия) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in south-central Siberia. Its capital city is Abakan, which is also the largest city in the republic. It has a population of 532,403 (2010 Census).[7]

The Khakas language has co-official status in the republic.

History[edit]

From the 6th century Khakassia was the core of the old Kyrgyz state. In the 13th century, following defeat by the Mongols, the majority of the Kyrgyz people migrated southwest to their current homeland in Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan). Modern Khakassians regard themselves as the descendants of those Kyrgyz who remained in Siberia. Khakassia was incorporated into the Russian state in 1707.

In 1727 this[which?] was confirmed in a treaty between Russia and China. Tsarist policy was to deport convicted criminals from European Russia to Siberia and forts were quickly constructed in Khakassia (1707 and 1718). Many prisoners stayed in the area on their release. Many of the indigenous Khakassian people converted to the Russian Orthodox church and were gradually forced to abandon their nomadic way of life.

By the time of the Russian Revolution Russians made up approximately half of the population. Under Soviet rule autonomy was granted on 10 October 1930. During the 1920s and 1930s the Soviet authorities resettled an estimated quarter of a million Russians in the region. These were followed by 10,000 Volga Germans deported in World War II. By the time of the 1959 census ethnic Khakassians represented little more than one in ten of the population. Khakassia was given full autonomous republic status in 1991.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Map of the Republic of Khakassia

Demographics[edit]

Population: 532,403 (2010 Census);[7] 546,072 (2002 Census);[13] 568,605 (1989 Census).[14]

Vital statistics[edit]

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates
1970 448 7,347 3,749 3,598 16.4 8.4 8.0
1975 476 9,106 4,485 4,621 19.1 9.4 9.7
1980 508 9,994 5,345 4,649 19.7 10.5 9.2
1985 541 10,382 5,546 4,836 19.2 10.3 8.9
1990 572 8,724 6,060 2,664 15.3 10.6 4.7 2,27
1991 573 8,114 6,195 1,919 14.2 10.8 3.3 2,14
1992 574 6,917 6,843 74 12.0 11.9 0.1 1,81
1993 574 6,152 8,387 - 2,235 10.7 14.6 - 3.9 1,58
1994 572 6,219 9,426 - 3,207 10.9 16.5 - 5.6 1,57
1995 571 5,807 8,186 - 2,379 10.2 14.3 - 4.2 1,44
1996 569 5,727 8,093 - 2,366 10.1 14.2 - 4.2 1,40
1997 566 5,309 7,766 - 2,457 9.4 13.7 - 4.3 1,28
1998 563 5,602 7,821 - 2,219 10.0 13.9 - 3.9 1,34
1999 559 5,312 8,304 - 2,992 9.5 14.8 - 5.3 1,26
2000 556 5,634 8,104 - 2,470 10.1 14.6 - 4.4 1,32
2001 552 5,576 8,561 - 2,985 10.1 15.5 - 5.4 1,28
2002 547 6,118 9,280 - 3,162 11.2 17.0 - 5.8 1,39
2003 542 6,417 9,660 - 3,243 11.8 17.8 - 6.0 1,44
2004 539 6,453 8,763 - 2,310 12.0 16.3 - 4.3 1,43
2005 536 6,198 9,411 - 3,213 11.6 17.6 - 6.0 1,35
2006 533 6,465 7,927 - 1,462 12.1 14.9 - 2.7 1,40
2007 531 7,384 7,324 60 13.9 13.8 0.1 1,60
2008 531 7,935 7,427 508 14.9 14.0 1.0 1,72
2009 531 8,062 7,255 807 15.2 13.7 1.5 1,81
2010 532 8,010 7,373 637 15.0 13.8 1.2 1,80
2011 532 8,013 7,154 859 15.1 13.4 1.7 1,83
2012 533 8,534 7,137 1,397 16.0 13.4 2.6 2,00
2013 534 8,376 6,998 1,378 15.7 13.1 2.6 2,01(e)

In 2007, the republic recorded a positive natural increase of population for the first time in many years (Although very small, less than +0.01% per year), being one of the 20 Russian regions to have a positive natural population growth rate. [15][16]

TFR source 2009 - 12[17]

Ethnic groups[edit]

According to the 2010 Russian Census,[7] ethnic Russians make up 81.7% of the republic's population, while ethnic Khakas are only 12.1%. Other groups include ethnic Germans (1.1%), Ukrainians (1%), Tatars (0.6%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.

Ethnic
group
1926 census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002 census 2010 census1
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Khakas 44,219 49.8% 45,799 16.8% 48,512 11.8% 54,750 12.3% 57,281 11.5% 62,859 11.1% 65,421 12.0% 63,643 12.1%
Russians 41,390 46.6% 205,254 75.3% 314,455 76.5% 349,362 78.4% 395,953 79.4% 450,430 79.5% 438,395 80.3% 427,647 81.7%
Germans 46 0.1% 333 0.1% 10,512 2.6% 10,547 2.4% 11,130 2.2% 11,250 2.0% 9,161 1.7% 5,976 1.1%
Ukrainians 836 0.9% 7,788 2.9% 14,630 3.6% 9,480 2.1% 10,398 2.1% 13,223 2.3% 8,360 1.5% 5,039 1.0%
Others 2,381 2.7% 13,556 5.0% 22,938 5.6% 21,685 4.9% 23,622 4.7% 29,099 5.4% 24,735 4.5% 21,409 4.1%
1 8,689 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[18]

Religion[edit]

Main article: Religion in Khakassia



Circle frame.svg

Religion in Khakassia (2012)[19][20]

  Russian Orthodox (31.6%)
  Unaffiliated Christian (6%)
  Rodnover and Tengrist (2%)
  Other Orthodox (1%)
  Muslim (1%)
  Protestant (1%)
  Hindu (0.4%)
  Buddhist (0.4%)
  Spiritual but not religious (38%)
  Atheist and undeclared (18.6%)

According to a 2012 official survey[19] 31.6% of the population of Khakassia adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 6% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% adheres to other Orthodox Churches. 2% of the population adheres to Slavic Rodnovery (Slavic Neopaganism) or to Khakas Tengrism, 1% to Islam, 1% to forms of Protestantism, 0.4% to forms of Hinduism (Vedism, Krishnaism or Tantrism) and another 0.4% to Tibetan Buddhism. In addition, 38% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 16% is atheist, and 2.6% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[19]

Economy[edit]

The main industries in the republic are coal mining, ore mining and timber.

Sports[edit]

Sayan-Khakassia[21] has been playing in the highest division of Russian Bandy League for a long time, but was relegated after the 2012–13 season. Now they play in the 2nd highest division.

Views of Khakassia[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ Official website of the Republic of Khakassia. Viktor Mikhaylovich Zimin (Russian)
  4. ^ Constitution, Article 88
  5. ^ Constitution, Article 72
  6. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  7. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  8. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  9. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  10. ^ Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  11. ^ Constitution, Article 69
  12. ^ Name used in head of official documents, i.e.: [1] – ТРАНСПОРТ ПАЗА ЧОЛ ХОНИИНЫҢ МИНИСТЕРСТВОЗЫ ХАКАС РЕСПУБЛИКАЗЫ (ХАКАСИЯНЫН МИНТРАНЗЫ)
  13. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  14. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  15. ^ Постоянное население России на начало 2008 года - 142 миллиона человек. Demoscope.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  16. ^ В 2007 году естественная убыль снизилась до 478 тысяч человек, а миграционный прирост увеличился до 240 тысяч. Demoscope.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  17. ^ Каталог публикаций::Федеральная служба государственной статистики. Gks.ru (2010-05-08). Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  18. ^ Перепись-2010: русских становится больше. Perepis-2010.ru (2011-12-19). Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  19. ^ a b c Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
  20. ^ 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
  21. ^ Official home page

Sources[edit]

  • Верховный Совет Республики Хакасия. №45 25 мая 1995 г. «Конституция Республики Хакасия», в ред. Конституционного закона №19-ЗРХ от 13 апреля 2007 г. (Supreme Council of the Republic of Khakassia. #45 May 25, 1995 Constitution of the Republic of Khakassia, as amended by the Constitutional Law #19-ZRKh of April 13, 2007. ).

External links[edit]