Jaipur State

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State of Jaipur
1128–1949
Flag Coat of arms
Capital Jaipur
Religion Hinduism
Government Principality (1128–1948)
Maharaja of Jaipur
 -  1128 Dūlaha Rāya (first)
 -  1922–1948 Sawai Man Singh II (last)
History
 -  Established 1128
 -  Annexed by India 1949

Jaipur State was a princely state of India. It was centered around Jaipur town.

History[edit]

"First interview with the Maharajah of Jeypore," from 'India and its Native Princes' by Louis Rousselet, 1878

The Dhundhar state was founded in 1093 by Dūlaha Rāya, who hailed from Gwalior. He and his kinsmen belonged to the Kachwaha clan of Rajputs.[citation needed] The modern-day Kushwaha community, of which the Kachwaha form a part, generally claim descent from Kusha, a son of the mythological avatar of Vishnu, Rama. This enables their claim to be of the Suryavansh dynasty but it is a myth of origin developed in the twentieth century. Prior to that time, the various branches that form the Kushwah community - the Kachwahas, Kachhis, Koeris, and Muraos - favoured a connection with Shiva and Shakta.[1] The original capital in the Dhundhar region was Dausa, Ramgarth and then Amber.[citation needed]

In 1561, the chief at Amber, Bharamail Kachwaha, sought support from Akbar, the Mughal emperor. He was formally recognised as a Raja and was invested into the Mughal nobility in return for him giving his daughter to Akbar's harem. A governor was appointed to oversee Bharamail's territory and a tribute arrangement saw Bharamail given a salaried rank, paid for from a share of the area's revenue. The Rajput practice of giving daughters to the Mughal emperors in return for recognition as nobility and the honour of fighting on behalf of the Empire originated in this arrangement and thus the Mughals were often able to assert their dominance over Rajput chiefs in north India without needing to physically intimidate them, especially after their rout of rulers in Gondwana.[2][3]

The ruling dynasty of Amber provided the Mughal Empire with some of their most distinguished generals. Among them were Bhagwant Das, Man Singh I, who fought and governed from Kabul to Orissa and Assam and Jai Singh I, commonly known by his imperial title of Mirza Raja, whose name appears in all the wars of Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb.[citation needed]

Jai Singh was succeeded by Ramsingh I, Bishan Singh and Jai Singh II. Jai Singh II, also known as Sawai Jai Singh, ruled the state from 1699 to 1743 was a famous mathematician and astronomer and the founded the new capital city of Jaipur in 1727.[citation needed]

Throughout the disintegration of the Mughal Empire, the armies of Jaipur were in a constant state of warfare. Towards the end of the 18th century, the Jats of Bharatpur and the chief of Alwar (Also a Kachwaha) declared themselves independent from Jaipur and each annexed the eastern portion of Jaipur's territory. This period of Jaipur's history is characterized by internal power-struggles and constant military conflicts with the Marathas, Jats, other Rajput states, as well as the British and the Pindaris (Jaipur's former mercenary allies). The kingdom suffered a disaster at the hands of the Maratha forces of Mahadji Scindia in the Battle of Patan in 1790. Nevertheless enough wealth remained in Jaipur for the patronage of fine temples/palaces, continuity of its courtly traditions and the well-being of its citizens and merchant communities. A treaty was initially made by Maharaja Sawai Jagat Singh and the British under Governor General Marquis Wellesley in 1803, however the treaty was dissolved shortly afterwards by Wellesley's successor, Lord Cornwallis. In this event, Jaipur's Ambassador to Lord Lake observed that This was the first time, since the English government was established in India, that it had been known to make its faith subserveint to its convenience(Tillotson). It was later in 1818, that the Jaipur state entered into subsidiary alliance with the British. In 1835 there was a serious disturbance in the city, after which the British government intervened. The state later became well-governed and prosperous. During the Indian rebellion of 1857 when the British invoked the treaty to request assistance in the suppression of rebellious sepoys,the Maharaja opted to preserve his treaty, and thus sent in troops to subdue the uprisings in the area around Gurgaon. The Jaipur forces also secured and kept open the strategic Agra-Ajmer highway, and shelter was given to Europeans fleeing from the menace of the mutineers in the Nahargarh Fort.[citation needed]

During the British Raj, Jaipur was the capital of a princely state of the same name. Jaipur State, which existed from the 12th century until Indian Independence in 1947, took its name from the city. It had a total area of 15,579 square miles (40,349 km²) in 1900.[citation needed]

Rulers[edit]

The Maharajas of Jaipur belonged to the Kachwaha dynasty.

  • 1699 - 21 Sep 1743 Sawai Jai Singh I (b. 1688 - d. 1743)
  • 1743 - 12 Dec 1750 Sawai Ishwari Singh (b. 1721 - d. 1750)
  • 1750 - 5 Mar 1768 Sawai Madho Singh I (b. 1728 - d. 1768)
  • 1768 - 13 Apr 1778 Sawai Prithvi Singh II (b. c.1762 - d. 1778)
  • 1778 - 1803 Sawai Pratap Singh (b. 1764 - d. 1803)
  • 1803 - 21 Nov 1818 Sawai Jagat Singh II (b. ... - d. 1818)
  • 22 Dec 1818 - 25 Apr 1819 Mohan Singh (regent) (b. c.1809 - d. ...)
  • 25 Apr 1819 - 6 Feb 1835 Sawai Jai Singh III (b. 1819 - d. 1835)
  • Feb 1835 - 18 Sep 1880 Sawai Ram Singh II (b. 1835 - d. 1880)
  • 18 Sep 1880 - 7 Sep 1922 Sawai Madho Singh II (b. 1861 - d. 1922)
  • 7 Sep 1922 - 15 Aug 1947 Sawai Man Singh II (b. 1911 - d. 1970)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pinch, William R. (1996). Peasants and monks in British India. University of California Press. pp. 12, 91–92. ISBN 978-0-520-20061-6. Retrieved 22 February 2012. 
  2. ^ Wadley, Susan Snow (2004). Raja Nal and the Goddess: The North Indian Epic Dhola in Performance. Indiana University Press. pp. 110–111. ISBN 9780253217240. 
  3. ^ Sadasivan, Balaji (2011). The Dancing Girl: A History of Early India. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 233–234. ISBN 9789814311670.