List of alcoholic beverages

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For a list of national alcoholic drinks by country, see List of national liquors.
Main article: Alcoholic beverage

This is a list of alcoholic beverages. An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol. Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes: beers, wines, and spirits (or distilled beverage). They are legally consumed in most countries, and over 100 countries have laws regulating their production, sale, and consumption.[1] In particular, such laws specify the minimum age at which a person may legally buy or drink them. This minimum age varies between 16 and 25 years, depending upon the country and the type of drink. Most nations set it at 18 years of age.[1]

Beverages by raw material[edit]

The names of some alcoholic beverages are determined by their raw material.

Grains Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage
barley beer, ale, barley wine Scotch whisky, Irish whiskey, shōchū (mugijōchū) (Japan)
rye rye beer, kvass rye whiskey, vodka (Poland), Korn (Germany)
corn chicha, corn beer, tesguino Bourbon whiskey, moonshine, also vodka (rare)
sorghum burukutu (Nigeria), pito (Ghana), merisa (southern Sudan), bilibili (Chad, Central African Republic, Cameroon) maotai, gaoliang, certain other types of baijiu (China).
wheat wheat beer horilka (Ukraine), vodka, wheat whiskey, weizenkorn (Germany)
rice beer, brem (Bali), huangjiu and choujiu (China), Ruou gao (Vietnam), sake (Japan), sonti (India), makgeolli and chungju (Korea), tuak (Borneo Island), thwon (Nepal) aila (Nepal), rice baijiu (China), shōchū (komejōchū) and awamori (Japan), soju (Korea)
millet millet beer (Sub-Saharan Africa), tongba (Nepal, Tibet), boza (the Balkans, Turkey)
buckwheat shōchū (sobajōchū) (Japan)
Fruit juice Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage
grapes wine brandy, Cognac (France), Vermouth, Armagnac (France), Branntwein (Germany), pisco (Peru, Chile), (Grozdova) Rakia (The Balkans, Turkey), singani (Bolivia), Arak (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan), törkölypálinka (Hungary)
apples cider (U.S.: "hard cider"), Apfelwein applejack (or apple brandy), calvados, cider
pears perry, or pear cider; poiré (France) Poire Williams, pear brandy, Eau-de-vie (France), pálinka (Hungary), Krushova rakia / Krushevitsa (Bulgaria)
plums plum wine slivovitz, țuică, umeshu, pálinka, Slivova rakia / Slivovitsa (Bulgaria)
apricots Kaisieva rakia (Bulgaria), pálinka (Hungary)
pineapples tepache (Mexico), Pineapple Wine (Hawaii)
juniper berries gin, borovička (Slovakia)
bananas or plantains Chuoi hot (Vietnam), Cauim (Kuna Indians of Panama), urgwagwa (Uganda, Rwanda), mbege (with millet malt; Tanzania), kasikisi (with sorghum malt; Democratic Republic of the Congo)
gouqi gouqi jiu (China) gouqi jiu (China)
coconut Toddy (Sri Lanka, India) arrack, lambanog (Sri Lanka, India, Philippines)
ginger with sugar, ginger with raisins ginger ale, ginger beer, ginger wine
Myrica rubra yangmei jiu (China) yangmei jiu (China)
pomace pomace wine Raki/Ouzo/Pastis/Sambuca (Turkey/Greece/France/Italy), tsipouro/tsikoudia (Greece), grappa (Italy), Trester (Germany), marc (France), orujo (Spain), zivania (Cyprus), Bagaço (Portugal), tescovină (Romania), Arak (Iraq)
Vegetables Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage
cassava

Saliva-fermented beverages:

  • Cauim
  • chicha: Throughout the Amazon Basin, including the interiors of Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela, chicha is made most often with cassava). in Peruvian Amazonia chichia is known as masato.
  • kasiri (Sub-Saharan Africa)
  • nihamanchi (South America) aka nijimanche (Ecuador and Peru)
  • Parakari (Guyana)
  • Sakurá (Brazil, Surinam)
tiquira (Brazil)
ginger root juice ginger beer (Botswana)
potato potato beer horilka (Ukraine), vodka (Poland and Germany), akvavit (Scandinavia), poitín (poteen) (Ireland), tuzemák (Czech Republic)
sweet potato soju (Korea) shōchū (imojōchū) (Japan)
sugarcane juice, or molasses basi, betsa-betsa (regional) rum (Caribbean), Venezuela, Colombia, Nicaragua, pinga or cachaça (Brasil), aguardiente, guaro, Gongo, Konyagi (Tanzania)
agave juice pulque tequila, mezcal, raicilla
Other raw materials Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage
sap of palm coyol wine (Central America), tembo (Sub-Saharan Africa), toddy (Indian subcontinent)
sap of Arenga pinnata, Coconut, Borassus flabellifer Tuak (Indonesia) Arrack
honey mead, horilka (Ukraine), tej (Ethiopia) distilled mead, honey-flavored liqueur
milk kumis, kefir, blaand arkhi (Mongolia)
sugar kilju and mead or sima (Finland) shōchū (kokutō shōchū): made from brown sugar (Japan)

Fermented beverages[edit]

Founders Old Curmudgeon old ale
A hard cider produced in Michigan state, U.S.
Palm wine is collected, fermented and stored in calabashes in Bandundu Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Distilled beverages[edit]

A reservoir glass filled with a naturally colored verte absinthe, next to an absinthe spoon
Various views of a bottle of mezcal. The "worm", which is actually the larval form of the moth Hypopta agavis that lives on the agave plant, can be seen in the middle image, at the bottom of the bottle.
Various bottles and containers of Russian vodka

A distilled beverage, spirit, or liquor is an alcoholic beverage containing ethanol that is produced by distilling (i.e., concentrating by distillation) ethanol produced by means of fermenting grain, fruit, or vegetables.[2] This excludes undistilled fermented beverages such as beer, wine, and cider. Vodka, gin, baijiu, tequila, rum, whisky, brandy, and soju are examples of distilled beverages.

Hard liquor is used in North America and India to distinguish distilled beverages from undistilled ones (implicitly weaker).

Main article: List of liqueurs

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Minimum Age Limits Worldwide". International Center for Alcohol Policies. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  2. ^ Britannica Online Encyclopedia: distilled spirit/distilled liquor