Clockwise from top: New Fourth Army Headquarter, Star of Nanchang, Bayi Square, Nanchang sunrise, Tengwang Pavilion.
|Nickname(s): Grand City (洪城), Grand Capital (洪都), Yuzhang (豫章)|
Location of Nanchang City jurisdiction in Jiangxi
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• Mayor||Guo An|
|• Secretary||Wang Wentao|
|• Prefecture-level city||7,372 km2 (2,846 sq mi)|
|• Urban||587 km2 (227 sq mi)|
|• Metro||4,510 km2 (1,740 sq mi)|
|Elevation||37 m (122 ft)|
|• Prefecture-level city||5,042,566|
|• Density||680/km2 (1,800/sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|Licence plate prefixes||赣A|
|City Flower||Chinese Rose|
|City Tree||Camphor Laurel|
|Literal meaning||southern prosperity|
Nanchang (Chinese: 南昌; pinyin: Nánchāng) is the capital of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China, located in the north-central portion of the province. It is bounded on the west by the Jiuling Mountains, and on the east by Poyang Lake. Because of its central location relative to the Yangtze and Pearl River Delta regions, it is a major railroad hub in Southern China. Its population was 5,042,566 whom 4,107,963 in the built-up area made up of five urban districts plus the urbanized counties of Nanchang and Xinjian. As the Bayi Riot 1927 was distinctively recognized by the ruling Communist Party as "firing the first gunshot against the evil Republic of China", the current communist regime has therefore named the city since 1949 "the City of Heroes", "the place where the People's Liberation Army was born", and the most widely known "place where the military banner of the People's Liberation Army was first raised".
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2013)|
The modern Jiangxi area—including Nanchang—was first incorporated into Chinese territory during the Qin dynasty, when it was conquered from the Baiyue peoples and organized as Jiujiang Commandery (Chinese: 九江郡). In 201 BC, during the Han dynasty, the city was given the Chinese name Nanchang and became the administrative seat of Yuzhang Commandery (Chinese: 豫章郡), and was governed by Guan Ying (Chinese: 灌嬰), one of Emperor Gaozu of Han's generals. The name Nanchang means "southern flourishing", and is from a motto of developing what is now southern China that is traditionally attributed to Emperor Gaozu himself.
In AD 589, during the Sui dynasty, this commandery was changed into a prefecture named Hongzhou (Chinese: 洪州), and after 763 it became the provincial center of Jiangxi, which was then beginning the rapid growth that by the 12th century made it the most populous province in China.
In 653, the Tengwang Pavilion was constructed. In 675, Wang Bo wrote the classic "Tengwang Ge Xu". The building as well as the city became celebrated for Wang's introduction article and the author is known to all Chinese-speaking population by this masterpiece. The Pavilion has been destroyed and rebuilt several times throughout China's history. In its present form, Tengwang Pavilion was reconstructed in the 1980s after being destroyed in 1929 during the Chinese Civil War.
In 959, under the Southern Tang regime, it became Nanchang superior prefecture and also the southern capital. After the conquest by the Song regime in 981 it reverted to the name Hongzhou. In 1164 it was renamed Longxing prefecture, which name it retained until 1368. At the end of the Yuan (Mongol) period (1279–1368), it became a battleground between Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), and the rival local warlord, Chen Youliang. At the beginning of the 16th century it was the power base from which Zhu Chenhao, the prince of Ning, launched a rebellion against the Ming regime.
During the reign of the Wanli Emperor of the Ming dynasty, it housed relatives of the emperor who had been exiled because they were potential claimants of the imperial throne, members of the imperial family constituting about one quarter of the city's population; as a result of this, Matteo Ricci came here when trying to gain entry to Beijing.
In the 1850s it suffered considerably as a result of the Taiping Rebellion (1850–64), and its importance as a commercial center declined as the overland routes to Canton were replaced by coastal steamship services in the latter half of the 19th century. Nanchang has, however, remained the undisputed regional metropolis of Jiangxi.
On August 1, 1927, Nanchang was the site of one of a series of insurrections organized by the Chinese Communist Party. The Nanchang Uprising, led by pro-communist Kuomintang officers under Russian direction, succeeded in holding the city for only a few days, and provided a core of troops and a method of organization from which the People's Liberation Army (PLA) later developed.
In 1949 Nanchang was still essentially an old-style administrative and commercial city, with little industry apart from food processing; it had a population of about 275,000. Nanchang first acquired a rail connection in 1915, when the line to Jiujiang, a port on the Yangtze River, was opened. Several other rail links have since been opened. After World War II a line was completed to Linchuan and Gongqi in the Ru River Valley to the south-southeast.
Since 1949 Nanchang has been extensively industrialized. It is now a large-scale producer of cotton textiles and cotton yarn. Papermaking is also a large industry, as is food processing (especially rice milling). Heavy industry began to be important in the mid-1950s. A large thermal-power plant was installed and uses coal brought by rail from Fengcheng, to the south. A machinery industry also grew up, at first mainly concentrating on the production of agricultural equipment and diesel engines. Nanchang then became a center of the automotive industry, producing trucks and tractors and also such equipment as tires. An iron-smelting plant helping to supply local industry was installed in the later 1950s. There is also a large chemical industry, producing agricultural chemicals and insecticides as well as pharmaceuticals.
Geography and climate
|This section requires expansion. (May 2013)|
Nanchang is located 130 km (81 mi) south of the Yangtze River and is situated on the right bank of the Gan River just below its confluence with the Jin River and some 40 km (25 mi) southwest of its discharge into Poyang Lake.
Nanchang has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) with four distinct seasons. Winters are short and cool with occasional frosts; it begins somewhat sunny and dry but becomes progressively wetter and more overcast. Spring begins especially gloomy, and from April to June, each month has more than 220 mm (8.7 in) of rainfall. Summer is long and humid, with amongst the highest temperatures of any Chinese provincial capital, and with the sun shining close to 60 percent of the time in July and August, is the sunniest time of year. Autumn is warm to mild with the lowest rainfall levels of the year. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 5.3 °C (41.5 °F) in January to 29.2 °C (84.6 °F) in July, while the annual mean is 17.63 °C (63.7 °F). Annual precipitation stands at around 1,620 mm (64 in); with monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 23 percent in March to 60 percent in August, the city receives 1,820 hours of bright sunshine annually.
|Climate data for Nanchang (1971–2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||8.7
|Average low °C (°F)||2.7
|Precipitation mm (inches)||74.0
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||13.0||13.2||18.0||17.7||16.6||15.5||10.8||10.3||7.7||8.8||7.9||7.8||147.3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||91.9||83.7||85.2||114.4||151.1||160.2||248.7||243.2||185.8||167.0||147.5||141.7||1,820.4|
|Percent possible sunshine||28||27||23||30||36||39||59||60||50||47||46||44||40.8|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration |
|This section requires expansion. (January 2010)|
As of 2010[update] (Census), Nanchang has a population of 5,042,566 people and a built-up area of about 4,1 million. 37 ethnic groups were counted amongst its prefecture divisions.
|ISO 3166-2||English||Chinese||Pinyin||Area in km2||Seat||Postal code||Subdivisions|
|360100||Nanchang||南昌市||Nánchāng Shì||7194||Donghu District (Honggutan N.A.)||330000||30||49||31||625||1161|
|360102||Donghu District||东湖区||Dōnghú Qū||30||Gongyuan Subdistrict (公园街道)||330000||10||159||21|
|360103||Xihu District||西湖区||Xīhú Qū||43||Chaoyangzhou Subdistrict (朝阳洲街道)||330000||10||1||136||13|
|360104||Qingyunpu District||青云谱区||Qīngyúnpǔ Qū||40||Sanjiadian Subdistrict (三家店街道)||330000||5||1||63||12|
|360105||Wanli District||湾里区||Wānlǐ Qū||254||Zhaoxian (招贤镇)||330000||2||4||12||35|
|360111||Qingshanhu District||青山湖区||Qīngshānhú Qū||250||Jingdong (京东镇)||330000||3||6||116||101|
|360121||Nanchang County||南昌县||Nánchāng Xiàn||1811||Liantang (莲塘镇)||330200||11||7||47||311|
|360122||Xinjian County||新建县||Xīnjiàn Xiàn||2160||Changpo (长堎镇)||330100||10||9||39||300|
|360123||Anyi County||安义县||Ānyì Xiàn||660||Longjin (龙津镇)||330500||7||3||16||105|
|360124||Jinxian County||进贤县||Jìnxián Xiàn||1946||Minhe (民和镇)||331700||9||2||37||263|
- Honggutan New District (红谷滩新区) is an economic management area and not a formal administrative division.
Nanchang is a regional hub for agricultural production in Jiangxi province. The yield of grain was 16.146 million tons in 2000. Products such as rice and oranges are economic staples. The Ford Motor Company has a plant in Nanchang, assembling the Ford Transit van as part of the Jiangling Motor joint venture. Many of its industry revolves around aircraft manufacturing, automobile manufacturing, metallurgy, electro-mechanics, textile, chemical engineering, traditional Chinese medicine, pharmaceuticals and others.
The GDP of Nanchang in 2008 was 166 billion Yuan (24.3 billion USD). The GDP per capita was 36,105 Yuan (5,285 USD). The total value of imports and exports was 3.4 billion US dollars. The total financial revenue was 23 billion Yuan.
National level development zones
- Nanchang Export Processing Zone
Nanchang National Export Expressing Zone is located in Nanchang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone, it was approved by the State Council on May 8, 2006, and passed the national acceptance inspection on Sep 7th, 2007. It has a planning area of 1 sqkm and now has built 0.31 sqkm. It enjoys simple and convenient customs clearances,and special preferential policies both for Nanchang National Export Expressing Zone and NCHDZ.
- Nanchang National High-tech Industrial Development Zone
Nanchang National High-tech Industrial Development Zone (NCHDZ for short hereafter) is the only national grade high-tech zoned in Jiangxi, it was established in Mar. 1991. The zone covers an area of 231 km2 (89 sq mi), in which 32 km2 (12 sq mi) have been completed. NCHDZ possesses unique nature condition and sound industry foundation of accepting electronics industry. NCHDZ has brought 25 percent industrial added value and 50 percent industrial benefit and tax to Nanchang city by using only 0.4 percent land area.
- Nanchang Economic and Technological Development Zone
Provincial level development zones
- Jiangxi Sanghai Economic and Technological Development Zone
- Nanchang Yingxiong Economic and Technological Development Zone
Special economic district
The Nanchang is an important rail hub for southeastern China. The Beijing–Kowloon (Jingjiu) Railway, Shanghai–Kunming (Hukun) Railway (formerly Zhejiang–Jiangxi or Zhegan Railway), Xiangtang–Putian Railway and Nanchang–Jiujiang Intercity Railway converge in Nanchang. Nanchang's Bureau of Railways operates much of the railway network in Jiangxi and neighbouring Fujian province.
The Nanchang Railway Station and the Nanchang West Railway Stations are the primary passenger rail stations of the city. Nanchang is connected to Hangzhou, Changsha and Shanghai via CRH (China Railway High-speed) service.
Nanchang Changbei International Airport (KHN) built in 1996 is the main international airport. It is situated in Lehua Town, 26 kilometres north of the CDB area. Changbei International Airport is the only one in Jiangxi Province which has an international air route. The airport is connected to major mainland cities such as Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Haikou, Shanghai and Beijing.
The road transport infrastructure in Nanchang is extensive. A number of national highways cross through the city. They are the National roads No.105 from Beijing to Zhuhai, No.320 from Shanghai to Kunming, and No.316 from Fuzhou to Lanzhou. The major transport companies that operate in Nanchang are the Chang'an Transport Company Limited, the Nanchang Long-distance Bus Station, and the Xufang Bus Station.
The Nanchang Long-distance Bus Station serves long distance routes to Nanjing, Shenzhen, Hefei and other cites outside Jiangxi Province. The Xufang Bus Station operates routes to cities, towns and counties within Jiangxi Province.
The Nanchang Metro is under construction with the first line expected to enter service in 2015.
Nanchang is situated on the Gan River, the Fu River, Elephant Lake, Qingshan Lake, and Aixi Lake. Hence the water routes for Nanchang are critically important for the economy, trade and shipping. Nanchang Port is the biggest port on the Gan River. Passengers can take Nanchang Port and travel by boat to the Jinggang Shan and Tengwang Pavilion. There are passenger ships that also visit Poyang Lake, Stone Bell Hill, Poyang Lake Bird Protection Area, Dagu Hill and other attractions.
- Tengwang Pavilion, a towering pavilion dating to 653,on the east bank of the Gan River and is one of "the Four Great Towers of China"
- Poyang Lake, the largest fresh water lake in China, it is also called "the Migrator Birds Paradise".
- Star of Nanchang, which was the world's tallest Ferris wheel from 2006-2008, in Honggu New District
- Qiushui Square, established on 28 January 2004 with the largest music fountain group with music in Asia.
- Jiangxi Provincial Museum and Bada Shanren Exhibition Hall
- People's Park, the largest park in downtown Nanchang
Colleges and universities
- Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics (江西财经大学) (founded 1923)
- Nanchang University (南昌大学)
- Jiangxi Normal University (江西师范大学)
- Jiangxi Agricultural University (江西农业大学)
- East China Jiaotong University (华东交通大学)
- Nanchang Aeronautical University (南昌航空工业学院)
- Jiangxi Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine (江西中医学院)
- Nanchang Institute of Technology (南昌工程学院)
- Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University (江西科技师范学院)
- jiangxi Manufacturing and Vocational College （江西制造职业技术学院）
Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.
- "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. Retrieved 2014-05-17.
- Zhongguo gujin diming dacidian 中国古今地名大词典 ["Dictionary of Chinese Place-names Ancient and Modern"], (Shanghai: Shanghai cishu chubanshe, 2006), p. 2080.
- Mary Laven, Mission to China: Matteo Ricci and the Jesuit Encounter with the East, ISBN 0-571-22517-9, 2011, p. 103
- 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集（1971－2000年） (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2010-05-04.
- "Jiangling Motors Corporation, Ltd. website".
- [dead link]
- "Jiangxi". Unescap.org. Retrieved 2012-01-16.
- "NanChang China". English.nc.gov.cn. Retrieved 2012-01-16.
- "Nanchang Export Processing Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2012-01-16.
- "Nanchang High-Tech Industrial Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2012-01-16.
- "Nanchang Economic & Technological Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2012-01-16.
- "Nanchang Transportation, Get to the City: by Air, Train, Bus, Water". Travelchinaguide.com. Retrieved 2012-01-16.
- "China claims world's largest Ferris wheel - Boston.com".[dead link]
- 南昌-人民公园 [People's Park, Nanchang] (in Chinese). Xinhua. 2008-04-01. Retrieved 2014-05-04.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nanchang.|