Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Proskurov)
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about a city in Podillia, Ukraine. For any other definitions, see Khmelnytsky (disambiguation).
Khmelnytskyi
Хмельницький
City of regional significance
vulytsia Proskurivska in Khmelnytskyi
vulytsia Proskurivska in Khmelnytskyi
Flag of Khmelnytskyi
Flag
Coat of arms of Khmelnytskyi
Coat of arms
Khmelnytskyi is located in Ukraine
Khmelnytskyi
Khmelnytskyi
Location of Khmelnytskyi in Ukraine
Khmelnytskyi is located in Khmelnytskyi Oblast
Khmelnytskyi
Khmelnytskyi
Location in Khmelnytskyi Oblast
Coordinates: 49°25′0″N 27°00′0″E / 49.41667°N 27.00000°E / 49.41667; 27.00000Coordinates: 49°25′0″N 27°00′0″E / 49.41667°N 27.00000°E / 49.41667; 27.00000
Country  Ukraine
Province  Khmelnytskyi Oblast
City council Flag of Khmelnytskyi.svg Khmelnytskyi city
First mentioned 1431
City rights September 22, 1937
Government
 • City Head Serhiy Melnyk
Area
 • Total 90 km2 (30 sq mi)
Population (2005)
 • Total 290,100
 • Density 2,822/km2 (7,310/sq mi)
Postal code 29000
Area code(s) +380 382
Website http://www.khmelnytsky.com

Khmelnytskyi (Ukrainian: Хмельни́цький, Khmel'nyts'ky; Russian: Хмельни́цкий, Khmel'nitsky; Polish: Chmielnicki)[1] (until 1954, Proskuriv, Ukrainian: Проскурів; Russian: Проску́ров, Proskurov) is a city in near west, central Ukraine, the administrative center for the Khmelnytskyi Oblast (province) and the Khmelnytskyi Raion. Khmelnytskyi is located in the historic region of Podolia (Podillia) on the banks of the Buh River.

In 2009, the city's population was 290,100. The city received its current local government designation in 1941.

History[edit]

The city foundation date is uncertain. Since 1431 it was known as Ploskyriv or Ploskyrivtsi (Плоскирів or Плоскирівці), and later came to be called Proskuriv (Проскурів), but in 1954 the city was finally renamed Khmelnytskyi (Хмельницький) in the honor of the 300th anniversary of a treaty negotiated by Bohdan Khmelnytsky.

Pogroms[edit]

A series of pogroms have been carried out in the region, known together as the Proskurov pogrom. According to Vinnytsia's city archives the pogrom was conducted on the Friday night of February 15, 1919 by one of the otamans (generals) of the Ukrainian People's Army, Otaman Semysenko (also rendered as Semesenko). In total 390 men, 309 women and 76 children were killed, and 500 individuals were wounded.

The Chief Otaman Petliura had been appointed head of state just two days prior to the tragedy, on February the 13th. Petliura issued Order 131 in which he mentioned the fact that numerous Jewish parties in Ukraine (Bund, Poale Zion, Folks-Partei, Unificationists) rose to [defend?] the sovereignty of the Ukrainian Republic and were cooperating with the Ukrainian government, and he condemned such pogroms, calling those initiating them deserters and enemies of the State that must be liquidated. The order was co-signed by the Chief of Staff, Otaman Yunakiv. The order was published in the Ukraina newspaper on February 20 (March 4, old style). Later, Petliura issued a special order to execute Semysenko for being the pogrom initiator. The order was carried out on March 20, 1920.[2][verification needed] The Wikipedia article on Symon Petliura states that Semysenko's execution was postponed until November 1920 due to the "difficult situation".

During the Schwartzbard trial, at the end of which Petliura's assassin was pardoned on the grounds of self-trail (revenge), the main argument of the defense was that Schwartzbard had acted as an avenger of the Jews killed in pogroms perpetrated during Petliura's rule.

World War II[edit]

A street corner during the German occupation

The town was occupied by the German Army from July 8, 1941 to March 25, 1944. On November 4, 1941, 5300 Jewish inhabitants of the town and surrounding villages were shot by an Einsatzgruppe.[3] A ghetto was formed on December 14, 1941, where all surviving Jewish inhabitants had to resettle and were subjected to forced labor. They were subsequently killed in the fall of 1942. More than 9500 Jews were killed in the town in total.[4]

Cold War-time military base[edit]

The Khmelnytskyi was home, during the Cold War, to the 19th Division of the 43rd Rocket Army of the Soviet Strategic Rocket Forces.[5] The intercontinental ballistic missile silos of the division that were housed there were removed and destroyed, partially with U.S. Cooperative Threat Reduction funding, during the 1990s.

Geography and natural resources[edit]

Khmelnytskyi's riverside skyline on the Southern Bug.

Khmelnytskyi is the regional center of the Khmelnytskyi region which is located in the western part of Ukraine in the middle of Podillia, its total area makes up 8,624 ha (21,310 acres). Khmelnytskyi has a favorable geographical position. Khmelnytskyi is crossed by one of the longest rivers of Ukraine – the Southern Bug. Coincidentally, through the western portion of the city flows small river Ploska.

The climate of Khmelnytskyi is moderately continental. The average temperature of Khmelnytskyi in its warmest month (July) is 20 to 22 °C (68 to 72 °F), and the average temperature in the coldest month (January) is −5 to −6 °C (23 to 21 °F). The maximum temperatures in the summer on average reaches 36 to 38 °C (97 to 100 °F), and the minimum temperatures in the winter on average is −24 to −30 °C (−11 to −22 °F). Khmelnytskyi's average annual temperature is 7 to 8 °C (45 to 46 °F). Khmelnytskyi's average annual precipitation is 510 to 580 mm (20.08 to 22.83 in).

The most abundant make up for the ground in Khmelnytskyi are layers of the following overburden: loess and loess-type rocks. The ground-climatic conditions of Khmelnytskyi are favorable for the cultivation of winter wheat and rye, sugar beet, potato and other crops. Khmelnytskyi is also ideal for the development of gardening and vegetable growing. In the territory of Khmelnytskyi there are the vegetations of two geobotanical zones of Ukraine: Polissya and forest-steppe. Khmelnytskyi and its greater region supplies many rock products, particularly building materials such as: limestone, plaster, chalk, tripoli powder, crystal layers (granites, gneisses), sand, sandstones, and also graphite, saponite, kaolin, phosphorite, lithographic stone and roofing slate. There are also deposits of peat, bitumen, shale and oil.

Climate data for Khmelnytskyi (1955-2011)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.0
(53.6)
17.1
(62.8)
23.0
(73.4)
26.5
(79.7)
31.7
(89.1)
33.9
(93)
35.5
(95.9)
34.0
(93.2)
30.4
(86.7)
26.6
(79.9)
20.0
(68)
12.8
(55)
35.5
(95.9)
Average high °C (°F) −2.1
(28.2)
−0.6
(30.9)
4.6
(40.3)
12.9
(55.2)
19.3
(66.7)
22.2
(72)
23.9
(75)
23.3
(73.9)
18.5
(65.3)
12.3
(54.1)
4.8
(40.6)
−0.5
(31.1)
11.6
(52.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.5
(23.9)
−3.5
(25.7)
0.8
(33.4)
8.0
(46.4)
13.9
(57)
17.0
(62.6)
18.6
(65.5)
17.8
(64)
13.1
(55.6)
7.7
(45.9)
2.0
(35.6)
−2.7
(27.1)
7.4
(45.3)
Average low °C (°F) −7.4
(18.7)
−6.5
(20.3)
−2.7
(27.1)
3.2
(37.8)
8.6
(47.5)
11.8
(53.2)
13.5
(56.3)
12.7
(54.9)
8.4
(47.1)
3.7
(38.7)
−0.7
(30.7)
−5.3
(22.5)
3.4
(38.1)
Record low °C (°F) −30.5
(−22.9)
−27.0
(−16.6)
−23.6
(−10.5)
−7.2
(19)
−2.8
(27)
2.2
(36)
3.6
(38.5)
2.1
(35.8)
−5.0
(23)
−11.4
(11.5)
−17.8
(0)
−25.4
(−13.7)
−30.5
(−22.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 32.5
(1.28)
36.4
(1.433)
30.2
(1.189)
50.0
(1.969)
60.6
(2.386)
94.1
(3.705)
105.0
(4.134)
64.4
(2.535)
58.4
(2.299)
38.0
(1.496)
45.5
(1.791)
41.7
(1.642)
656.8
(25.858)
Avg. precipitation days 20.7 19.0 17.7 13.1 11.0 11.3 10.5 7.7 10.5 11.5 16.1 20.2 169.3
 % humidity 87.5 85.1 78.1 65.9 65.5 71.3 74.1 72.4 75.5 80.9 88.0 88.9 77.8
Source: Climatebase.ru[6]

Demographics[edit]

The average life expectancy of its inhabitants is 65 years for men, and 75 years for women. In 2006 Khmelnytskyi's birth rate continues to grow as 2,593 children were born. Due to Khmelnytskyi's geographical location and natural resources the city has always attracted foreigners, including Turks, Germans, Hungarians, Poles, Lithuanians, Austrians, Swedes and Russians.

Transport[edit]

Khmelnytskyi has infrastructure for transportation connections with Moscow, Prague, Bratislava, Warsaw, Budapest, Belgrade and all major Ukrainian cities. The distance from Khmelnytskyi to Kyiv by the railway it is estimated to be 366 km (227 mi), by highway it is estimated to be 384 km (239 mi). The highways Kyiv-Lviv, Odesa-Lviv and Chernivtsi-Kyiv pass through Khmelnytskyi. The city is served by the Khmelnytskyi Ruzhychna Airport. Khmelnytskyi's airport has a 2,200 m (7,217.85 ft) concrete runway; at the airport there is a check point for crossing the state border of Ukraine.

Sports[edit]

Khmelnytskyi is home to the competitive football team FC Dynamo Khmelnytskyi.

Points of interest[edit]

  • Proskurivska street, a modern central pedestrian street of the city, preserved buildings of the end of the 19th - the beginnings of 20th century in the styles of modernist, eclecticisms, Baroque, stone (characteristic only for Proskuriv).
  • The house of the former Oleksiyivske real school (now it is the building of the City Executive Committee)
  • The house of O. Brusilov (now is the House of Ceremonial events)
  • The church of Nativity of the Virgin (the first stone construction in the city)
  • The Protection cathedral
  • Saint-Georgiy church
  • Andriy Pervozvannyi church in "Dubovo" district

Famous people from Khmelnytskyi[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Khmelnytskyi is twinned with:

Views of Khmelnytskyi[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The alternative transliterations of the name include Khmel’nyts’kyỹ, Khmel’nyts’kyy, Khmelnitsky, and Khmelnitskiy
  2. ^ Faina Vinokurova, PhD in historical sciences.
  3. ^ Husson, Edouard (11 November 2008). "L’Ukraine et le début de la « solution finale de la question juive en Europe » - Le meurtre des Juifs d'Ukraine par les nazis et leurs collaborateurs - Introduction historique". Centre Européen de Recherche et d'Enseignement sur la Shoah à l'Est. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  4. ^ "До 70-річчя останнього розстрілу в'язнів проскурівського гетто". http://biznes.km.ua. 30 November 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  5. ^ Feskov, V.I.; Kalashnikov, K.A.; Golikov, V.I. (2004). The Soviet Army in the Years of the Cold War 1945–91. Tomsk: Tomsk University Publishing House. p. 133. ISBN 5-7511-1819-7. 
  6. ^ "Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine Climate Data". Climatebase. Retrieved November 25, 2013. 

External links[edit]