SMN1

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Survival of motor neuron 1, telomeric
Protein SMN1 PDB 1g5v.png
PDB rendering based on 1g5v[1].
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols SMN1 ; BCD541; GEMIN1; SMA; SMA1; SMA2; SMA3; SMA4; SMA@; SMN; SMNT; T-BCD541; TDRD16A
External IDs OMIM600354 MGI109257 HomoloGene292 ChEMBL: 1293232 GeneCards: SMN1 Gene
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 6606 20595
Ensembl ENSG00000172062 ENSMUSG00000021645
UniProt Q16637 P97801
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000344 NM_001252629
RefSeq (protein) NP_000335 NP_001239558
Location (UCSC) Chr 5:
69.35 – 69.37 Mb
Chr 13:
100.12 – 100.14 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Survival motor neuron protein also known as component of gems 1 or gemin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMN1 gene.[2] Two transcript variants are produced by this gene.[3]

Gene[edit]

This gene is part of a 500 kb inverted duplication on chromosome 5q13. This duplicated region contains at least four genes and repetitive elements which make it prone to rearrangements and deletions. The repetitiveness and complexity of the sequence have also caused difficulty in determining the organization of this genomic region. The telomeric and centromeric copies of this gene are nearly identical and encode the same protein.[3]

Clinical significance[edit]

Mutations in the telomeric copy of this gene are associated with spinal muscular atrophy; mutations in the centromeric copy do not lead to disease. The centromeric copy may be a modifier of disease caused by mutation in the telomeric copy. The critical sequence difference between the two genes is a single nucleotide in exon 7 which is thought to be an exon splice enhancer. It is thought that gene conversion events may involve the two genes, leading to varying copy numbers of each gene.[3]

Function[edit]

The protein encoded by this gene contains Gemin2-binding, Tudor and YG-Box domains.[4] It localizes to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Within the nucleus, the protein localizes to subnuclear bodies called gems which are found near coiled bodies containing high concentrations of small ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). This protein forms heteromeric complexes with proteins such as SIP1 and GEMIN4, and also interacts with several proteins known to be involved in the biogenesis of snRNPs, such as hnRNP U protein and the small nucleolar RNA binding protein.[3]

Interactions[edit]

SMN1 has been shown to interact with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sattler, M.; Selenko, P.; Sprangers, R.; Stier, G.; Bühler, D.; Fischer, U. (2001). "SMN tudor domain structure and its interaction with the Sm proteins". Nature Structural Biology 8 (1): 27–31. doi:10.1038/83014. PMID 11135666.  edit
  2. ^ Lefebvre S, Burglen L, Reboullet S, Clermont O, Burlet P, Viollet L, Benichou B, Cruaud C, Millasseau P, Zeviani M, et al (February 1995). "Identification and characterization of a spinal muscular atrophy-determining gene". Cell 80 (1): 155–65. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(95)90460-3. PMID 7813012. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Entrez Gene: SMN1 survival of motor neuron 1, telomeric". 
  4. ^ Martin, R. Gupta K, Ninan N S, Perry K, Van Duyne G D (August 2012). "The survival motor neuron protein forms soluble glycine zipper oligomers". Structure 20 (11): 1929–39. doi:10.1016/j.str.2012.08.024. PMID 23022347. 
  5. ^ Iwahashi H, Eguchi Y, Yasuhara N, Hanafusa T, Matsuzawa Y, Tsujimoto Y (November 1997). "Synergistic anti-apoptotic activity between Bcl-2 and SMN implicated in spinal muscular atrophy". Nature 390 (6658): 413–7. doi:10.1038/37144. PMID 9389483. 
  6. ^ Hebert MD, Shpargel Karl B, Ospina Jason K, Tucker Karen E, Matera A Gregory (September 2002). "Coilin methylation regulates nuclear body formation". Dev. Cell 3 (3): 329–37. doi:10.1016/S1534-5807(02)00222-8. PMID 12361597. 
  7. ^ Hebert MD, Szymczyk P W, Shpargel K B, Matera A G (October 2001). "Coilin forms the bridge between Cajal bodies and SMN, the spinal muscular atrophy protein". Genes Dev. 15 (20): 2720–9. doi:10.1101/gad.908401. PMC 312817. PMID 11641277. 
  8. ^ a b c Carnegie GK, Sleeman Judith E, Morrice Nick, Hastie C James, Peggie Mark W, Philp Amanda, Lamond Angus I, Cohen Patricia T W (May 2003). "Protein phosphatase 4 interacts with the Survival of Motor Neurons complex and enhances the temporal localisation of snRNPs". J. Cell. Sci. 116 (Pt 10): 1905–13. doi:10.1242/jcs.00409. PMID 12668731. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Meister G, Bühler D, Laggerbauer B, Zobawa M, Lottspeich F, Fischer U (August 2000). "Characterization of a nuclear 20S complex containing the survival of motor neurons (SMN) protein and a specific subset of spliceosomal Sm proteins". Hum. Mol. Genet. 9 (13): 1977–86. doi:10.1093/hmg/9.13.1977. PMID 10942426. 
  10. ^ Mourelatos Z, Dostie Josée, Paushkin Sergey, Sharma Anup, Charroux Bernard, Abel Linda, Rappsilber Juri, Mann Matthias, Dreyfuss Gideon (March 2002). "miRNPs: a novel class of ribonucleoproteins containing numerous microRNAs". Genes Dev. 16 (6): 720–8. doi:10.1101/gad.974702. PMC 155365. PMID 11914277. 
  11. ^ Charroux B, Pellizzoni L, Perkinson R A, Shevchenko A, Mann M, Dreyfuss G (Dec 1999). "Gemin3: A novel DEAD box protein that interacts with SMN, the spinal muscular atrophy gene product, and is a component of gems". J. Cell Biol. 147 (6): 1181–94. doi:10.1083/jcb.147.6.1181. PMC 2168095. PMID 10601333. 
  12. ^ Pellizzoni L, Charroux B, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Dreyfuss G (January 2001). "A functional interaction between the survival motor neuron complex and RNA polymerase II". J. Cell Biol. 152 (1): 75–85. doi:10.1083/jcb.152.1.75. PMC 2193649. PMID 11149922. 
  13. ^ a b Pellizzoni L, Baccon J, Charroux B, Dreyfuss G (July 2001). "The survival of motor neurons (SMN) protein interacts with the snoRNP proteins fibrillarin and GAR1". Curr. Biol. 11 (14): 1079–88. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(01)00316-5. PMID 11509230. 
  14. ^ Williams BY, Hamilton S L, Sarkar H K (March 2000). "The survival motor neuron protein interacts with the transactivator FUSE binding protein from human fetal brain". FEBS Lett. 470 (2): 207–10. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(00)01320-X. PMID 10734235. 
  15. ^ a b Liu Q, Fischer U, Wang F, Dreyfuss G (September 1997). "The spinal muscular atrophy disease gene product, SMN, and its associated protein SIP1 are in a complex with spliceosomal snRNP proteins". Cell 90 (6): 1013–21. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80367-0. PMID 9323129. 
  16. ^ Gubitz AK, Mourelatos Zissimos, Abel Linda, Rappsilber Juri, Mann Matthias, Dreyfuss Gideon (February 2002). "Gemin5, a novel WD repeat protein component of the SMN complex that binds Sm proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (7): 5631–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109448200. PMID 11714716. 
  17. ^ Baccon J, Pellizzoni Livio, Rappsilber Juri, Mann Matthias, Dreyfuss Gideon (August 2002). "Identification and characterization of Gemin7, a novel component of the survival of motor neuron complex". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (35): 31957–62. doi:10.1074/jbc.M203478200. PMID 12065586. 
  18. ^ Pellizzoni L, Baccon Jennifer, Rappsilber Juri, Mann Matthias, Dreyfuss Gideon (March 2002). "Purification of native survival of motor neurons complexes and identification of Gemin6 as a novel component". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (9): 7540–5. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110141200. PMID 11748230. 
  19. ^ Mourelatos Z, Abel L, Yong J, Kataoka N, Dreyfuss G (October 2001). "SMN interacts with a novel family of hnRNP and spliceosomal proteins". EMBO J. 20 (19): 5443–52. doi:10.1093/emboj/20.19.5443. PMC 125643. PMID 11574476. 
  20. ^ Rossoll W, Kröning Ann-Kathrin, Ohndorf Uta-Maria, Steegborn Clemens, Jablonka Sibylle, Sendtner Michael (January 2002). "Specific interaction of Smn, the spinal muscular atrophy determining gene product, with hnRNP-R and gry-rbp/hnRNP-Q: a role for Smn in RNA processing in motor axons?". Hum. Mol. Genet. 11 (1): 93–105. doi:10.1093/hmg/11.1.93. PMID 11773003. 
  21. ^ Narayanan U, Ospina Jason K, Frey Mark R, Hebert Michael D, Matera A Gregory (July 2002). "SMN, the spinal muscular atrophy protein, forms a pre-import snRNP complex with snurportin1 and importin beta". Hum. Mol. Genet. 11 (15): 1785–95. doi:10.1093/hmg/11.15.1785. PMC 1630493. PMID 12095920. 
  22. ^ Young PJ, Day Patricia M, Zhou Jianhua, Androphy Elliot J, Morris Glenn E, Lorson Christian L (January 2002). "A direct interaction between the survival motor neuron protein and p53 and its relationship to spinal muscular atrophy". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (4): 2852–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M108769200. PMID 11704667. 
  23. ^ Friesen WJ, Dreyfuss G (August 2000). "Specific sequences of the Sm and Sm-like (Lsm) proteins mediate their interaction with the spinal muscular atrophy disease gene product (SMN)". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (34): 26370–5. doi:10.1074/jbc.M003299200. PMID 10851237. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.