|God of deeds,justice and the planet Saturn|
|Other names||Shanishvara, Chayamarthanda, Sambhootha,karma fal data|
Chaaya Maartanda Sambhutam, Tham Namaami Shanishcharam" and
“Om Sham Shanaiscaryaye Namah”
|Consort||Neela (Goddess), Manda (Dhamini)|
|Siblings||Yami, Tapati, Bhadra, Yama|
Shani (Sanskrit: शनि, Śani) refers to the planet Saturn, and is one of the nine heavenly objects known as Navagraha in Hindu astrology. Shani is a form of Lord Shiva. Shani is also a male deity in the Puranas, whose iconography consists of a handsome figure carrying a sword or other weapon, and sitting on a crow.
Shani as a planet appears in various Hindu astronomical texts in Sanskrit, such as the 5th century Aryabhatiya by Aryabhatta, the 6th-century Romaka by Latadeva and Panca Siddhantika by Varahamihira, the 7th century Khandakhadyaka by Brahmagupta and the 8th century Sisyadhivrddida by Lalla. These texts present Shani as one of the planets and estimate the characteristics of the respective planetary motion. Other texts such as Surya Siddhanta dated to have been complete sometime between the 5th century and 10th century present their chapters on various planets as divine knowledge linked to deities.
The manuscripts of these texts exist in slightly different versions, present Shani's motion in the skies, but vary in their data, suggesting that the text were open and revised over their lives. The texts slightly disagree in their data, in their measurements of Shani's revolutions, apogee, epicycles, nodal longitudes, orbital inclination, and other parameters. For example, both Khandakhadyaka and Surya Siddhanta of Varaha state that Shani completes 146,564 revolutions on its own axis every 4,320,000 earth years, an Epicycle of Apsis as 60 degrees, and had an apogee (aphelia) of 240 degrees in 499 CE; while another manuscript of Surya Siddhanta revises the revolutions to 146,568, the apogee to 236 degrees and 37 seconds and the Epicycle to about 49 degrees.
The 1st millennium CE Hindu scholars had estimated the time it took for sidereal revolutions of each planet including Shani, from their astronomical studies, with slightly different results:
|Source||Estimated time per sidereal revolution|
|Surya Siddhanta||10,765 days, 18 hours, 33 minutes, 13.6 seconds|
|Siddhanta Shiromani||10,765 days, 19 hours, 33 minutes, 56.5 seconds|
|Ptolemy||10,758 days, 17 hours, 48 minutes, 14.9 seconds|
|20th century calculations||10,759 days, 5 hours, 16 minutes, 32.2 seconds|
Shani is the basis for Shanivara – one of the seven days that make a week in the Hindu calendar. This day corresponds to Saturday – after Saturn – in the Greco-Roman convention for naming the days of the week. The zodiac and naming system of Hindu astrology, including those on Shani as Saturn, likely developed in the centuries after the arrival of Greek astrology with Alexander the Great, their zodiac signs being nearly identical.
Shani is a deity in medieval era texts, who is considered as god of justice. Shani is one of the lord shiva's avatars. He is a deity who gets angry easily if a person not moving in right way. In medieval Hindu literature, inconsistent mythologies sometimes refer to him as the son of Sun and Chayya (shadow), or as the son of Balarama and Revati. His alternate names include Ara, Kona and Kroda.
The fig tree called Pipal in some Indian texts is the abode of Shani (while other texts associate the same tree with Vasudeva).
In 2013, a 20-foot-tall statue of Lord Shani was established at Yerdanur in the mandal of Sangareddy, Medak district, nearly 40 kilometers from Hyderabad city. It was carved from a monolith and weighs about nine tonnes.
- On November 7, 2016 the show Karmafal Daata Shani aired on Colors TV; it depicts the life of Shani. Kartikey Malviya plays the role of younger Shani and Rohit Khurana of mature Shani.
- In 2017 the remake of the Karmafal Daata Shani was made in Kannada titled Shani telecasted on Colors Kannada. Sunil plays the role of young Shani.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
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- Bina Chatterjee (1970). The Khandakhadyaka (an astronomical treatise) of Brahmagupta: with the commentary of Bhattotpala (in Sanskrit). Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 75–77, 40, 69. OCLC 463213346.
- Ebenezer Burgess (1989). P Ganguly, P Sengupta, ed. Sûrya-Siddhânta: A Text-book of Hindu Astronomy. Motilal Banarsidass (Reprint), Original: Yale University Press, American Oriental Society. pp. ix–xi. ISBN 978-81-208-0612-2.
- Ebenezer Burgess (1989). P Ganguly, P Sengupta, ed. Sûrya-Siddhânta: A Text-book of Hindu Astronomy. Motilal Banarsidass (Edited and Reprinted), Original: Yale University Press, American Oriental Society. pp. ix–x. ISBN 978-81-208-0612-2.
- Ebenezer Burgess (1989). P Ganguly, P Sengupta, ed. Sûrya-Siddhânta: A Text-book of Hindu Astronomy. Motilal Banarsidass (Reprint), Original: Yale University Press, American Oriental Society. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-81-208-0612-2.
- Walter W. Skeat (1993). The Concise Dictionary of English Etymology. Wordsworth. p. 415. ISBN 978-1-85326-311-8.
- T. F. Hoad (2008). "Saturday". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. Oxford University Press. p. 1329. ISBN 978-1-4395-0571-7.
- Yukio Ohashi 1999, pp. 719–721.
- Pingree 1973, pp. 2–3.
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- James Lochtefeld (2002), "Jyotisha" in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, pages 326–327
- Nicholas Campion (2012). Astrology and Cosmology in the World’s Religions. New York University Press. pp. 110–111. ISBN 978-0-8147-0842-2.
- Michael Jordan (2014). Dictionary of Gods and Goddesses. Infobase Publishing. p. 283. ISBN 978-1-4381-0985-5.
- John Dowson (2013). A Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology and Religion, Geography, History and Literature. Routledge. p. 278. ISBN 978-1-136-39029-6.
- David L. Haberman (2013). People Trees: Worship of Trees in Northern India. Oxford University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-19-992916-0.
- Avadhani, R. (17 February 2013). "Largest Shani statue unveiled". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 20 February 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- Svoboda, Robert. The Greatness of Saturn: A Therapeutic Myth. Lotus Press, 1997. ISBN 0-940985-62-4
- Pingree, David (1973). "The Mesopotamian Origin of Early Indian Mathematical Astronomy". Journal for the History of Astronomy. SAGE. 4 (1). doi:10.1177/002182867300400102.
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- Yukio Ohashi (1999). Johannes Andersen, ed. Highlights of Astronomy, Volume 11B. Springer Science. ISBN 978-0-7923-5556-4.
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