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Millennium: 2nd millennium
1861 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1861
Ab urbe condita2614
Armenian calendar1310
Assyrian calendar6611
Baháʼí calendar17–18
Balinese saka calendar1782–1783
Bengali calendar1268
Berber calendar2811
British Regnal year24 Vict. 1 – 25 Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar2405
Burmese calendar1223
Byzantine calendar7369–7370
Chinese calendar庚申年 (Metal Monkey)
4558 or 4351
    — to —
辛酉年 (Metal Rooster)
4559 or 4352
Coptic calendar1577–1578
Discordian calendar3027
Ethiopian calendar1853–1854
Hebrew calendar5621–5622
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1917–1918
 - Shaka Samvat1782–1783
 - Kali Yuga4961–4962
Holocene calendar11861
Igbo calendar861–862
Iranian calendar1239–1240
Islamic calendar1277–1278
Japanese calendarMan'en 2 / Bunkyū 1
Javanese calendar1789–1790
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4194
Minguo calendar51 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar393
Thai solar calendar2403–2404
Tibetan calendar阳金猴年
(male Iron-Monkey)
1987 or 1606 or 834
    — to —
(female Iron-Rooster)
1988 or 1607 or 835

1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1861st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 861st year of the 2nd millennium, the 61st year of the 19th century, and the 2nd year of the 1860s decade. As of the start of 1861, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Statistically, this year is considered the end of the whale oil industry and (in replacement) the beginning of the petroleum oil industry.[1]



March 4: Lincoln inaugurated
March 4: Confederate flag
American Civil War: in 1861



June 25: Abdülaziz
Battle of Santa Rosa Island


Date unknown[edit]



Helen Herron Taft
Rabindranath Tagore


Kate M. Gordon
Edith Roosevelt
Myra Belle Martin
James Naismith

Date unknown[edit]



Frederick William IV of Prussia
Abdülmecid I


Xianfeng Emperor
Ernst Anschütz


  1. ^ Kaiser, Brooks. "The transition from whale oil to petroleum" (PDF).
  2. ^ "Fairground Rides - A Chronological Development". National Fairground Archive. University of Sheffield. 2007. Archived from the original on August 11, 2011. Retrieved August 24, 2011.
  3. ^ BBC History Magazine (February 2011) p. 11.
  4. ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
  5. ^ Weider History Group: 1861 French Conquest of Saigon: Battle of the Ky Hoa Forts. Accessed 11 March 2013
  6. ^ "The Lincoln Bible". World Digital Library. 1853. Retrieved September 2, 2013.
  7. ^ http://education.cambridge.org/media/577146 "Imperial Russia, revolutions_and_the_emergence_of_the_Soviet_state". Accessed 11 March 2013
  8. ^ Sellick, Douglas R. G. (2010). Pirate Outrages: True Stories of Terror on the China Seas. Fremantle Press. ISBN 978-1-921696-07-7.
  9. ^ Michael R. Auslin (2009). Negotiating with Imperialism: The Unequal Treaties and the Culture of Japanese Diplomacy. Harvard University Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-674-02031-3.
  10. ^ Meyer, Hermann von (August 15, 1861). "Vogel-Federn und Palpipes priscus von Solenhofen". Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrefaktenkunde: 561.
  11. ^ Natural History Museum, London BMNH 37001. Chiappe, Luis M. (2007). Glorified Dinosaurs. Sydney: UNSW Press. pp. 118–146. ISBN 978-0-471-24723-4.
  12. ^ "Establishing a National Body, 1860". National Museum Wales.
  13. ^ US Department of State - Office of the Historian: Milestones: 1861-1865 Archived October 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 11 March 2013
  14. ^ a b Subodh Chandra Sengupta; Basu, Anjali, eds. (2002). সংসদ বাঙালি চরিতাভিধান (in Bengali). Vol. 1. Sahitya Sangsad. p. 463.
  15. ^ The Quarterly Review of Historical Studies. Institute of Historical Studies. 1995. p. 38.
  16. ^ Dunn, Elwood D.; Beyan, Amos J.; Burrowes, Carl Patrick (2000). Historical Dictionary of Liberia. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. pp. 167–168. ISBN 9781461659310.
  17. ^ "August Karl Gustav Bier (1861–1949) | the Embryo Project Encyclopedia".
  18. ^ "Albert, Prince Consort | Biography, Children, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 10, 2021.

Further reading[edit]