|This article relies too much on references to primary sources. (March 2011)|
|Initial release||February 25, 2008|
Windows 184.108.40.2060 (February 9, 2016[±])
OS X220.127.116.110 (February 9, 2016 ) [±]
|Operating system||Microsoft Windows
BlackBerry Tablet OS
BlackBerry 10 (Discontinued since OS 10.3.1)
Linux (Discontinued since v2.6)
|Platform||IA-32, x86-64, ARM and MIPS|
Adobe AIR (formerly Adobe Integrated Runtime) is a cross-platform runtime system developed by Adobe Systems for building desktop applications and mobile applications, programmed using Adobe Flash, ActionScript and optionally Apache Flex. The runtime supports installable applications on Windows, OS X and mobile operating systems like Android, iOS and BlackBerry Tablet OS. It also originally ran on Linux, but support was discontinued as of version 2.6 in 2011.
Adobe AIR is a runtime environment that allows Adobe Flash content and ActionScript 3.0 code to construct applications and video games that run outside a web browser, and behave as a native application on supported platforms. An application developed for Flash Player or HTML5 and deployed in a browser does not require installation, while AIR applications requires installation from an installer file (Windows and OS X) or the appropriate App Store (iOS and Android). AIR applications have unrestricted access to local storage and file systems, while browser-based applications only have access to individual files selected by users.
Adobe AIR internally uses the Flash Player rendering engine, and ActionScript 3.0 as the primary programming language. Flash applications must specifically be built for Adobe AIR to use additional features provided, such as multi-touch, file system integration, native client extensions, integration with Taskbar or Dock, and access to accelerometer and GPS devices. HTML5 applications may run on the WebKit engine included in AIR.
Notable applications built with Adobe AIR include eBay Desktop, Pandora One desktop TweetDeck, Adobe Media Player, Angry Birds, Machinarium, among other multimedia and task management applications. According to Adobe, over 100,000 unique applications were built on AIR, and over 1 billion installations of the same were logged from users across the world, as of May 2014. Adobe AIR was voted as the Best Mobile Application Development product at the Consumer Electronics Show for two consecutive years (CES 2014 and CES 2015).
- 1 Features
- 2 Availability
- 3 Application development
- 4 Release history
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Using AIR, developers can access the full Adobe Flash functionality, including text, vector graphics, raster graphics, video, audio, camera and microphone capability. Adobe AIR also includes additional features such as file system integration, native client extensions, desktop integration and access to connected devices. AIR enables applications to work with data in different ways, including using local files, local SQLite databases (for which AIR has built-in support), a database server, or the encrypted local store included with AIR.
On desktop platforms, AIR supports:
- Window management – Opening multiple windows, minimizing, maximizing and resizing AIR windows.
- Menu bar – Adding a native menu bar to AIR windows, with sub menus and custom menu items.
- File management – Discovering drives, files and folders on the PC, creating and deleting files, renaming, copying and moving files.
- Console applications – Executing native applications with command-line arguments, and receiving feedback via standard I/O & error streams.
- Multithreading – Managing multiple threads, to execute ActionScript 3 code in the background without freezing the user interface.
- Clipboard access – Programmatically copy or paste text, bitmaps or files into the system clipboard.
- Drag-and-drop – Allows users to drag text, bitmaps or files into AIR applications.
On mobile platforms, AIR supports many mobile hardware features:
- 3D hardware-accelerated graphics rendering (using Stage3D)
- Touch-screen events (including multi-touch gestures)
- Device camera and microphone access (including video encoding for recorded video)
- Accelerometer and geo-location sensor input (GPS or otherwise)
- Networking with HTTP, TCP and UDP protocols
- AIR Gamepad - allows mobile applications to serve as secondary displays and controllers for Flash games.
In 2011, the addition of Stage3D to the Flash Player allowed Flash and AIR apps access to GPUs for hardware acceleration. Several third-party frameworks have been developed to build upon the functionality of Stage3D, including the Starling Framework and Away3D. These frameworks are also compatible with AIR, and provide vital performance improvements to AIR apps published for mobile devices.
AIR Native Extensions
AIR apps can be augmented in functionality with the usage of AIR Native Extensions (ANEs). Native extensions are plug-in code libraries that contain native code wrapped with an ActionScript API, allowing developers to access native features not otherwise usable in AIR, such as Apple Game Center or Google Cloud Messaging.
Native extensions may be programmed in the native language on each platform, allowing access to the full set of platform APIs provided by the developer. (C++ for Windows, Java for Android, Objective-C for iOS).
AIR is a cross-platform technology and AIR applications can be repackaged with few or no changes for many popular desktop and mobile platforms. Different installation options exist for each platform.
AIR applications may be published with or without the AIR runtime. Applications packaged with the AIR runtime are larger in file size, and are known as "captive runtime" applications. If the runtime is not embedded in the app, it must be installed separately.
In January 2009, Adobe claimed that there were over 100 million installations of Adobe AIR worldwide, and that "the majority of AIR runtime installations occur at the time the first AIR application is installed by a user". In May 2014, Adobe claimed that over 100,000 unique applications were built on AIR, and over 1 billion installations of the same were logged from users across the world.
The latest version of Adobe AIR, version 18, contains Adobe Flash Player 18, and is available for Windows XP and later, as well as OS X. Official support for desktop Linux distributions ceased in June 2011 with version 2.6.
|Platform||Installer file support||App Store support|
|Windows||.air, .exe and .msi||None|
|OS X||.air and .dmg||With captive runtime|
|PlayBook||.bar||BlackBerry App World|
The following table explains to what extent Adobe AIR can run on various mobile operating systems:
|Operating System||Prerequisites||Latest Adobe Flash Player||AIR Framework|
|Android||Android 2.3+, ARM Cortex-A8+ or Android x86||AIR 18.104.22.1687 (uses Flash Player 11.6)||Option 1: The AIR player can be embedded as a 'captive' runtime, which increases APK size but makes the application standalone.
Option 2: The runtime is not included with the app, and must installed as a separate app from the app market.
|Apple iOS||iOS 4.3 or later||AIR 22.214.171.1247 (uses Flash Player 11.6)||Not applicable: each app includes its own 'captive' runtime.|
|BlackBerry Tablet OS||None||AIR 3.1 (uses Flash Player 11.1)||Already pre-installed on each device.|
|BlackBerry 10||Blackberry 10.2 and lower (no longer supported from 10.3)||AIR 3.5 (uses Flash Player 11.1)||Already pre-installed on each device.|
AIR does not provide direct access to native GUI elements such as navigation bars or controls. Native extensions can be used to access additional native resources.
The AIR SDK is available as a free standalone download for software developers to make AIR applications. SDK users do not need to install any commercial software to use the SDK, although several options are available. AIR apps can be compiled from the command line using the AIR compiler included in the SDK; the compiler can also be called from an IDE to obviate the need for the command line.
AIR can also be used with Adobe Flex. Flex is an integrated collection of stylable graphical user interface, data manipulation and networking components, and applications built upon it are known as "Flex" applications. Flex GUIs are defined in MXML, similar to how Android and Microsoft Visual Studio define GUIs; however, Flex does not give access to native GUI components.
AIR applications built without the Flex framework allow greater flexibility and performance, and are known as "pure ActionScript" applications. Video games built on the AIR platform are typically pure-Actionscript projects. Various open-source component frameworks are available for pure ActionScript projects, such as MadComponents, that provide UI Components at significantly smaller SWF file sizes.
Adobe distributes three commercial software products for developing of AIR applications in ActionScript:
- Adobe Flash Builder (enterprise application development & debugging)
- Adobe Flash Professional CS4 or newer (graphics design, animation & scripting toolset)
- Adobe Scout (visual profiler for performance optimization)
Third-party development environments that target the AIR runtime are also available, including:
- FlashDevelop, an open-source Flash ActionScript IDE, which includes a debugger for AIR applications
- Powerflasher FDT, a commercial ActionScript IDE
- CodeDrive, an extension to Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 for ActionScript 3 development and debugging
"Apollo" 1.0 Betas Adobe made a public preview release of AIR (then called Apollo) along with a software development kit (SDK) and extension for developing Apollo applications with the Flex framework, on March 19, 2007.
On June 10, 2007, Apollo was renamed to AIR and a public beta release of the runtime was launched. Public beta 2 of AIR SDK was released on October 1, 2007. Public beta 3, was released on December 12, 2007.
Adobe AIR 1.0 Version 1.0 of the Adobe AIR runtime and SDK was released on February 25, 2008.
Adobe AIR 1.1 Version 1.1 of Adobe AIR was released on June 16, 2008. This release included a number of new features including:
- Additional languages including Chinese Traditional, Chinese Simplified, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Brazilian Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish
- Ability to localize the name, description local database error messages of the application
- A new option that allows an application to be updated from an old certificate to a new one while preserving the identity of the application (for example from a self-signed certificate to a chained certificate)
- A new property for detecting the space available on a drive
- A new property for detecting whether the hosting operating system's window manager allows transparency
In addition, version 1.1 works on Microsoft Windows XP Tablet PC Edition and 64-bit editions of Windows Vista Home Premium, Business, Ultimate, and Enterprise.
Adobe AIR 1.5 Adobe AIR 1.5 was released on November 17, 2008. New capabilities included:
- Ability to encrypt the local database
- Inclusion of Flash Player 10 features
- Five new languages including Czech, Dutch, Swedish, Turkish and Polish
- A Linux version was released on December 18, 2008.
Adobe AIR 1.5.1 Released on February 24, 2009, AIR 1.5.1 was primarily a compatibility update that includes bug fixes and security updates.
Adobe AIR 1.5.2 Released on July 30, 2009, AIR 1.5.2 introduced a number of minor new features and compatibility issues. Some of the important fixes included:
- When using the full-screen interactive mode an application using the 1.5.2 namespace can capture the keyDown event and call the preventDefault() method of the event
- SWF content embedded within an HTML container could now be displayed with certain wmode settings.
Adobe AIR 1.5.3 Adobe AIR 1.5.3 was released on December 8, 2009. It included fixes for a number of compatibility and security related issues. The BBC iPlayer Desktop manager v1.5.15695.18135 is the first version to use AIR 1.5.3.
AIR 2.0 The Adobe AIR 2 public beta was released on November 16, 2009 followed by the beta 2 on February 2, 2010 and the release candidate on May 11, 2010. In addition, Adobe AIR for Android was announced on February 12, 2010. AIR 2 was officially released for Windows, Mac OS and Linux on June 10, 2010 and Android on October 8, 2010. It dropped the ability to run on PowerPC Macs.
AIR 2.5 Adobe AIR 2.5 was released on October 24, 2010 at the Adobe MAX 2010 conference.
AIR 3.0 Adobe released Adobe AIR 3.0 on October 3, 2011. AIR 3.0 added the ability to run on native 64-bit CPU architecture and use hardware accelerated graphics rendering, captive runtime, native extensions, JPEG-XR image format, LZMA compression for SWF files, and H.264 encoding.
AIR 3.1 Adobe released Adobe AIR 3.1 on November 11, 2011.
AIR 3.2 Adobe released Adobe AIR 3.2 on March 28, 2012.
AIR 3.3 Adobe released Adobe AIR 3.3 on June 8, 2012.
AIR 3.4 Adobe released Adobe AIR 3.4 on August 21, 2012.
AIR 3.5 Adobe released Adobe AIR 3.5 on November 6, 2012.
AIR 3.6 Adobe released Adobe AIR 3.6 on February 12, 2013.
AIR 3.7 Adobe released Adobe AIR 3.7 on April 9, 2013.
AIR 3.8 Adobe released Adobe AIR 3.8 on July 24, 2013.
AIR 3.9 Adobe released Adobe AIR 3.9 on October 8, 2013.
AIR 4.0 Adobe released Adobe AIR 4.0 on January 14, 2014. It was released to beta on October 30, 2013, code named Jones.
AIR 14.0 Adobe released Adobe AIR 14.0 on June 10, 2014.
AIR 15.0 Adobe released Adobe AIR 15.0 on September 9, 2014. It includes improvements to Stage3D technology, AIR Gamepad enhancements, and a new packaging engine for iOS apps that reduces compile times from minutes to seconds.
AIR 16.0 Adobe released Adobe AIR 16.0 on January 13, 2015.
AIR 17.0 Adobe released Adobe AIR 17.0 on March 12, 2015.
AIR 18.0 Adobe released Adobe AIR 18.0 on June 9, 2015.
AIR 19.0 Adobe released Adobe AIR 19.0 on Sept.21, 2015.
AIR 20.0 Adobe released Adobe AIR 20.0 on Dec.08, 2015.
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- "Adobe AIR for iOS".
- "End of Support Notice". BlackBerry Ltd. April 15, 2014. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- "Adobe AIR and Linux: Increasing Distribution on Devices". Adobe Blog website. Adobe Inc. Retrieved June 14, 2011.
We will no longer be releasing our own versions of Adobe AIR and the AIR SDK for desktop Linux, but expect that one or more of our partners will do so. The last Adobe release of AIR for desktop Linux is AIR 2.6. By focusing on the porting kit and support of partner implementations, we expect to provide broader support for AIR across Linux-based PCs and devices, whereas our own desktop Linux releases have accounted for less than 0.5% of lifetime AIR downloads.
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- "Adobe AIR: Browser vs. Desktop". Adobe Systems. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
- Adobe AIR 3, Adobe
- Top 10 Apps Worth Installing Adobe AIR For, LifeHacker
- 10 impressive Adobe AIR apps, CNET
- Flash Games Showcased at Adobe MAX- Rovio’s Angry Birds & Epic Games, Adobe Digital Media Blog
- Adobe AIR showcase apps for mobile developers, Adobe Developer Connection
- 60+ Useful Adobe AIR Applications You Should Know, HongKiat.com
- AIR app installs cross a billion, Adobe AIR and Adobe Flash Player Team Blog
- 1 Billion AIR Installations, Ben Forta
- Compass Intelligence Announces Winners of the 2014 Mobility Awards, Compass Intelligence
- Compass Intelligence Announces Winners of the 2015 Mobility Awards, Compass Intelligence
- Using native extensions for Adobe AIR, Adobe Help Center
- Basics of native windows in AIR, Adobe Help Center
- Creating native menus (AIR), Adobe Help Center
- Working with files, Adobe Help Center
- Communicating with native processes in AIR, Adobe Help Center
- Using workers for concurrency, Adobe Help Center
- Creating your first HTML-based AIR application with the AIR SDK, Adobe Help Center
- Copy and paste, Adobe Help Center
- Drag and drop in AIR, Adobe Help Center
- Touch, multitouch and gesture input, ActionScript 3.0 Developer’s Guide, Adobe
- Accelerometer input, ActionScript 3.0 Developer’s Guide, Adobe
- Using the Adobe AIR Geolocation APIs on Android, Adobe Developer Connection
- Native extensions for Adobe AIR, AIR Devnet
- Generating a Windows installer for your AIR captive runtime application, Adobe Developer Connection
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- AIR app installs cross a billion, Adobe AIR and Adobe Flash Player Team Blog
- 1 Billion AIR Installations, Ben Forta
- iOS features in Adobe AIR 2.6, Adobe Devnet
- Packaging a desktop native installer, Adobe Help Center
- "Post Adobe AIR app to Mac app store".
- Using Flash Builder 4.5 to package applications for Google Android devices, Adobe Developer Connection
- Using Flash Builder 4.5 to package applications for Apple iOS devices, Adobe Developer Connection
- Using Flash Builder 4.5 to package applications for BlackBerry Tablet OS devices, Adobe Developer Connection
- "Flash Player 10.1 – Installations and updates". Archived from the original on October 8, 2010. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
- Announcing Flash Player 11 and AIR 3, Adobe Flash Platform Blog
- https://www.adobe.com/flashplatform/certified_devices/tablets.html Retrieved on September 19, 2011.
- Adobe AIR SDK Download Page, Adobe.com
- Adobe Flex SDK Download Page, Adobe.com
- Optimizing performance of applications for connected TVs, Adobe Developer Connection
- Top 10 Performance Killers in your AIR Application, FlexWiz
- Creating a Pure ActionScript Project in Maia, JetBrains IntelliJ IDEA Blog
- Flex versus ActionScript – the debate gets new life, Greg's Ramblings
- Pure ActionScript + MadComponents vs. Flash Builder 4.5, MobileAppDev
- Flex 4.5 vs Pure AS3, Michael Crosby
- Creating an application user interface, Adobe Developer Connection
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- "Adobe - AIR: Tools for Ajax". Adobe Systems. Archived from the original on April 14, 2011. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
- "Adobe Flash - Downloads". Adobe Systems. November 17, 2008. Archived from the original on March 3, 2011. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
Adobe AIR 1.5 Update for Flash CS4 Professional
- "Adobe AIR 1.1 FAQ" (PDF). Adobe Systems. June 16, 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
- "Adobe release AIR for Linux". Heinz Heise. December 18, 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
- "AIR for Linux:Release Notes". Adobe Systems. March 31, 2008. Archived from the original on May 27, 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
- Hu, Michael (October 24, 2010). "Adobe AIR 2.5 is Now Available!". Adobe AIR Team Blog. Adobe Systems. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
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- "Jones Beta Release Notes" (PDF). Retrieved January 10, 2014.