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Bigfoot (also known as Sasquatch) is the name given to a cryptid simian-, ape-, or hominid-like creature that is said to inhabit forests, mainly in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Bigfoot is usually described as a large, hairy, bipedal humanoid. The term sasquatch is an Anglicized derivative of the Halkomelem word sásq'ets.
Scientists discount the existence of Bigfoot and consider it to be a combination of folklore, misidentification, and hoax, rather than a living animal, because of the lack of physical evidence and the large numbers of creatures that would be necessary to maintain a breeding population. Conversely, scientists Grover Krantz and Jeffrey Meldrum have focused research on the alleged creature for the greater parts of their careers.
- 1 Description
- 2 History
- 3 Prominent reported sightings
- 4 Proposed explanations for sightings
- 5 Scientific view
- 6 Bigfoot claims
- 7 Bigfoot organizations
- 8 Popular culture
- 9 See also
- 10 Footnotes
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Bigfoot is described in reports as a large hairy ape-like creature, in a range of 2–3 m (6.6-9.8 ft) tall, weighing in excess of 500 pounds (230 kg), and covered in dark brown or dark reddish hair. Witnesses have described large eyes, a pronounced brow ridge, and a large, low-set forehead; the top of the head has been described as rounded and crested, similar to the sagittal crest of the male gorilla. Bigfoot is commonly reported to have a strong, unpleasant smell by those who claim to have encountered it. Proponents claim that Bigfoot is omnivorous and mainly nocturnal.
The enormous footprints for which it is named have been as large as 24 inches (60 cm) long and 8 inches (20 cm) wide. While most casts have five toes — like all known apes — some casts of Bigfoot tracks have had numbers ranging from two to six. Some have also contained claw marks, making it likely that a portion came from known animals such as bears, which have five toes and claws.
Native American accounts
Wild men stories are found among the indigenous population of the Pacific Northwest. The legends existed before there was a single name for the creature. They differed in their details both regionally and between families in the same community. Similar stories of wild men are found on every continent except Antarctica. Ecologist Robert Michael Pyle argues that most cultures have human-like giants in their folk history: "We have this need for some larger-than-life creature."
Members of the Lummi tell tales about Ts'emekwes, the local version of Bigfoot. The stories are similar to each other in the general descriptions of Ts'emekwes, but details about the creature's diet and activities differed between family stories.
Some regional versions contained more nefarious creatures. The stiyaha or kwi-kwiyai were a nocturnal race that children were told not to say the names of lest the monsters hear and come to carry off a person—sometimes to be killed. In 1847, Paul Kane reported stories by the native people about skoocooms: a race of cannibalistic wildmen living on the peak of Mount St. Helens. The skoocooms have been regarded as supernatural, rather than natural.
Less menacing versions such as the one recorded by Reverend Elkanah Walker exist. In 1840, Walker, a Protestant missionary, recorded stories of giants among the Native Americans living in Spokane, Washington. The Indians said that these giants lived on and around the peaks of nearby mountains and stole salmon from the fishermen's nets.
Local stories were compiled by Indian Agent J. W. Burns in a series of Canadian newspaper articles in the 1920s recounting stories told to him by the Sts'Ailes people of Chehalis and others. The Sts'Ailes maintain, as do other indigenous peoples of the region, that the Sasquatch are very real, not legendary, and take great umbrage when it is suggested that they are. According to Sts'Ailes eyewitness accounts, the Sasquatch prefer to avoid white men, and speak the "Douglas language", i.e., Ucwalmicwts, the language of the people at Port Douglas, British Columbia at the head of Harrison Lake. It was Burns who first borrowed the term Sasquatch from the Halkomelem sásq'ets (IPA: [ˈsæsqʼəts]) and used it in his articles to describe a hypothetical single type of creature reflected in the stories. Burns's articles popularized the animal and its new name, making it well known in western Canada before it gained popularity in the United States.
Each language had its own name for the local version. Many names meant something along the lines of "wild man" or "hairy man" although other names described common actions it was said to perform, e.g., eating clams.
After the Jerry Crew track find in 1958
In 1951, Eric Shipton photographed what he described as a Yeti footprint, which generated considerable attention and led to the story of the Yeti entering popular consciousness. The notoriety of ape-men grew over the decade.
This notoriety culminated in 1958 after large footprints were found on multiple occasions at a road-construction site along Bluff Creek in Del Norte County, California by bulldozer operator Gerald Crew. Annoyed at not being taken seriously about what he was seeing, Crew cast the prints in plaster, following the instructions of his friend, taxidermist Bob Titmus. The story was published in the Humboldt Times, along with a photo of Crew holding one of the casts. Locals had been calling the unseen track-maker "Big Foot" since the late summer, which Humboldt Times columnist Andrew Genzoli shortened to "Bigfoot" in his article. Bigfoot gained international attention when the story was picked up by the Associated Press.
However, following the death in 2002 of Ray Wallace – a Washington state-based road construction contractor – his family attributed the creation of the footprints to him. In addition, the wife of L. W. "Scoop" Beal, the editor of the Humboldt Standard, which later combined with the Humboldt Times, in which Genzoli's story had appeared, has stated that her husband was in on the hoax with Wallace.
1958 was a watershed year, not just for the Bigfoot story itself, but also for the culture that surrounds it. The first Bigfoot hunters appeared following the discovery of footprints at Bluff Creek, California. Within a year, Tom Slick, who had funded searches for Yeti in the Himalayas earlier in the decade, organized searches for Bigfoot in the area around Bluff Creek.
As Bigfoot has become better known and a phenomenon in popular culture, sightings have spread throughout North America. In addition to the Pacific Northwest, the Great Lakes region and the Southeastern United States have had many reports of Bigfoot sightings. The debate over the legitimacy of Bigfoot sightings reached a peak in the 1970s, and Bigfoot has been regarded as the first widely popularized example of pseudoscience in American culture.
Prominent reported sightings
About one-third of all reports of Bigfoot sightings are concentrated in the Pacific Northwest, with most of the remaining reports spread throughout the rest of North America. Some Bigfoot advocates, such as John Willison Green, have postulated that Bigfoot is a worldwide phenomenon. The most notable reports include:
- 1924: Prospector Albert Ostman said he had been camped near near Toba Inlet in Vancouver Island, British Columbia when he was abducted by a Sasquatch and held captive by him and his family for about three days. He went public by writing to a newspaper that had written about William Roe's Bigfoot encounter in 1955. John Green wrote that Ostman had a credible demeanor, that he was never tripped up in cross-examination, and that, "with no pattern to follow," he "was able to describe ... facial features, teeth, fingernails, and a lot of other details ... with nothing ... that conflicted with the consensus of later detailed opinion." On the other hand, Green said there two things that were "very much wrong with" his story: The area's actual geography versus what Ostman described, and the too-human-ness of the Sasquatchs' behavior and family living pattern.
- 1924: Fred Beck said that he and four other miners were attacked one night in July 1924, by several "apemen" throwing rocks at their cabin in an area later called Ape Canyon, Washington. Beck said the miners shot and possibly killed at least one of the creatures, precipitating an attack on their cabin, during which the creatures bombarded the cabin with rocks and tried to break in. The incident was reported in the local-area press at the time. Beck wrote a 22-page pamphlet about the event in 1967, in which he said that the creatures were mystical beings from another dimension, stating that he had experienced psychic premonitions and visions his entire life of which the apemen were only one component. Speleologist William Halliday said in 1983 that the story arose from an incident in which hikers from a nearby camp had thrown rocks into the canyon. There are also local rumors that pranksters harassed the men and planted faked footprints.
- 1941: Jeannie Chapman and her children said they had escaped their home when a 7.5 feet (2.3 m) tall Sasquatch approached their residence in Ruby Creek, British Columbia in September. Her husband and co-workers found tracks that crushed potatoes under them and that stepped without breaking stride over a fence; a broken shed door; and a smashed 55-gallon tub of salt fish. "In the days that followed, the Bigfoot returned to the house every night for a week ... and the experience was too much for the family, and they left the house for good."
- 1955: William Roe, a highway worker, was hiking alone up Mica Mountain near the British Columbia/Alberta border. He sat down when he saw a dark shape ahead of him. As it approached, the features he described were those of a female Sasquatch. It got to within 20 feet and began eating leaves. It noticed him, backed away, turned, and departed, looking over its shoulder and making a whinny at one point. Roe followed its tracks and found sign and a sleeping bed. He did not shoot it, because he thought it might be a man. His daughter made a drawing under his direction.
- 1958: Bulldozer operator Jerry Crew took a cast of one of the enormous footprints that he and other road construction workers had seen at an isolated work site at Bluff Creek, California to a newspaper office. The crew was overseen by Wilbur L. Wallace, brother of Raymond L. Wallace. After Ray Wallace's death, his nephew and other relatives came forward with a pair of 16-inch (41 cm) wooden feet, which they said their father had used to fake the Bigfoot tracks in 1958. Wallace is poorly regarded by many Bigfoot proponents. John Napier wrote, "I do not feel impressed with Mr. Wallace's story" regarding having over 15,000 feet (4,600 m) of film showing Bigfoot.
- 1964: Mrs. John Utrup said she was chased into her house near Dewey Lake in Dowagiac Michigan on the night of Tuesday, June 10, by a 9-foot tall hairy biped weighing some 500 pounds, which shook ground beneath her. She claimed her dog, which was visibly wounded in the attack, saved her. Police were dispatched, large footprints were found and plaster casts, and photos were taken. The story was picked up by the AP and UPI, covered by over 100 American newspapers, and became known as Dewey Lake Monster. Cass County Undersheriff Ernest Kraus said “about 10 persons have claimed they saw the monster.” Residents of the Sister Lakes area have reported seeing the “thing” for from two to five years, always during the summer months. As well, the “monster” made a daylight appearance on Thursday, June 11, 1964 terrorizing three young girls and causing one of them to faint. After the “monster” fled, the fainter revived and they ran to a neighboring home and telephoned police. Sheriff’s deputies armed with rifles rushed to the area.
- 1967: Roger Patterson and Robert Gimlin reported that, on October 20, they had filmed a Bigfoot at Bluff Creek, California. This came to be known as the Patterson–Gimlin film. Patterson sought various experts to examine the film. Patterson, Gimlin, and Al DeAtley, Patterson's brother-in-law, screened the film for Dale Sheets, head of the Documentary Film Department, and unnamed technicians "in the special effects department at Universal Studios in Hollywood ... Their conclusion was: 'We could try (faking it), but we would have to create a completely new system of artificial muscles and find an actor who could be trained to walk like that. It might be done, but we would have to say that it would be almost impossible.'" In 1999, Bob Heironimus, an acquaintance of Patterson's, said that he had worn an ape costume for the making of the film, although he didn't reveal his name until 2004 in Greg Long's book, The Making of Bigfoot.
- 1967: "Three Sasquatch—a male, female, and juvenile—were observed in November 1967 by Glen Thomas in a natural rock and boulder pile near Estacada, Oregon, searching for rodents. When rodents were found and caught, the Sasquatch would eat them. . . . The largest Sasquatch . . . actually dug a deep pit in the rocks." Thomas subsequently claimed Bigfoot sightings in the spring and November 1968.
- 1969: "On 24 August on the construction site of the Big Horn Dam . . . in Alberta," five construction workers observed a very tall Sasquatch atop a 300-foot high bank on the opposite side of the North Saskatchewan River for 85 minutes. When they went public, others in the area came forward with accounts of their own sightings.
- 1969: "The Bigfoot of Lake Worth, Texas, was seen repeatedly during 1969 . . . [and] locals watched the famous beast cavort up and down a bluff. At one time some of them apparently annoyed it and it picked up a spare [automobile] wheel and hurled it some 500 feet towards the onlookers . . . ."
- 1975: "on the Lummi Indian Reserve near Bellingham, Washington ... Bigfeet were seen more than a hundred times and the witnesses included the reserve policemen." "When reading these reports, we wish the police and public would carry cameras rather than guns."
- 1995: The "Redwoods footage" was videotaped in August near Crescent City in far-northern California, in the Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park. The observers were the crew of Adventures television shooting an episode featuring a drive up the California coast highway ... in Del Norte County, CA. A cameraman shot a 30-second video of a Bigfoot walking along a minor road, then crossing it right in front of their RV. Comments on the video can be found on the Bigfoot Encounters website, including "a BBC article and on-going comments by the late Richard Greenwell, Dr. Jeff Meldrum, Dave Bittner, Daniel Perez, Larry Lund and Robert Stansberry." Opinions of Bigfooters were split on its authenticity. The BBC Wildlife magazine article concluded, "In our view, there are only two hypotheses about the Sasquatch, both of which seem improbable. 0ne is that the Sasquatch doesn't exist and the thousands of reports are spurious. The other is that a giant, non-human, bipedal primate inhabits the forests of the US Pacific Northwest and western Canada and has so far eluded conventional scientific observation. One must decide for oneself, which is the less improbable of the two."
- 1996: "The Memorial Day video is a Hi-8mm video that is purported to show a rapidly moving Bigfoot, going from left to right. It was videotaped on May 26, 1996, by Lori Pate while they were on a fishing trip with family and friends at Chopaka Lake, in Okanogan County, north central Washington. ... [It] shows a figure, matching the description of a Bigfoot, running across a hill. It disappears behind a less-inclined, sloped area, then reappears briefly, walking this time, before going into the trees at the extreme right of the frame.". "An elaborate forensic reconstruction was undertaken." Bigfooter Bobbie Short was skeptical of the video, based on her gait-analysis and the negative analyses of other Bigfooters.
- 2000: "In the summer of 2000, a psychologist named Matthew Johnson reported an encounter with a Bigfoot while hiking with his family on a trail ... at the Oregon Caves National Monument. On the web, the Bigfoot network buzzed with excitement." His sighting report to BFRO is online.
- 2007: On September 16, 2007, hunter Rick Jacobs captured an image of a Sasquatch by using an automatically triggered camera attached to a tree, prompting a spokesperson for the Pennsylvania Game Commission to say that it was an image of "a bear with a severe case of mange." The photo was taken near the town of Ridgway, Pennsylvania, in the Allegheny National Forest.
Proposed explanations for sightings
Various types of creatures have been suggested to explain both the sightings and what type of creature Bigfoot would be. The scientific community typically attributes sightings to either hoaxes or misidentification of known animals and their tracks. While cryptozoologists generally explain Bigfoot as an unknown ape, some attribute the phenomenon to UFOs or other paranormal causes.
In 2007, the Pennsylvania Game Commission said that photos the Bigfoot Field Researchers Organization said showed a juvenile Bigfoot were of a bear with mange. Jeffrey Meldrum, on the other hand, said the limb proportions of the suspected juvenile in question were not bear-like, and stated that he felt they were "more like a chimpanzee."
Both Bigfoot believers and non-believers agree that many of the sightings are hoaxes or misidentified animals.
Bigfoot sightings or footprints have, in some cases, been shown to be hoaxes. Author Jerome Clark argues that the Jacko Affair, involving an 1884 newspaper report of an apelike creature captured in British Columbia, was a hoax. Citing research by John Green, who found that several contemporary British Columbia newspapers regarded the alleged capture as very dubious, Clark notes that the Mainland Guardian of New Westminster, British Columbia, wrote, "Absurdity is written on the face of it."
On July 14, 2005, Tom Biscardi, a long-time Bigfoot enthusiast and CEO of Searching for Bigfoot Inc., appeared on the Coast to Coast AM paranormal radio show and announced that he was "98% sure that his group will be able to capture a Bigfoot which they have been tracking in the Happy Camp, California area." A month later, Biscardi announced on the same radio show that he had access to a captured Bigfoot and was arranging a pay-per-view event for people to see it. Biscardi appeared on Coast to Coast AM again a few days later to announce that there was no captive Bigfoot. Biscardi blamed an unnamed woman for misleading him and the show's audience for being gullible.
On July 9, 2008, Rick Dyer and Matthew Whitton posted a video to YouTube claiming that they had discovered the body of a dead Sasquatch in a forest in northern Georgia. Tom Biscardi was contacted to investigate. Dyer and Whitton received $50,000 from Searching for Bigfoot, Inc. as a good faith gesture. The story of the men claims was covered by many major news networks, including BBC, CNN, ABC News, and Fox News. Soon after a press conference, the alleged Bigfoot body arrived in a block of ice in a freezer with the Searching for Bigfoot team. When the contents were thawed, it was discovered that the hair was not real, the head was hollow, and the feet were rubber. Dyer and Whitton subsequently admitted it was a hoax after being confronted by Steve Kulls, executive director of SquatchDetective.com.
In January 2014, Rick Dyer, perpetrator of a previous Bigfoot hoax, said he had killed a Bigfoot creature in September 2012 outside of San Antonio, Texas. He said he had scientific tests performed on the body, "from DNA tests to 3D optical scans to body scans. It is the real deal. It's Bigfoot, and Bigfoot's here, and I shot it, and now I'm proving it to the world." He stated that he intended to take the body, which he had kept in a hidden location, on tour across North America in 2014. He released photos of the body and a video showing a few individuals' reactions to seeing it, but never released any of the tests or scans. He refused to disclose the test results or provide biological samples, although he stated that the DNA results, which were done by an undisclosed lab, could not identify any known animal. Dyer stated he would reveal the body and tests on February 9 at a news conference at Washington University, but the test results were never made available. After the Phoenix tour, the body traveled to Houston. On March 28, 2014, Dyer admitted on his Facebook page that his "Bigfoot corpse" was another hoax. He had paid Chris Russel of Twisted Toy Box to manufacture the prop, which he nicknamed "Hank", from latex, foam, and camel hair. Dyer earned approximately US$60,000 from the tour of this second fake Bigfoot corpse. He maintains that he did kill a Bigfoot, but states that he did not take the real body on tour for fear that it would be stolen.
Bigfoot proponents Grover Krantz and Geoffrey H. Bourne believed that Bigfoot could be a relict population of Gigantopithecus. According to Bourne, all Gigantopithecus fossils were found in Asia, and, as many species of animals migrated across the Bering land bridge, it is not unreasonable to assume that Gigantopithecus might have as well.
Gigantopithecus fossils have not been found in the Americas. The only recovered fossils are of mandibles and teeth, leaving uncertainty about Gigantopithecus's locomotion. Krantz has argued, based on his extrapolation of the shape of its mandible, that Gigantopithecus blacki could have been bipedal. However, the relevant part of mandible is not present in any fossils. An alternative view is that Gigantopithecus was quadrupedal, and it has been said that Gigantopithecus's enormous mass would have made it difficult for it to adopt a bipedal gait.
Matt Cartmill presents another view regarding the Gigantopithecus hypothesis: "The trouble with this account is that Gigantopithecus was not a hominin and maybe not even a crown group hominoid; yet the physical evidence implies that Bigfoot is an upright biped with buttocks and a long, stout, permanently adducted hallux. These are hominin autapomorphies, not found in other mammals or other bipeds. It seems unlikely that Gigantopithecus would have evolved these uniquely hominin traits in parallel."
Bernard G. Campbell wrote: "That Gigantopithecus is in fact extinct has been questioned by those who believe it survives as the Yeti of the Himalayas and the Sasquatch of the north-west American coast. But the evidence for these creatures is not convincing."
A species of Paranthropus, such as Paranthropus robustus, with its crested skull and bipedal gait, was suggested by primatologist John R. Napier and anthropologist Gordon Strasenburg as a possible candidate for Bigfoot's identity, despite the fact that fossils of Paranthropus are found only in Africa.
Michael Rugg, of the Bigfoot Discovery Museum, presented a comparison between human, Gigantopithecus and Meganthropus skulls (reconstructions made by Grover Krantz) in episodes 131 and 132 of the Bigfoot Discovery Museum Show. He favorably compares a modern tooth suspected of coming from a Bigfoot to the Meganthropus fossil teeth, noting the worn enamel on the occlusal surface. The Meganthropus fossils originated from Asia, and the tooth was found near Santa Cruz, California.
The evidence that does exist supporting the survival of such a large, prehistoric ape-like creature has been attributed to hoaxes or delusion rather than to sightings of a genuine creature. In a 1996 USA Today article, Washington State zoologist John Crane said, "There is no such thing as Bigfoot. No data other than material that's clearly been fabricated has ever been presented." In addition, scientists cite the fact that Bigfoot is alleged to live in regions unusual for a large, nonhuman primate, i.e., temperate latitudes in the northern hemisphere; all recognized apes are found in the tropics of Africa and Asia.
Mainstream scientists do not consider the subject of Bigfoot an area of credible science and there have been a limited number of formal scientific studies of Bigfoot.
Evidence such as the 1967 Patterson–Gimlin film has provided "no supportive data of any scientific value".
As with other proposed megafauna cryptids, climate and food supply issues would make such a creature's survival in reported habitats unlikely. Great apes have not been found in the fossil record in the Americas, and no Bigfoot remains are known to have been found. The breeding population of such an animal would be so large that it would account for many more purported sightings than currently occur, making the existence of such an animal an almost certain impossibility. In the 1970s, when Bigfoot experts were frequently given high-profile media coverage, Mcleod writes that the scientific community generally avoided lending credence to the theories by debating them.
Ivan T. Sanderson and Bernard Heuvelmans have spent parts of their career searching for Bigfoot. Later scientists who researched the topic included Carleton S. Coon, George Allen Agogino and William Charles Osman Hill, although they came to no definite conclusions and later drifted from this research.
Jeffrey Meldrum has said that the fossil remains of an ancient giant ape called Gigantopithecus could turn out to be ancestors of today's commonly known Bigfoot. John Napier asserts that the scientific community's attitude towards Bigfoot stems primarily from insufficient evidence. Other scientists who have shown varying degrees of interest in the creature are David J. Daegling, George Schaller, Russell Mittermeier, Daris Swindler, Esteban Sarmiento, and Carleton S. Coon.
The first scientific study of available evidence was conducted by John Napier and published in his book, Bigfoot: The Yeti and Sasquatch in Myth and Reality, in 1973. Napier wrote that if a conclusion is to be reached based on scant extant "'hard' evidence," science must declare "Bigfoot does not exist." However, he found it difficult to entirely reject thousands of alleged tracks, "scattered over 125,000 square miles" or to dismiss all "the many hundreds" of eyewitness accounts. Napier concluded, "I am convinced that Sasquatch exists, but whether it is all it is cracked up to be is another matter altogether. There must be something in north-west America that needs explaining, and that something leaves man-like footprints."
Beginning in the late 1970s, physical anthropologist Grover Krantz published several articles and one book-length treatment of Sasquatch. However, his work was found to contain multiple scientific failings including falling for hoaxes.
A study published in for the Journal of Biogeography in 2009 by J.D. Lozier et al. used ecological niche modeling on reported sightings of Bigfoot, using their locations to infer Bigfoot's preferred ecological parameters. They found a very close match with the ecological parameters of the American black bear, Ursus americanus. They also note that an upright bear looks much like Bigfoot's purported appearance and consider it highly improbable that two species should have very similar ecological preferences, concluding that Bigfoot sightings are likely sightings of black bears.
In the first ever systematic genetic analysis of 30 hair samples which were suspected to be from bigfoot, yeti, sasquatch, almasty or other anomalous primates, none was found to be primate in origin except that one sample was identified to be human. A joint study by University of Oxford and Lausanne's Cantonal Museum of Zoology and published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B in 2014, the team used a previously published cleaning method to remove all surface contamination and the ribosomal mitochondrial DNA 12S fragment of the sample was sequenced and then compared to GenBank to identify the species origin. The samples submitted were from different parts of the world, including the United States, Russia, the Himalayas, and Sumatra. Other than one sample of human origin, all but two are from common animals. Black and brown bear accounted for most of the samples, other animals include cow, horse, dog/wolf/coyote, sheep, goat, raccoon, porcupine, deer and tapir. The last two samples matched a fossilized genetic sample of a 40,000 year old polar bear of the Pleistocene Epoch.
After what The Huffington Post described as "a five-year study of purported Bigfoot (also known as Sasquatch) DNA samples," Texas veterinarian Melba Ketchum and her team announced that they had found proof that the Sasquatch "is a human relative that arose approximately 15,000 years ago as a hybrid cross of modern Homo sapiens with an unknown primate species." Ketchum called for this to be recognized officially, saying that "Government at all levels must recognize them as an indigenous people and immediately protect their human and Constitutional rights against those who would see in their physical and cultural differences a 'license' to hunt, trap, or kill them." Failing to find a scientific journal that would publish their results, Ketchum announced on February 13, 2013 that their research had been published in the DeNovo Journal of Science. The Huffington Post discovered that the journal's domain had been registered anonymously only nine days before the announcement. The only edition of DeNovo was listed as Volume 1, Issue 1, and its only content was the Bigfoot research.
There are several organizations dedicated to the research and investigation of Bigfoot sightings in the United States. The oldest and largest is the Bigfoot Field Researchers Organization (BFRO). The BFRO also provides a free database to individuals and other organizations. Their website includes reports from across North America that have been investigated by researchers to determine credibility.
Bigfoot has had a demonstrable impact as a popular culture phenomenon. It has "become entrenched in American popular culture and it is as viable an icon as Michael Jordan" with more than forty-five years having passed since reported sightings in California, and neither an animal nor "a satisfying explanation as to why folks see giant hairy men that don't exist".
This article has sections about Bigfoot in Advertising, Films (lengthy filmography), Games, Law, Literature, Sports, Television, Theatre, and Tourism.
Regional Bigfoot-like Creatures
- Almas (cryptozoology) - Central Asian Bigfoot
- Barmanou - Afghani & Pakistani Bigfoot
- Batutut - Indochina's Bigfoot
- The Dewey Lake Monster - 1964 Michigan Bigfoot
- Grassman - Ohio's Bigfoot
- Hibagon – Japan's Bigfoot
- Honey Island Swamp monster - Louisiana's Bigfoot
- Minnesota Iceman
- Mogollon Monster - Arizona's Bigfoot
- Old Yellow Top - Ontario's Bigfoot
- Orang Pendek - Indonesia's Bigfoot
- Skunk ape - Florida's Bigfoot
- Tsul 'Kalu – Cherokee's Bigfoot
- Wild Man of the Navidad - Human mistaken as critter
- Yeren – China's Bigfoot
- Yeti – The Himalayan Bigfoot
- Yowie – Australia's Bigfoot
- Bigfoot (2012 film) - Horror / fiction
- Creature from Black Lake - 1976 horror film about a fictional Louisiana Bigfoot
- Harry and the Hendersons - 1987 fantasy comedy film about a captured Bigfoot
- The Legend of Boggy Creek - 1972 horror docudrama: Arkansas' "Fouke Monster"
- Patterson-Gimlin film - 1967, Bluff Creek, CA, 1 minute of "Patty"
- Sasquatch, the Legend of Bigfoot - 1977 Bigfoot-hunt docudrama
- Sasquatch: Legend Meets Science - 2003 TV documentary + book
- Willow Creek (film) 2013 docudrama + horror
- Mike Quast (2001). Big Footage: A History of Claims for the Sasquatch on Film. self-published. p. 132.
- Ape Canyon - Washington state site of Fred Beck's 1924 encounter
- Bigfoot in popular culture - Data about Bigfoot in Advertising, Films, Games, Law, Literature, Sports, Television, Theatre, and Tourism. Lengthy filmography.
- Bigfoot trap - 1974 Oregon 10x10 box
- List of cryptids
- List of topics characterized as pseudoscience
- Skookum cast - Washington state body cast, 2000
- Long, Greg (2004). The Making of Bigfoot: The Inside Story. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-59102-139-1.
- Soucy, D.L. (2014). Could Bigfoot be Human?. D.L. Soucy Productions. p. 33.
- Bright, William (2004). Native American Place names of the United States. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 422. ISBN 978-0-8061-3598-4. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- Galloway, Brent D. (2009). Dictionary of Upriver Halkomelem, Volume I. University of California Press. p. 558.
- "Sasquatch". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House. Retrieved February 15, 2012.
- Daegling 2004, pp. 62–63.
- "Bigfoot [a.k.a. Abominable Snowman of the Himalayas, Mapinguari (the Amazon), Sasquatch, Yowie (Australia) and Yeti (Asia)]". The Skeptic's Dictionary. Archived from the original on September 14, 2008. Retrieved August 17, 2008.
- Earls, Stephanie. "Bigfoot hunting". Archived from the original on January 29, 2010. Retrieved January 2, 2010.
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- "Physiology". Bigfoot Field Research Organization. Retrieved August 19, 2008.
- Radford, Benjamin (March–April 2002). "Bigfoot at 50 Evaluating a Half-Century of Bigfoot Evidence". Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved August 17, 2008.
- Nickell, Joe (January 2007). "Investigative Files: Mysterious Entities of the Pacific Northwest, Part I". Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved October 20, 2009.
- Bear signs, San Diego Natural History Museum.
- Daegling 2004, p. 28
- Goodavage, Maria (May 24, 1996). "Hunt for Bigfoot Attracts True Believers". USA TODAY/bz050.
- Rasmus, Stacy M. (2002). "Repatriating Words: Local Knowledge in a Global Context". American Indian Quarterly 26 (2): 286–307. doi:10.1353/aiq.2003.0018. JSTOR 4128463.
- Rigsby, Bruce. "Some Pacific Northwest Native Language Names for the Sasquatch Phenomenon". Bigfoot: Fact or Fantasy?. Retrieved August 18, 2008.
- "The Diary of Elkanah Walker". Bigfoot Encounters. Retrieved August 1, 2007.
- The Hairy Giants of British Columbia, told by J.W. Burns, Indian Agent and teacher, Chehalis Indian Reserve, set down by C.V. Tench, published in The Wide World: A Magazine for Men, January 1940, Vol. 84, No. 52
- "Shouldn't Be Captured": Nothing Monstrous About Sasquatch Says Their Pal, Alex McGillivray, Vancouver Sun, May 25, 1957
- Meldrum, Jeff (2007). Sasquatch: Legend Meets Science. Macmillan. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-7653-1217-4. Retrieved February 19, 2010.
- "Sasquatch". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
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- Hunter and Dahinden, 119.
- Murphy, 187–89 (including photos of the rock pile)
- Bord, 102–03
- Bord, 104–06
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- Green, 185–87
- The Lake Worth Monster, by Sallie Ann Clarke, self-published, 1969
- Bord, 142
- Bobbie Short, at http://www.bigfootencounters.com/films/redwoodsfilm.htm
- Loren Coleman, on his Cryptomundo website at http://cryptomundo.com/cryptozoo-news/mem-day13/
- Meldrum, 131–33
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- Clark, Jerome (1993). Unexplained! 347 Strange Sightings, Incredible Occurrences and Puzzling Physical Phenomena. Visible Ink. p. 195. ISBN 0-8103-9436-7.
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- Ki Mae Heusser (August 15, 2008). "Legend of Bigfoot: Discovery or Hoax?". ABC News. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
- Wollan, Malia (September 16, 2008). "Georgia men claim hairy, frozen corpse is Bigfoot". Fox News. Retrieved April 1, 2010.
- Keefe, Bob (August 19, 2008). "Bigfoot's body a hoax, California site reveals". Cox News Service. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved April 1, 2010.
- Ki Mae Heusser (August 19, 2008). "A Monster Discovery? It Was Just a Costume". ABC News. Archived from the original on September 29, 2008. Retrieved October 22, 2008.
- Lynch, Rene (August 28, 2012). "Bigfoot hoax ends badly: Montana jokester hit, killed by car". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 24, 2013.
- Skeptical Inquirer, Vol. 36 #6, Nov. 2012, p. 9
- Lee Speigel (January 5, 2014). "Bigfoot Hunter Rick Dyer Claims He Killed The Hairy Beast And Will Take It On Tour". The Huffington Post. Retrieved January 7, 2014.
- Tim Gerber (January 2, 2014). "Bigfoot hunter shares pictures of dead creature". KSAT-TV. Retrieved January 7, 2014.
- Rick Dyer. People's Reactions Seeing a Real Bigfoot. YouTube.
- Zoe Mintz (January 29, 2014). "Rick Dyer, Bigfoot Hunter, Shares New Photos Of Alleged 'Monster' Sasquatch". International Business Times. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
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- Bourne, Geoffrey H.; Cohen, Maury (1975). The Gentle Giants: The Gorilla Story. G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 296. ISBN 0-399-11528-5.
- Daegling 2004, p. 14
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- Campbell, Bernard G. (1979). Humankind Emerging. Little, Brown and Company. p. 100. ISBN 0-673-52170-2. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 78-78234.
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- "Bigfoot Discovery Project Media". Archived from the original on April 19, 2010. Retrieved April 4, 2010.[dead link]
- Daegling 2004, p. 16
- Robert B. Stewart (2007). Intelligent design: William A. Dembski & Michael Ruse in dialogue. p. 83. ISBN 9780800662189.
- David J. Daegling (October 30, 2004). Bigfoot exposed: an anthropologist examines America's enduring legend. ISBN 9780759105393.
- Sjögren, Bengt (1980). Berömda vidunder (in Swedish). Settern. ISBN 91-7586-023-6.
- Science 286 (5442): 1079. November 5, 1999. doi:10.1126/science.286.5442.1079c. Missing or empty
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- Meldrum, Jeffrey (2006). When Legend Meets Science: A Scientific analysis to the Sasquatch – or Bigfoot – debate. Johnson Books. p. 320. ISBN 0-7653-1216-6.
- "Evaluation of Alleged Sasquatch Footprints and their Inferred Functional Morphology". Retrieved October 18, 2010.
- Napier 1973
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- Markotic, Vladimir; Krantz, Grover (1984). The Sasquatch and Other Unknown Primates. Western Publishers. p. 46. ISBN 0-919119-10-7.
- Napier, John. Bigfoot: The Yeti and Sasquatch in Myth and Reality. 1973, ISBN 0-525-06658-6
- Napier, 197
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- Bourne, Geoffrey H, The Gentle Giants: The Gorilla Story 1975, ISBN 0-399-11528-5, p. 295
- Buhs, Joshua Blu (August 1, 2009). Bigfoot: The Life and Times of a Legend. University of Chicago Press. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-226-50215-1. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- Lozier, J. D.; Aniello, P.; Hickerson, M. J. (September 2009). "Predicting the distribution of Sasquatch in western North America: anything goes with ecological niche modelling". Journal of Biogeography 36 (9): 1623–1627. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2009.02152.x.
- Sykes, B; Mullis, R; Hagenmuller, C; Melton, T; Sartori, M (2 July 2014). "Genetic analysis of hair samples attributed to yeti, bigfoot and other anomalous primates". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (The Royal Society) 281 (1789). doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.0161.
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- Ketchum, M. S.; Wojtkiewicz, P. W.; Watts, A. B.; Spence, D. W.; Holzenburg, A. K.; Toler, D. G.; Prychitko, T. M.; Zhang, F.; Bollinger, S.; Shoulders, R.; Smith, R. (2013). "Novel North American Hominins, Next Generation Sequencing of Three Whole Genomes and Associated Studies". DeNovo Journal of Science 1 (1). ISSN 2326-2869(subscription required)
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- Coleman, Loren (2003). Bigfoot!:The True Story of Apes in America. Simon and Schuster. p. 233. ISBN 1439187789.
- Daegling 2004, p. 4.
- Buhs, Joshua Blu (August 1, 2009). Bigfoot: The Life and Times of a Legend. University of Chicago Press. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-226-50215-1.
- Robert Todd Carroll (2003). The Skeptic's Dictionary: A Collection of Strange Beliefs, Amusing Deceptions, and Dangerous Delusions. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-27242-6. pp. 55–57.
- Daegling, David J. (2004). Bigfoot Exposed: An Anthropologist Examines America's Enduring Legend. Altamira Press. pp. 62–63. ISBN 0-7591-0539-1.
- Michael McLeod (2009). Anatomy of a Beast: Obsession and Myth on the Trail of Bigfoot. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25571-5.
- Daniel Loxton and Donald Prothero (2013). Abominable Science: Origins of the Yeti, Nessie, and Other Famous Cryptids. Columbia University Press. pp. 29–71, 73–116. ISBN 978-0-231-15320-1.
- Wylie, Kenneth (1980). Bigfoot: A Personal Inquiry into a Phenomenon. Viking. ISBN 0-9614105-0-7.
Other: by scientists
- Bayanov, Dmitri (1996). In the Footsteps of the Russian Snowman: A Record of Investigation Compiled and Discussed by Dmitri Bayanov. Crypto-Logos. ISBN 5-900229-18-1.
- Bayanov, Dmitri (2007). Bigfoot Research: The Russian Vision. Crypto-Logos. ISBN 978-5-900229-36-2.
- Bindernagel, John A. (1998). North America's Great Ape:The Sasquatch. Beachcomber Books. ISBN 0-9682887-0-7.
- Halpin, Marjorie; Ames, Michael M., eds. (1980). Manlike Monsters on Trial: Early Records and Modern Evidence. Hancock House. p. 336. ISBN 0-88839-018-1.
- Grover Krantz (1999) . Bigfoot Sasquatch Evidence (originally "Big Footprints: A Scientific Inquiry Into the Reality of Sasquatch"). Hancock House. ISBN 0-88839-447-0.
- Markotic, Vladimir; Krantz, Grover, eds. (1984). The Sasquatch and Other Unknown Hominids (OP). Western Publishers, Calgary.
- Jeff Meldrum (2007). Sasquatch: Legend Meets Science. Forge Books. ISBN 978-0765312174.
- Napier, John Russell (1973). Bigfoot: The Sasquatch and Yeti in Myth and Reality. E.P. Dutton. ISBN 0-525-06658-6.
- Sanderson, Ivan T. (2008) . Abominable Snowmen: Legend Come to Life: The Story Of Sub-Humans On Five Continents From The Early Ice Age Until Today. Cosimo Classics. ISBN 978-1605203331.
- Shackley, Myra (1983). Still Living?: Yeti, Sasquatch and the Neanderthal Enigma. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-01298-9.
- Roderick Sprague; Grover Krantz, eds. (1979). The Scientist Looks at the Sasquatch II. University Press of Idaho. ISBN 0-89301-061-8.
- Strain, Kathy (2008). Giants, Cannibals & Monsters: Bigfoot in Native Culture. Hancock House. ISBN 978-0-88839-650-1.
- Tchernine, Odette (1961). The Snowman and Company. Robert Hale Limited.
Other: by non-scientists
- Alley, J. Robert (2003). Raincoast Sasquatch: The Bigfoot/Sasquatch Records of Southeast Alaska, Coastal British Columbia, & Northwest Washington, from Puget Sound to Yakutat. Hancock House. ISBN 0-88839-508-6.
- Arment, Chad (2006). The Historical Bigfoot: Early Reports of Wildmen, Hairy giants, and Wandering Gorillas in North America. Coachwhip Publications. ISBN 1-930585-30-6.
- Bord, Janet and Colin, ed. (2006) . Bigfoot Casebook Updated: Sightings and Encounters from 1818 to 2004. Pine Winds Press. ISBN 0-937663-10-7.
- Byrne, Peter (1975). The Search for Big Foot: Monster, Myth or Man?. Acropolis Books. ISBN 0-87491-159-1.
- Green, John (2006) . Sasquatch: The Apes Among Us. Hancock House. ISBN 0-88839-018-1.
- Tony Healy; Paul Cropper (2006). The Yowie: In Search of Australia's Bigfoot. Anomalist Books. ISBN 1-933665-16-5.
- Robert & Frances Guenette (1975). The Mysterious Monsters. Sun Classics.
- Hunter, Don, with René Dahinden (1993) . Sasquach/Bigfoot: The Search for North America's Incredible Creature. Firefly Books. ISBN 1-895565-28-6.
- Christopher Murphy (2009). Know the Sasquatch/Bigfoot: Sequel and Update to Meet the Sasquatch. Hancock House. ISBN 978-0-88839-689-1.
- Paulides, David (2008). The Hoopa Project: Bigfoot Encounters in California. Hancock House. ISBN 978-0-88839-653-2.
- Paulides, David (2009). Tribal Bigfoot. Hancock House. ISBN 978-0-88839-687-7.
- Danny Perez, ed. (1988). Big Footnotes: A Comprehensive Bibliography Concerning Bigfoot, the Abominable Snowmen and Related Beings. D. Perez Publishing. p. 189. ISBN 0-9618380-0-0.
- Place, Marian (1974). On the Track of Bigfoot. Dodd, Mead. ISBN 0-396-06883-9.
- Powell, Thom (2003). The Locals: A Contemporary Investigation of the Bigfoot/Sasquatch Phenomenon. Hancock House. ISBN 0-88839-552-3.
- Robert Michael Pyle (1995). Where Bigfoot Walks: Crossing the Dark Divide. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-44114-5.
- Mike Quast (2001). Big Footage: A History of Claims for the Sasquatch on Film. self-published. p. 132.
- Thoms Steenburg (2000). In Search of Giants: Bigfoot Sasquatch Encounters (Canadian interviews). Hancock House. ISBN 978-0888394460.
- Suchy, Linda Coil (2009). Who's Watching You? An Exploration of the Bigfoot Phenomenon in the Pacific Northwest. Hancock House. ISBN 978-0-88839-664-8.
- Rife, Philip R. (2000). Bigfoot Across America. Writers Club Press. ISBN 0-595-14314-8.
- Wágner, Karel (2013). Bigfoot alias Sasquatch (in Czech). Jonathan Livingston. ISBN 978-80-87835-23-4.
- Barbara Wasson (1979). Sasquatch Apparitions: A Critique on the Pacific Northwest Hominoid. self-published. ISBN 0-9614105-0-7.
- Chad Arment (2004). Cryptozopology: Science & Speculation. Coachwhip Publications. pp. 210–267, 275–84. ISBN 1-930585-15-2.
- Coleman, Loren (2003). Bigfoot!: The True Story of Apes in America. ISBN 1439187789.
- Loren Coleman (2007) . Mysterious America: The Ultimate Guide to the Nation’s Weirdest Wonders, Strangest Spots, and Creepiest Creatures. Paraview Pocket Books. pp. 184–230. ISBN 978-1-4165-2736-7.
- Mike Dash (2000). Borderlands: The Ultimate Exploration of the Unknown. Dell, a division of Random House. pp. 195–204, 307, 326, 333, 341–42, 353. ISBN 0-440-23656-8.
- Debenat, Jean-Paul; Paul H LeBlond; Christopher L Murphy (2009). Sasquatch/Bigfoot and the mystery of the Wild Man. Hancock House. ISBN 978-0-88839-685-3.
- Guttilla, Peter (2009). The Bigfoot Files. ISBN 9781892264152.
- Gregory Reece (2009). Weird Science and Bizarre Beliefs: Mysterious Creatures, Lost Worlds, and Amazing Inventions. I.B. Tauris. pp. 11–44, 71–100. ISBN 978-1-84511-756-6.
- Wallace, David Rains (1983). The Klamath Knot. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520236592.
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